Modtagere af Nobelprisen

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Nobelpriserne (svensk: Nobelpriset, norsk: Nobelprisen) uddeles årligt af det Kongelige Svenske Videnskabsakademi, det Svenske Akademi, Karolinska Institutet og den Norske Nobelkomite til individer eller organisationer, der gør store bidrag til felterne kemi, fysik, litteratur, fred og fysiologi eller medicin.[1] Priserne blev indstiftet i Alfred Nobels testamente fra 1895, der dikterer at priserne skal administreres af Nobelstiftelsen. En anden pris, Nobels mindepris i Økonomi, blev indstiftet i 1968 af Sveriges Riksbank, nationalbanken i Sverige, for bidrag inden for det økonomiske felt.[2]

Priserne uddeles af separate komiteer; Det Kongelige Svenske Videnskabsakademi uddeler priserne i fysik, kemi og økonomi, Karolinska Institutet uddeler prisen i fysiologi eller medicin, mens den Norske Nobelkomité uddeler fredsprisen.[3] Hver prismodtager får en medalje, et diplom og en pengepræmie, der har varieret i størrelse gennem årene.[2] I 1901 modtog vinderne af de første Nobelpriser 150.782 SEK, hvilket svarer til 7.731.004 SEK i december 2007. I 2008 fik vinderne en præmie på 10.000.000 SEK.[4] Priserne uddeles i Stockholm ved en årlig ceremoni 10. december, årsdagen for Nobels død.[5]

Pr. 2011 har 826 individer og 20 organisationer modtaget Nobelprisen, heriblandt 69 vindere af Nobels mindepris i Økonomi.[6] Fire Nobelprisvindere fik ikke lov til at modtage deres priser af deres respektive regeringer. Adolf Hitler forbød tre tyskere (Richard Kuhn (kemi, 1938), Adolf Butenandt (kemi, 1939), and Gerhard Domagk (fysiologi eller medicin, 1939)) at acceptere deres nobelpriser, og Sovjetunionens regering pressede Boris Pasternak (litteratur, 1958) til at afslå sin pris. To prismodtagere, Jean-Paul Sartre (litteratur, 1964) and Lê Ðức Thọ (fred, 1973), afslog priserne; Sartre frabad sig prisen da han frabad sig alle officielle anerkendelser, og Lê afslog prisen på grund af situationen i Vietnam på det tidspunkt.

Seks vindere har modtaget mere end én pris; af de seks har Røde Kors modtaget Nobels Fredspris tre gange, flere gange end nogen anden.[7] Blandt de 826 prisvindere har 43 været kvinder; den første kvinde til at modtage en Nobelpris var Marie Curie, der vandt prisen i fysik i 1903.[8] Hun var også den første person (både mænd og kvinder), der vandt to Nobelpriser, den anden var prisen i kemi i 1911.[7]

I årene hvor Nobelprisen ikke uddeles på grund af udefrakommende begivenheder eller mangel på nomineringer, returnes præmiepengene til fonden, der er delegeret til den relevante pris.[9] Nobelprisen blev ikke uddelt mellem 1940 og 1942 på grund af 2. verdenskrigs udbrud.[10]

Prismodtagere[redigér | redigér wikikode]

År Fysik Kemi Fysiologi
eller medicin
Litteratur Fred Økonomi
1901 Röntgen, WilhelmWilhelm Röntgen Hoff, Jacobus Henricus van 'tJacobus Henricus van 't Hoff von Behring, Emil AdolfEmil Adolf von Behring Prudhomme, SullySully Prudhomme Dunant, HenryHenry Dunant;Passy, FrédéricFrédéric Passy
1902 Lorentz, HendrikHendrik Lorentz;Zeeman, PieterPieter Zeeman Fischer, Hermann EmilHermann Emil Fischer Ross, RonaldRonald Ross Mommsen, TheodorTheodor Mommsen Ducommun, ÉlieÉlie Ducommun;Gobat, Charles AlbertCharles Albert Gobat
1903 Becquerel, HenriHenri Becquerel;Curie, PierrePierre Curie;Curie, MarieMarie Curie Arrhenius, SvanteSvante Arrhenius Finsen, Niels RybergNiels Ryberg Finsen Bjørnson, BjørnstjerneBjørnstjerne Bjørnson Cremer, RandalRandal Cremer
1904 Rayleigh, The LordThe Lord Rayleigh Ramsay, WilliamWilliam Ramsay Pavlov, IvanIvan Pavlov Mistral, FrédéricFrédéric Mistral;Echegaray, JoséJosé Echegaray Folkeretsinstitutet
1905 Lenard, PhilippPhilipp Lenard Baeyer, Adolf vonAdolf von Baeyer Koch, RobertRobert Koch Sienkiewicz, HenrykHenryk Sienkiewicz Suttner, Bertha vonBertha von Suttner
1906 Thomson, J. J.J. J. Thomson Moissan, HenriHenri Moissan Golgi, CamilloCamillo Golgi;Ramón y Cajal, SantiagoSantiago Ramón y Cajal Carducci, GiosuèGiosuè Carducci Roosevelt, TheodoreTheodore Roosevelt
1907 Michelson, Albert AbrahamAlbert Abraham Michelson Buchner, EduardEduard Buchner Laveran, Charles Louis AlphonseCharles Louis Alphonse Laveran Kipling, RudyardRudyard Kipling Moneta, Ernesto TeodoroErnesto Teodoro Moneta;Renault, LouisLouis Renault
