Funktionel gruppe

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I kemi er en funktionel gruppe den del af et molekyle som bestemmer molekylets kemiske egenskaber og dermed hvilke reaktioner molekylet kan deltage i. Et molekyle kan indeholde mere end en funktionel gruppe, eller slet ingen.

Klasse Gruppe Formel Strukturformel Præfiks Suffiks Eksempel
Acylhalid (syreklorid) Haloformyl RCOX Acyl halide haloformyl- -oylhalid Acetylklorid
Acetylklorid
(Ethanoylklorid)
Alkohol Hydroxyl ROH Hydroxyl hydroxy- -ol methanol
Methanol
Aldehyd Aldehyd RCHO Aldehyd oxo- -al acetaldehyde
Acetaldehyd
(Ethanal)
Alkan Alkyl RH Alkyl alkyl- -an methan
Methan
Alken Alkenyl R2C=CR2 Alken alkenyl- -en ethylene
Ethylen
(Ethen)
Alkyn Alkynyl RC≡CR' Alkyn alkynyl- -yn acetylene
Acetylen
(Ethyn)
Amid Carboxamid RCONR2 Amid carboxamido- -amid acetamid
Acetamid
(Ethanamid)
Aminer Primær amin RNH2 Primær amin amino- -amin methylamin
Methylamin
(Methanamin)
Sekundær amin R2NH Sekundær amin amino- -amin dimethylamin
Dimethylamin
Tertiær amin R3N Tertiær amin amino- -amin trimethylamin
Trimethylamin
Kvarternær ammoniumkation R4N+ Kvarternær ammoniumkation ammonio- -ammonium kolin
Kolin
Azoforbindelse Azo
(Diimid)
RN2R' Azo.pngl azo- -diazen Methylorange
Methylorange
(p-dimethylamino-
azobenzensulfonsyre)
Toluenderivater Benzyl RCH2C6H5
RBn
Benzyl benzyl- 1-(substituent)toluen Benzylbromid
Benzylbromid
(1-Bromtoluen)
Carbonat Carbonatester ROCOOR Carbonat alkyl carbonat
Carboxylat Carboxylat RCOO Carboxylat

Carboxylat

carboxy- -oat Natriumacetat
Natriumacetat
(Natriumethanoat)
Carboxylsyre Carboxyl RCOOH Carboxylsyre carboxy- -(carboxyl)syre Eddikesyre
Eddikesyre
(Ethansyre)
Cyanater Cyanat ROCN Cyanat cyanato- alkyl cyanat
Thiocyanat RSCN Thiocyanat thiocyanato- alkyl thiocyanat
Æter Æter ROR' Æter alkoxy- alkyl-alkyl-æter Diætylæter
Diætylæter
(Ethoxyethan)
Ester Ester RCOOR' Ester alkyl-alkanoate Ætylbutyrat
Ætylbutyrat
(Ætylbutanoat)
Haloalkan Halo RX Halidgruppe halo- alkylhalid Chlorethan
Chlorethan
(Ætylklorid)
Hydroperoxid Hydroperoxy ROOH Hydroperoxy hydroperoxy- alkylhydroperoxid Methylethylketonperoxid
Methylethylketonperoxid
Imin Primær ketimin RC(=NH)R' Imin imino- -imin
Sekundær ketimin RC(=NR)R' Imin imino- -imin
Primær aldimin RC(=NH)H Imin imino- -imin
Sekundær aldimin RC(=NR')H Imin imino- -imin
Isocyanid Isocyanid RNC isocyano- alkylisocyanid
Isocyanater Isocyanat RNCO Isocyanate isocyanato- alkylisocyanat Methylisocyanat
Methylisocyanat
Isothiocyanat RNCS Isothiocyanat isothiocyanato- alkylisothiocyanat Allylisothiocyanat
Allylisothiocyanat
Keton Keton RCOR' Keton keto-, oxo- -on Butanon
Methylethylketon
(Butanon)
Nitrat Nitrat RONO2 Nitrat nitrooxy-, nitroxy-

alkylnitrat

Amylnitrat
Amylnitrat
(1-nitrooxypentan)
Nitril Nitril RCN Nitril cyano-

alkannitril
alkylcyanid

Benzonitril
Benzonitril
(Phenylcyanid)
Nitrit Nitrosooxy RONO Nitrit nitrosooxy-

alkylnitrit

Amylnitrit
Amylnitrit
(3-methyl-1-nitrosooxybutan)
Nitroforbindelse Nitro RNO2 Nitro nitro-   Nitromethan
Nitromethan
Nitrosoforbindelse Nitroso RNO Nitroso nitroso-   Nitrosobenzen
Nitrosobenzen
Peroxid Peroxy ROOR Peroxy peroxy- alkylperoxid Di-tert-butylperoxid
Di-tert-butylperoxid
Benzenderivater Phenyl RC6H5 Phenyl phenyl- -benzen Cumene
Cumene
(2-phenylpropan)
Fosfin Fosfino R3P En tertiær phosphin phosphino- -phosphan Methylpropylphosphan
Methylpropylphosphan
Fosfodiester Fosfat HOPO(OR)2 Fosfodiester fosforsyre-
di(substituent)ester
di(substituent)-
hydrogenfosfat
DNA
Phosphosyre Phosphono RP(=O)(OH)2 Phosphono group phosphono- substituent phosphonsyre Benzylphosphonic acid
Benzylphosphonic acid
Fosfat Fosfat ROP(=O)(OH)2 Fosfatgruppe phospho- Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
Glyceraldehyd-3-fosfat
Pyridinderivater Pyridyl RC5H4N

4-pyridylgruppe
3-pyridylgruppe
2-pyridylgruppe

4-pyridyl
(pyridin-4-yl)

3-pyridyl
(pyridin-3-yl)

2-pyridyl
(pyridin-2-yl)

-pyridin Nicotin
Nicotin
Sulfid RSR' Sulfidgruppe di(substituent)sulfid Dimethylsulfid
Dimethylsulfid
Sulfon Sulfonyl RSO2R' Sulfonylgruppe sulfonyl- di(substituent)-
sulfon
Dimethylsulfon
Dimethylsulfon
(Methylsulfonylmethan)
Sulfonsyre Sulfo RSO3H Sulfonylgruppe sulfo- substituent-
sulfonsyre
Benzenesulfonsyre
Benzensulfonsyre
Sulfoxid Sulfinyl RSOR' Sulfinylgruppe sulfinyl- di(substituent)-
sulfoxid
Difenylsulfoxid
Difenylsulfoxid
Thiol Sulfhydryl RSH Sulfhydryl mercapto-, sulfanyl- -thiol Ethanthiol
Ethanthiol
(Ethylmercaptan)
Kemi Stub
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