1908 Lippmann, GabrielGabriel Lippmann Rutherford, ErnestErnest Rutherford Metchnikoff, ÉlieÉlie Metchnikoff;Ehrlich, PaulPaul Ehrlich Eucken, Rudolf ChristophRudolf Christoph Eucken Arnoldson, Klas PontusKlas Pontus Arnoldson;Bajer, FredrikFredrik Bajer
1909 Braun, Karl FerdinandKarl Ferdinand Braun;Marconi, GuglielmoGuglielmo Marconi Ostwald, WilhelmWilhelm Ostwald Kocher, Emil TheodorEmil Theodor Kocher Lagerlöf, SelmaSelma Lagerlöf Beernaert, Auguste Marie FrançoisAuguste Marie François Beernaert;d'Estournelles de Constant, Paul-Henri-BenjaminPaul-Henri-Benjamin d'Estournelles de Constant
1910 Waals, Johannes Diderik van derJohannes Diderik van der Waals Wallach, OttoOtto Wallach Kossel, AlbrechtAlbrecht Kossel Heyse, PaulPaul Heyse Det internationale Fredskontor
1911 Wien, WilhelmWilhelm Wien Curie, MarieMarie Curie Gullstrand, AllvarAllvar Gullstrand Maeterlinck, MauriceMaurice Maeterlinck Asser, TobiasTobias Asser;Fried, Alfred HermannAlfred Hermann Fried
1912 Dalén, GustafGustaf Dalén Grignard, VictorVictor Grignard;Sabatier, PaulPaul Sabatier Carrel, AlexisAlexis Carrel Hauptmann, GerhartGerhart Hauptmann Root, ElihuElihu Root
1913 Kamerlingh Onnes, HeikeHeike Kamerlingh Onnes Werner, AlfredAlfred Werner Richet, CharlesCharles Richet Tagore, RabindranathRabindranath Tagore La Fontaine, HenriHenri La Fontaine
1914 von Laue, MaxMax von Laue Richards, Theodore WilliamTheodore William Richards Bárány, RobertRobert Bárány Ingen Ingen
1915 Bragg, William HenryWilliam Henry Bragg;Bragg, William LawrenceWilliam Lawrence Bragg Willstätter, RichardRichard Willstätter Ingen Rolland, RomainRomain Rolland Ingen
1916 Ingen Ingen Ingen Heidenstam, Verner vonVerner von Heidenstam Ingen
1917 Barkla, Charles GloverCharles Glover Barkla Ingen Ingen Gjellerup, Karl AdolphKarl Adolph Gjellerup;Pontoppidan, HenrikHenrik Pontoppidan Røde Kors
1918 Planck, MaxMax Planck Haber, FritzFritz Haber Ingen Ingen Ingen
1919 Stark, JohannesJohannes Stark Ingen Bordet, JulesJules Bordet Spitteler, CarlCarl Spitteler Wilson, WoodrowWoodrow Wilson
1920 Guillaume, Charles ÉdouardCharles Édouard Guillaume Nernst, WaltherWalther Nernst Krogh, AugustAugust Krogh Hamsun, KnutKnut Hamsun Bourgeois, LéonLéon Bourgeois
1921 Einstein, AlbertAlbert Einstein Soddy, FrederickFrederick Soddy Ingen France, AnatoleAnatole France Branting, HjalmarHjalmar Branting;Lange, Christian LousChristian Lous Lange
1922 Bohr, NielsNiels Bohr Aston, Francis WilliamFrancis William Aston Hill, ArchibaldArchibald Hill;Meyerhof, Otto FritzOtto Fritz Meyerhof Benavente, JacintoJacinto Benavente Nansen, FridtjofFridtjof Nansen
1923 Millikan, Robert AndrewsRobert Andrews Millikan Pregl, FritzFritz Pregl Banting, FrederickFrederick Banting;Macleod, John James RickardJohn James Rickard Macleod Yeats, W. B.W. B. Yeats Ingen
1924 Siegbahn, ManneManne Siegbahn Ingen Einthoven, WillemWillem Einthoven Reymont, WładysławWładysław Reymont Ingen
1925 Franck, JamesJames Franck;Hertz, Gustav LudwigGustav Ludwig Hertz Zsigmondy, Richard AdolfRichard Adolf Zsigmondy Ingen Shaw, George BernardGeorge Bernard Shaw Chamberlain, AustenAusten Chamberlain;Dawes, Charles G.Charles G. Dawes
1926 Perrin, Jean BaptisteJean Baptiste Perrin Svedberg, TheodorTheodor Svedberg Fibiger, JohannesJohannes Fibiger Deledda, GraziaGrazia Deledda Briand, AristideAristide Briand;Stresemann, GustavGustav Stresemann
1927 Compton, ArthurArthur Compton;Wilson, Charles Thomson ReesCharles Thomson Rees Wilson Wieland, Heinrich OttoHeinrich Otto Wieland Wagner-Jauregg, JuliusJulius Wagner-Jauregg Bergson, HenriHenri Bergson Buisson, FerdinandFerdinand Buisson;Quidde, LudwigLudwig Quidde
1928 Richardson, Owen WillansOwen Willans Richardson Windaus, Adolf Otto ReinholdAdolf Otto Reinhold Windaus Nicolle, CharlesCharles Nicolle Undset, SigridSigrid Undset Ingen
1929 Broglie, Louis deLouis de Broglie Harden, ArthurArthur Harden;von Euler-Chelpin, HansHans von Euler-Chelpin Eijkman, ChristiaanChristiaan Eijkman;Hopkins, Frederick GowlandFrederick Gowland Hopkins Mann, ThomasThomas Mann Kellogg, Frank B.Frank B. Kellogg
1930 Raman, C. V.C. V. Raman Fischer, HansHans Fischer Landsteiner, KarlKarl Landsteiner Lewis, SinclairSinclair Lewis Söderblom, NathanNathan Söderblom
1931 Ingen Bosch, CarlCarl Bosch;Bergius, FriedrichFriedrich Bergius Warburg, Otto HeinrichOtto Heinrich Warburg Karlfeldt, Erik AxelErik Axel Karlfeldt Addams, JaneJane Addams;Butler, Nicholas MurrayNicholas Murray Butler
1932 Heisenberg, WernerWerner Heisenberg Langmuir, IrvingIrving Langmuir Sherrington, Charles ScottCharles Scott Sherrington;Adrian, EdgarEdgar Adrian Galsworthy, JohnJohn Galsworthy Ingen
1933 Schrödinger, ErwinErwin Schrödinger;Dirac, PaulPaul Dirac Ingen Morgan, Thomas HuntThomas Hunt Morgan Bunin, IvanIvan Bunin Angell, NormanNorman Angell
1934 None Urey, HaroldHarold Urey Whipple, GeorgeGeorge Whipple;Minot, GeorgeGeorge Minot;Murphy, William P.William P. Murphy Pirandello, LuigiLuigi Pirandello Henderson, ArthurArthur Henderson
1935 Chadwick, JamesJames Chadwick Joliot-Curie, FrédéricFrédéric Joliot-Curie;Joliot-Curie, IrèneIrène Joliot-Curie Spemann, HansHans Spemann Ingen von Ossietzky, CarlCarl von Ossietzky
1936 Hess, Victor FrancisVictor Francis Hess;Anderson, Carl DavidCarl David Anderson Debye, PeterPeter Debye Dale, Henry HallettHenry Hallett Dale;Loewi, OttoOtto Loewi O'Neill, EugeneEugene O'Neill Lamas, Carlos SaavedraCarlos Saavedra Lamas
1937 Davisson, ClintonClinton Davisson;Thomson, George PagetGeorge Paget Thomson Haworth, NormanNorman Haworth;Karrer, PaulPaul Karrer Szent-Györgyi, AlbertAlbert Szent-Györgyi du Gard, Roger MartinRoger Martin du Gard Cecil of Chelwood, The ViscountThe Viscount Cecil of Chelwood
1938 Fermi, EnricoEnrico Fermi Kuhn, RichardRichard Kuhn[A] Heymans, CorneilleCorneille Heymans Buck, Pearl S.Pearl S. Buck Det International Nansenkontor
1939 Lawrence, ErnestErnest Lawrence Butenandt, AdolfAdolf Butenandt;[A]Ružička, LeopoldLeopold Ružička Domagk, GerhardGerhard Domagk[A] Sillanpää, Frans EemilFrans Eemil Sillanpää Ingen
1940 Ingen Ingen Ingen Ingen Ingen
1941 Ingen Ingen Ingen Ingen Ingen
1942 Ingen Ingen Ingen Ingen Ingen
1943 Stern, OttoOtto Stern Hevesy, George deGeorge de Hevesy Dam, HenrikHenrik Dam;Doisy, Edward AdelbertEdward Adelbert Doisy Ingen Ingen
1944 Rabi, Isidor IsaacIsidor Isaac Rabi Hahn, OttoOtto Hahn Erlanger, JosephJoseph Erlanger;Gasser, Herbert SpencerHerbert Spencer Gasser Jensen, Johannes VilhelmJohannes Vilhelm Jensen Røde Kors
1945 Pauli, WolfgangWolfgang Pauli Virtanen, Artturi IlmariArtturi Ilmari Virtanen Fleming, AlexanderAlexander Fleming;Chain, Ernst BorisErnst Boris Chain;Florey, HowardHoward Florey Mistral, GabrielaGabriela Mistral Hull, CordellCordell Hull
1946 Bridgman, Percy WilliamsPercy Williams Bridgman Sumner, James B.James B. Sumner;Northrop, John HowardJohn Howard Northrop;Stanley, Wendell MeredithWendell Meredith Stanley Muller, Hermann JosephHermann Joseph Muller Hesse, HermannHermann Hesse Balch, Emily GreeneEmily Greene Balch;Mott, JohnJohn Mott
1947 Appleton, Edward VictorEdward Victor Appleton Robinson, RobertRobert Robinson Cori, Carl FerdinandCarl Ferdinand Cori;Cori, GertyGerty Cori;Houssay, BernardoBernardo Houssay Gide, AndréAndré Gide Friends Service Council;American Friends Service Committee
1948 Blackett, PatrickPatrick Blackett Tiselius, ArneArne Tiselius Müller, Paul HermannPaul Hermann Müller Eliot, T. S.T. S. Eliot Ingen[B]
1949 Yukawa, HidekiHideki Yukawa Giauque, WilliamWilliam Giauque Hess, Walter RudolfWalter Rudolf Hess;Moniz, António EgasAntónio Egas Moniz Faulkner, WilliamWilliam Faulkner Boyd Orr, JohnJohn Boyd Orr
1950 Powell, C. F.C. F. Powell Diels, OttoOtto Diels;Alder, KurtKurt Alder Hench, Philip ShowalterPhilip Showalter Hench;Kendall, Edward CalvinEdward Calvin Kendall;Reichstein, TadeusTadeus Reichstein Russell, The EarlThe Earl Russell Bunche, RalphRalph Bunche
1951 Cockcroft, JohnJohn Cockcroft;Walton, ErnestErnest Walton McMillan, EdwinEdwin McMillan;Seaborg, Glenn T.Glenn T. Seaborg Theiler, MaxMax Theiler Lagerkvist, PärPär Lagerkvist Jouhaux, LéonLéon Jouhaux
1952 Bloch, FelixFelix Bloch;Purcell, Edward MillsEdward Mills Purcell Martin, Archer John PorterArcher John Porter Martin;Synge, Richard Laurence MillingtonRichard Laurence Millington Synge Waksman, SelmanSelman Waksman Mauriac, FrançoisFrançois Mauriac Schweitzer, AlbertAlbert Schweitzer
1953 Zernike, FritsFrits Zernike Staudinger, HermannHermann Staudinger Krebs, Hans AdolfHans Adolf Krebs;Lipmann, Fritz AlbertFritz Albert Lipmann Churchill, WinstonWinston Churchill Marshall, GeorgeGeorge Marshall
1954 Born, MaxMax Born;Bothe, WaltherWalther Bothe Pauling, LinusLinus Pauling Enders, John FranklinJohn Franklin Enders;Robbins, Frederick ChapmanFrederick Chapman Robbins;Weller, Thomas HuckleThomas Huckle Weller Hemingway, ErnestErnest Hemingway FN's Flygtningehøjkommissariat
1955 Lamb, WillisWillis Lamb;Kusch, PolykarpPolykarp Kusch du Vigneaud, VincentVincent du Vigneaud Theorell, HugoHugo Theorell Laxness, HalldórHalldór Laxness Ingen
1956 Bardeen, JohnJohn Bardeen;Brattain, Walter HouserWalter Houser Brattain;Shockley, WilliamWilliam Shockley Hinshelwood, Cyril NormanCyril Norman Hinshelwood;Semyonov, NikolayNikolay Semyonov Cournand, André FrédéricAndré Frédéric Cournand;Forssmann, WernerWerner Forssmann;Richards, Dickinson W.Dickinson W. Richards Jiménez, Juan RamónJuan Ramón Jiménez Ingen
1957 Yang, Chen NingChen Ning Yang;Lee, Tsung-DaoTsung-Dao Lee Todd, The LordThe Lord Todd Bovet, DanielDaniel Bovet Camus, AlbertAlbert Camus Pearson, Lester B.Lester B. Pearson
1958 Cherenkov, PavelPavel Cherenkov;Frank, IlyaIlya Frank;Tamm, IgorIgor Tamm Sanger, FrederickFrederick Sanger Beadle, George WellsGeorge Wells Beadle;Tatum, Edward LawrieEdward Lawrie Tatum;Lederberg, JoshuaJoshua Lederberg Pasternak, BorisBoris Pasternak[C] Pire, DominiqueDominique Pire
1959 Segrè, Emilio G.Emilio G. Segrè;Chamberlain, OwenOwen Chamberlain Heyrovský, JaroslavJaroslav Heyrovský Kornberg, ArthurArthur Kornberg;Ochoa, SeveroSevero Ochoa Quasimodo, SalvatoreSalvatore Quasimodo Noel-Baker, PhilipPhilip Noel-Baker
1960 Glaser, Donald A.Donald A. Glaser Libby, WillardWillard Libby Burnet, Frank MacfarlaneFrank Macfarlane Burnet;Medawar, PeterPeter Medawar Perse, Saint-JohnSaint-John Perse Lutuli, AlbertAlbert Lutuli
1961 Hofstadter, RobertRobert Hofstadter;Mössbauer, RudolfRudolf Mössbauer Calvin, MelvinMelvin Calvin von Békésy, GeorgGeorg von Békésy Andrić, IvoIvo Andrić Hammarskjöld, DagDag Hammarskjöld
1962 Landau, LevLev Landau Perutz, MaxMax Perutz;Kendrew, JohnJohn Kendrew Crick, FrancisFrancis Crick;Watson, James D.James D. Watson;Wilkins, MauriceMaurice Wilkins Steinbeck, JohnJohn Steinbeck Pauling, LinusLinus Pauling
1963 Wigner, EugeneEugene Wigner;Goeppert-Mayer, MariaMaria Goeppert-Mayer;Jensen, J. Hans D.J. Hans D. Jensen Ziegler, KarlKarl Ziegler;Natta, GiulioGiulio Natta Eccles, JohnJohn Eccles;Hodgkin, Alan LloydAlan Lloyd Hodgkin;Huxley, AndrewAndrew Huxley Seferis, GiorgosGiorgos Seferis Røde Kors;Det Internationale Forbund af Røde Kors- og Røde Halvmåneforeninger
1964 Townes, Charles HardCharles Hard Townes;Basov, NikolayNikolay Basov;Prokhorov, AlexanderAlexander Prokhorov Hodgkin, DorothyDorothy Hodgkin Bloch, Konrad EmilKonrad Emil Bloch;Lynen, Feodor Felix KonradFeodor Felix Konrad Lynen Sartre, Jean-PaulJean-Paul Sartre[D] King, Jr., Martin LutherMartin Luther King, Jr.
1965 Tomonaga, Sin-ItiroSin-Itiro Tomonaga;Schwinger, JulianJulian Schwinger;Feynman, RichardRichard Feynman Woodward, Robert BurnsRobert Burns Woodward Jacob, FrançoisFrançois Jacob;Lwoff, André MichelAndré Michel Lwoff;Monod, JacquesJacques Monod Sholokhov, MikhailMikhail Sholokhov UNICEF
1966 Kastler, AlfredAlfred Kastler Mulliken, Robert S.Robert S. Mulliken Rous, Francis PeytonFrancis Peyton Rous;Huggins, Charles BrentonCharles Brenton Huggins Agnon, Shmuel YosefShmuel Yosef Agnon;Sachs, NellyNelly Sachs Ingen
1967 Bethe, HansHans Bethe Eigen, ManfredManfred Eigen;Norrish, Ronald George WreyfordRonald George Wreyford Norrish;Porter, GeorgeGeorge Porter Granit, RagnarRagnar Granit;Hartline, Haldan KefferHaldan Keffer Hartline;Wald, GeorgeGeorge Wald Asturias, Miguel ÁngelMiguel Ángel Asturias Ingen
1968 Alvarez, Luis WalterLuis Walter Alvarez Onsager, LarsLars Onsager Holley, Robert W.Robert W. Holley;Khorana, Har GobindHar Gobind Khorana;Nirenberg, Marshall WarrenMarshall Warren Nirenberg Kawabata, YasunariYasunari Kawabata Cassin, RenéRené Cassin
1969 Gell-Mann, MurrayMurray Gell-Mann Barton, DerekDerek Barton;Hassel, OddOdd Hassel Delbrück, MaxMax Delbrück;Hershey, AlfredAlfred Hershey;Luria, SalvadorSalvador Luria Beckett, SamuelSamuel Beckett International Labour Organization Frisch, RagnarRagnar Frisch;Tinbergen, JanJan Tinbergen
1970 Alfvén, HannesHannes Alfvén;Néel, LouisLouis Néel Leloir, Luis FedericoLuis Federico Leloir Axelrod, JuliusJulius Axelrod;von Euler, UlfUlf von Euler;Katz, BernardBernard Katz Solzhenitsyn, AleksandrAleksandr Solzhenitsyn Borlaug, NormanNorman Borlaug Samuelson, PaulPaul Samuelson
1971 Gabor, DennisDennis Gabor Herzberg, GerhardGerhard Herzberg Sutherland, Jr., Earl WilburEarl Wilbur Sutherland, Jr. Neruda, PabloPablo Neruda Brandt, WillyWilly Brandt Kuznets, SimonSimon Kuznets
1972 Bardeen, JohnJohn Bardeen;Cooper, LeonLeon Cooper;Schrieffer, John RobertJohn Robert Schrieffer Anfinsen, Christian B.Christian B. Anfinsen;Moore, StanfordStanford Moore;Stein, William HowardWilliam Howard Stein Edelman, GeraldGerald Edelman;Porter, Rodney RobertRodney Robert Porter Böll, HeinrichHeinrich Böll Ingen Hicks, JohnJohn Hicks;Arrow, KennethKenneth Arrow
1973 Esaki, LeoLeo Esaki;Giaever, IvarIvar Giaever;Josephson, Brian DavidBrian David Josephson Fischer, Ernst OttoErnst Otto Fischer;Wilkinson, GeoffreyGeoffrey Wilkinson von Frisch, KarlKarl von Frisch;Lorenz, KonradKonrad Lorenz;Tinbergen, NikolaasNikolaas Tinbergen White, PatrickPatrick White Kissinger, HenryHenry Kissinger;Duc Tho, LeLe Duc Tho[E] Leontief, WassilyWassily Leontief
1974 Ryle, MartinMartin Ryle;Hewish, AntonyAntony Hewish Flory, PaulPaul Flory Claude, AlbertAlbert Claude;de Duve, ChristianChristian de Duve;Palade, George EmilGeorge Emil Palade Johnson, EyvindEyvind Johnson;Martinson, HarryHarry Martinson MacBride, SeánSeán MacBride;Sato, EisakuEisaku Sato Myrdal, GunnarGunnar Myrdal;Hayek, FriedrichFriedrich Hayek
1975 Bohr, AageAage Bohr;Mottelson, Ben RoyBen Roy Mottelson;Rainwater, JamesJames Rainwater Cornforth, JohnJohn Cornforth;Prelog, VladimirVladimir Prelog Baltimore, DavidDavid Baltimore;Dulbecco, RenatoRenato Dulbecco;Temin, Howard MartinHoward Martin Temin Montale, EugenioEugenio Montale Sakharov, AndreiAndrei Sakharov Kantorovich, LeonidLeonid Kantorovich;Koopmans, TjallingTjalling Koopmans
1976 Richter, BurtonBurton Richter;Ting, Samuel C. C.Samuel C. C. Ting Lipscomb, WilliamWilliam Lipscomb Blumberg, Baruch SamuelBaruch Samuel Blumberg;Gajdusek, Daniel CarletonDaniel Carleton Gajdusek Bellow, SaulSaul Bellow Williams, BettyBetty Williams;Maguire, MaireadMairead Maguire Friedman, MiltonMilton Friedman
1977 Anderson, Philip WarrenPhilip Warren Anderson;Mott, Nevill FrancisNevill Francis Mott;Van Vleck, John HasbrouckJohn Hasbrouck Van Vleck Prigogine, IlyaIlya Prigogine Guillemin, RogerRoger Guillemin;Schally, AndrewAndrew Schally;Yalow, Rosalyn SussmanRosalyn Sussman Yalow Aleixandre, VicenteVicente Aleixandre Amnesty International Ohlin, BertilBertil Ohlin;Meade, JamesJames Meade
1978 Kapitsa, PyotrPyotr Kapitsa;Penzias, Arno AllanArno Allan Penzias;Wilson, Robert WoodrowRobert Woodrow Wilson Mitchell, Peter D.Peter D. Mitchell Arber, WernerWerner Arber;Nathans, DanielDaniel Nathans;Smith, Hamilton O.Hamilton O. Smith Singer, Isaac BashevisIsaac Bashevis Singer Sadat, AnwarAnwar Sadat;Begin, MenachemMenachem Begin Simon, Herbert A.Herbert A. Simon
1979 Glashow, Sheldon LeeSheldon Lee Glashow;Salam, AbdusAbdus Salam;Weinberg, StevenSteven Weinberg Brown, Herbert C.Herbert C. Brown;Wittig, GeorgGeorg Wittig Cormack, Allan McLeodAllan McLeod Cormack;Hounsfield, GodfreyGodfrey Hounsfield Elytis, OdysseasOdysseas Elytis Teresa, MotherMother Teresa Schultz, TheodoreTheodore Schultz;Lewis, ArthurArthur Lewis
1980 Cronin, JamesJames Cronin;Fitch, Val LogsdonVal Logsdon Fitch Berg, PaulPaul Berg;Gilbert, WalterWalter Gilbert;Sanger, FrederickFrederick Sanger Benacerraf, BarujBaruj Benacerraf;Dausset, JeanJean Dausset;Snell, George DavisGeorge Davis Snell Miłosz, CzesławCzesław Miłosz Esquivel, Adolfo PérezAdolfo Pérez Esquivel Klein, LawrenceLawrence Klein
1981 Bloembergen, NicolaasNicolaas Bloembergen;Schawlow, Arthur LeonardArthur Leonard Schawlow;Siegbahn, KaiKai Siegbahn Fukui, KenichiKenichi Fukui;Hoffmann, RoaldRoald Hoffmann Sperry, Roger WolcottRoger Wolcott Sperry;Hubel, David H.David H. Hubel;Wiesel, TorstenTorsten Wiesel Canetti, EliasElias Canetti FN's Flygtningehøjkommissariat Tobin, JamesJames Tobin
1982 Wilson, Kenneth G.Kenneth G. Wilson Klug, AaronAaron Klug Bergström, SuneSune Bergström;Samuelsson, Bengt I.Bengt I. Samuelsson;Vane, JohnJohn Vane Márquez, Gabriel GarcíaGabriel García Márquez Myrdal, AlvaAlva Myrdal;Robles, Alfonso GarcíaAlfonso García Robles Stigler, GeorgeGeorge Stigler
1983 Chandrasekhar, SubrahmanyanSubrahmanyan Chandrasekhar;Fowler, William AlfredWilliam Alfred Fowler Taube, HenryHenry Taube McClintock, BarbaraBarbara McClintock Golding, WilliamWilliam Golding Wałęsa, LechLech Wałęsa Debreu, GérardGérard Debreu
1984 Rubbia, CarloCarlo Rubbia;van der Meer, SimonSimon van der Meer Merrifield, Robert BruceRobert Bruce Merrifield Jerne, Niels KajNiels Kaj Jerne;Köhler, Georges J. F.Georges J. F. Köhler;Milstein, CésarCésar Milstein Seifert, JaroslavJaroslav Seifert Tutu, DesmondDesmond Tutu Stone, RichardRichard Stone
1985 von Klitzing, KlausKlaus von Klitzing Hauptman, Herbert A.Herbert A. Hauptman;Karle, JeromeJerome Karle Brown, Michael StuartMichael Stuart Brown;Goldstein, Joseph L.Joseph L. Goldstein Simon, ClaudeClaude Simon Den Internationale Lægeforening mod Atomkrig Modigliani, FrancoFranco Modigliani
1986 Ruska, ErnstErnst Ruska;Binnig, GerdGerd Binnig;Rohrer, HeinrichHeinrich Rohrer Herschbach, Dudley R.Dudley R. Herschbach;Lee, Yuan T.Yuan T. Lee;Polanyi, JohnJohn Polanyi Cohen, StanleyStanley Cohen;Levi-Montalcini, RitaRita Levi-Montalcini Soyinka, WoleWole Soyinka Wiesel, ElieElie Wiesel Buchanan, James M.James M. Buchanan
1987 Bednorz, Johannes GeorgJohannes Georg Bednorz;Müller, Karl AlexanderKarl Alexander Müller Cram, Donald J.Donald J. Cram;Lehn, Jean-MarieJean-Marie Lehn;Pedersen, Charles J.Charles J. Pedersen Tonegawa, SusumuSusumu Tonegawa Brodsky, JosephJoseph Brodsky Arias, ÓscarÓscar Arias Solow, RobertRobert Solow
1988 Lederman, Leon M.Leon M. Lederman;Schwartz, MelvinMelvin Schwartz;Steinberger, JackJack Steinberger Deisenhofer, JohannJohann Deisenhofer;Huber, RobertRobert Huber;Michel, HartmutHartmut Michel Black, James W.James W. Black;Elion, Gertrude B.Gertrude B. Elion;Hitchings, George H.George H. Hitchings Mahfouz, NaguibNaguib Mahfouz FN's fredsbevarende styrker Allais, MauriceMaurice Allais
1989 Ramsey, Jr., Norman FosterNorman Foster Ramsey, Jr.;Dehmelt, Hans GeorgHans Georg Dehmelt;Paul, WolfgangWolfgang Paul Altman, SidneySidney Altman;Cech, ThomasThomas Cech Bishop, J. MichaelJ. Michael Bishop;Varmus, Harold E.Harold E. Varmus Cela, Camilo JoséCamilo José Cela Gyatso, TenzinTenzin Gyatso Haavelmo, TrygveTrygve Haavelmo
1990 Friedman, Jerome IsaacJerome Isaac Friedman;Kendall, Henry WayHenry Way Kendall;Taylor, Richard E.Richard E. Taylor Corey, Elias JamesElias James Corey Murray, JosephJoseph Murray;Thomas, E. DonnallE. Donnall Thomas Paz, OctavioOctavio Paz Gorbachev, MikhailMikhail Gorbachev Markowitz, HarryHarry Markowitz;Miller, MertonMerton Miller;Sharpe, William ForsythWilliam Forsyth Sharpe
1991 Gennes, Pierre-Gilles dePierre-Gilles de Gennes Ernst, Richard R.Richard R. Ernst Neher, ErwinErwin Neher;Sakmann, BertBert Sakmann Gordimer, NadineNadine Gordimer Suu Kyi, Aung SanAung San Suu Kyi Coase, RonaldRonald Coase
1992 Charpak, GeorgesGeorges Charpak Marcus, Rudolph A.Rudolph A. Marcus Fischer, Edmond H.Edmond H. Fischer;Krebs, Edwin G.Edwin G. Krebs Walcott, DerekDerek Walcott Menchú, RigobertaRigoberta Menchú Becker, GaryGary Becker
1993 Hulse, Russell AlanRussell Alan Hulse;Taylor, Jr., Joseph HootonJoseph Hooton Taylor, Jr. Mullis, KaryKary Mullis;Smith, MichaelMichael Smith Roberts, Richard J.Richard J. Roberts;Sharp, Phillip AllenPhillip Allen Sharp Morrison, ToniToni Morrison Mandela, NelsonNelson Mandela;de Klerk, F.W.F.W. de Klerk Fogel, RobertRobert Fogel;North, DouglassDouglass North
1994 Brockhouse, BertramBertram Brockhouse;Shull, CliffordClifford Shull Olah, George AndrewGeorge Andrew Olah Gilman, Alfred G.Alfred G. Gilman;Rodbell, MartinMartin Rodbell Oe, KenzaburoKenzaburo Oe Arafat, YasserYasser Arafat;Peres, ShimonShimon Peres;Rabin, YitzhakYitzhak Rabin Harsanyi, JohnJohn Harsanyi;Nash Jr., John ForbesJohn Forbes Nash Jr.;Selten, ReinhardReinhard Selten
1995 Perl, Martin LewisMartin Lewis Perl;Reines, FrederickFrederick Reines Crutzen, Paul J.Paul J. Crutzen;Molina, Mario J.Mario J. Molina;Rowland, Frank SherwoodFrank Sherwood Rowland Lewis, Edward B.Edward B. Lewis;Nüsslein-Volhard, ChristianeChristiane Nüsslein-Volhard;Wieschaus, Eric F.Eric F. Wieschaus Heaney, SeamusSeamus Heaney Rotblat, JosephJoseph Rotblat;Pugwash-bevægelsen Lucas, Jr., RobertRobert Lucas, Jr.
1996 Lee, DavidDavid Lee;Osheroff, DouglasDouglas Osheroff;Richardson, Robert ColemanRobert Coleman Richardson Curl Jr., Robert F.Robert F. Curl Jr.;Kroto, HarryHarry Kroto;Smalley, RichardRichard Smalley Doherty, Peter C.Peter C. Doherty;Zinkernagel, Rolf M.Rolf M. Zinkernagel Szymborska, WisławaWisława Szymborska Belo, Carlos Filipe XimenesCarlos Filipe Ximenes Belo;Ramos-Horta, JoséJosé Ramos-Horta Mirrlees, JamesJames Mirrlees;Vickrey, WilliamWilliam Vickrey
1997 Chu, StevenSteven Chu;Cohen-Tannoudji, ClaudeClaude Cohen-Tannoudji;Phillips, William DanielWilliam Daniel Phillips Boyer, Paul D.Paul D. Boyer;Walker, John E.John E. Walker;Skou, Jens ChristianJens Christian Skou Prusiner, Stanley B.Stanley B. Prusiner Fo, DarioDario Fo Den Internationale Kampagne mod Landminer;Williams, JodyJody Williams Merton, Robert C.Robert C. Merton;Scholes, MyronMyron Scholes
1998 Laughlin, Robert B.Robert B. Laughlin;Störmer, Horst LudwigHorst Ludwig Störmer;Tsui, Daniel C.Daniel C. Tsui Kohn, WalterWalter Kohn;Pople, JohnJohn Pople Furchgott, Robert F.Robert F. Furchgott;Ignarro, LouisLouis Ignarro;Murad, FeridFerid Murad Saramago, JoséJosé Saramago Hume, JohnJohn Hume;Trimble, DavidDavid Trimble Sen, AmartyaAmartya Sen
1999 Hooft, Gerard 'tGerard 't Hooft;Veltman, Martinus J. G.Martinus J. G. Veltman Zewail, AhmedAhmed Zewail Blobel, GünterGünter Blobel Grass, GünterGünter Grass Médecins Sans Frontières Mundell, RobertRobert Mundell
2000 Alferov, ZhoresZhores Alferov;Kroemer, HerbertHerbert Kroemer;Kilby, JackJack Kilby Heeger, Alan J.Alan J. Heeger;MacDiarmid, AlanAlan MacDiarmid;Shirakawa, HidekiHideki Shirakawa Carlsson, ArvidArvid Carlsson;Greengard, PaulPaul Greengard;Kandel, EricEric Kandel Xingjian, GaoGao Xingjian Dae-jung, KimKim Dae-jung Heckman, JamesJames Heckman;McFadden, DanielDaniel McFadden
2001 Cornell, Eric AllinEric Allin Cornell;Ketterle, WolfgangWolfgang Ketterle;Wieman, CarlCarl Wieman Knowles, William StandishWilliam Standish Knowles;Noyori, RyōjiRyōji Noyori;Sharpless, Karl BarryKarl Barry Sharpless Hartwell, Leland H.Leland H. Hartwell;Hunt, TimTim Hunt;Nurse, PaulPaul Nurse Naipaul, V. S.V. S. Naipaul FN;Annan, KofiKofi Annan Akerlof, GeorgeGeorge Akerlof;Spence, MichaelMichael Spence;Stiglitz, JosephJoseph Stiglitz
2002 Davis, Jr., RaymondRaymond Davis, Jr.;Koshiba, MasatoshiMasatoshi Koshiba;Giacconi, RiccardoRiccardo Giacconi Fenn, JohnJohn Fenn;Tanaka, KoichiKoichi Tanaka;Wüthrich, KurtKurt Wüthrich Brenner, SydneySydney Brenner;Horvitz, H. RobertH. Robert Horvitz;Sulston, JohnJohn Sulston Kertész, ImreImre Kertész Carter, JimmyJimmy Carter Kahneman, DanielDaniel Kahneman;Smith, Vernon L.Vernon L. Smith
2003 Abrikosov, Alexei AlexeyevichAlexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov;Ginzburg, VitalyVitaly Ginzburg;Leggett, Anthony JamesAnthony James Leggett Agre, PeterPeter Agre;MacKinnon, RoderickRoderick MacKinnon Lauterbur, PaulPaul Lauterbur;Mansfield, PeterPeter Mansfield Coetzee, J.M.J.M. Coetzee Ebadi, ShirinShirin Ebadi Engle, Robert F.Robert F. Engle;Granger, CliveClive Granger
2004 Gross, DavidDavid Gross;Politzer, Hugh DavidHugh David Politzer;Wilczek, FrankFrank Wilczek Ciechanover, AaronAaron Ciechanover;Hershko, AvramAvram Hershko;Rose, IrwinIrwin Rose Axel, RichardRichard Axel;Buck, Linda B.Linda B. Buck Jelinek, ElfriedeElfriede Jelinek Maathai, WangariWangari Maathai Kydland, Finn E.Finn E. Kydland;Prescott, Edward C.Edward C. Prescott
2005 Glauber, Roy J.Roy J. Glauber;Hall, John L.John L. Hall;Hänsch, Theodor W.Theodor W. Hänsch Chauvin, YvesYves Chauvin;Grubbs, Robert H.Robert H. Grubbs;Schrock, Richard R.Richard R. Schrock Marshall, BarryBarry Marshall;Warren, RobinRobin Warren Pinter, HaroldHarold Pinter International Atomic Energy Agency;ElBaradei, MohamedMohamed ElBaradei Aumann, RobertRobert Aumann;Schelling, ThomasThomas Schelling
2006 Mather, John C.John C. Mather;Smoot, GeorgeGeorge Smoot Kornberg, Roger D.Roger D. Kornberg Fire, AndrewAndrew Fire;Mello, CraigCraig Mello Pamuk, OrhanOrhan Pamuk Yunus, MuhammadMuhammad Yunus;Grameen Bank Phelps, EdmundEdmund Phelps
2007 Fert, AlbertAlbert Fert;Grünberg, PeterPeter Grünberg Ertl, GerhardGerhard Ertl Capecchi, MarioMario Capecchi;Evans, MartinMartin Evans;Smithies, OliverOliver Smithies Lessing, DorisDoris Lessing FN's klimapanel;Gore, AlAl Gore Benedict, PeterPeter Benedict;Hurwicz, LeonidLeonid Hurwicz;Maskin, EricEric Maskin;Myerson, RogerRoger Myerson
2008 Nambu, YoichiroYoichiro Nambu;Kobayashi, MakotoMakoto Kobayashi;Maskawa, ToshihideToshihide Maskawa Shimomura, OsamuOsamu Shimomura;Chalfie, MartinMartin Chalfie;Tsien, Roger Y.Roger Y. Tsien zur Hausen, HaraldHarald zur Hausen;Barré-Sinoussi, FrançoiseFrançoise Barré-Sinoussi;Montagnier, LucLuc Montagnier Le Clézio, J. M. G.J. M. G. Le Clézio Ahtisaari, MarttiMartti Ahtisaari Krugman, PaulPaul Krugman
2009 Kao, Charles K.Charles K. Kao;Boyle, Willard S.Willard S. Boyle;Smith, George E.George E. Smith Ramakrishnan, VenkatramanVenkatraman Ramakrishnan;Steitz, Thomas A.Thomas A. Steitz;Yonath, AdaAda Yonath Blackburn, ElizabethElizabeth Blackburn;Greider, Carol W.Carol W. Greider;Szostak, Jack W.Jack W. Szostak Müller, HertaHerta Müller Obama, BarackBarack Obama Ostrom, ElinorElinor Ostrom;Williamson, Oliver E.Oliver E. Williamson
2010 Geim, AndreAndre Geim;Novoselov, KonstantinKonstantin Novoselov Heck, RichardRichard Heck;Negishi, Ei-ichiEi-ichi Negishi;Suzuki, AkiraAkira Suzuki Edwards, Robert G.Robert G. Edwards Vargas Llosa, MarioMario Vargas Llosa Xiaobo, LiuLiu Xiaobo[F] Diamond, Peter A.Peter A. Diamond;Mortensen, Dale T.Dale T. Mortensen;Pissarides, Christopher A.Christopher A. Pissarides
2011 Perlmutter, SaulSaul Perlmutter;Riess, Adam G.Adam G. Riess;Schmidt, BrianBrian Schmidt Shechtman, DanDan Shechtman Beutler, BruceBruce Beutler;Hoffmann, Jules A.Jules A. Hoffmann;Steinman, Ralph M.Ralph M. Steinman Tranströmer, TomasTomas Tranströmer Sirleaf, Ellen JohnsonEllen Johnson Sirleaf;Gbowee, LeymahLeymah Gbowee;Karman, TawakelTawakel Karman Sargent, Thomas J.Thomas J. Sargent;Sims, Christopher A.Christopher A. Sims
2012 Haroche, SergeSerge Haroche;Wineland, David J.David J. Wineland J., RobertRobert J.;K., BrianBrian K. GurdonSir John;Yamanaka, ShinyaShinya Yamanaka Yan, MoMo Yan Union, EuropeanEuropean Union E., AlvinAlvin E.;S., LloydLloyd S.
År Fysik Kemi Fysiologi
eller medicin
Litteratur Fred Økonomi

Noter[redigér | redigér wikikode]

  • ^ I 1938 og 1939 tillod Tysklands regering ikke at tre tyske Nobelprismodtagere kunne acceptere deres priser. De tre var Richard Kuhn, vinder i kemi i 1938; Adolf Butenandt, prisvinder i kemi i 1939; og Gerhard Domagk, prisvinder i fysiologi eller medicin i 1939. De blev senere tildelt diplomet og medaljen, men ikke pengene.[7]
  • ^ I 1948 blev fredsprisen ikke uddelt. Nobelstiftelsens hjemmeside antyder, at den ville være blevet uddelt til Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, men på grund af attentatet på ham tidligere samme år, blev den, i hans ære, ikke uddelt.[11]
  • ^ I 1958 blev den russisk fødte Boris Pasternak, under pres fra Sovjetunionens regering, tvunget til at afslå Nobelprisen i litteratur.[7]
  • ^ I 1964 nægtede Jean-Paul Sartre at modtage Nobelprisen i litteratur, da han altid havde nægtet at modtage alle officielle anerkendelser.[7]
  • ^ I 1973 nægtede Lê Ðức Thọ at modtage Nobels fredspris. Årsagen var, at han ikke følte, at han fortjente den, da der ikke var kommet nogen egentlig fredsaftale på plads på trods af hans indsats ved forhandlingerne af Paris Peace Accords (en våbenhvile i Vietnamkrigen).[7][10]
  • ^ I 2010 kunne Liu Xiaobo ikke modtage Nobels fredspris, da han blev idømt 11 års fængsel af de kinesiske myndigheder.[12]

Se også[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Henvisninger[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Generelle
Specifikke
  1. "Alfred Nobel – The Man Behind the Nobel Prize". Nobelstiftelsen. http://nobelprize.org/alfred_nobel/. Hentet 2008-11-27. 
  2. 2,0 2,1 "The Nobel Prize". Nobelstiftelsen. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/. Hentet 2008-11-27. 
  3. "The Nobel Prize Awarders". Nobelstiftelsen. http://nobelprize.org/prize_awarders/. Hentet 2008-11-27. 
  4. "The Nobel Prize Amounts". Nobelstiftelsen. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/amounts.html. Hentet 2008-11-27.  Arkiveret 2008-07-31.
  5. "The Nobel Prize Award Ceremonies". Nobelstiftelsen. http://nobelprize.org/award_ceremonies/. Hentet 2008-11-27.  Arkiveret 2008-08-22.
  6. "Frequently Asked Questions - Nobel Laureates". Nobelstiftelsen. http://www.nobelprize.org/faq/nobel_laureates.html. Hentet 2011-10-14. 
  7. 7,0 7,1 7,2 7,3 7,4 7,5 "Nobel Laureates Facts". Nobelstiftelsen. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/nobelprize_facts.html. Hentet 2008-11-27. 
  8. "Women Nobel Laureates". Nobelstiftelsen. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/lists/women.html. Hentet 2011-10-11. 
  9. "List of All Nobel Laureates 1942". Nobelstiftelsen. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/lists/1942.html. Hentet 2008-11-30. 
  10. 10,0 10,1 Lundestad, Geir (2001-03-15). "The Nobel Peace Prize 1901-2000". Nobelstiftelsen. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/articles/lundestad-review/index.html. Hentet 2008-11-30. 
  11. Tønnesson, Øyvind (December 1, 1999). "Mahatma Gandhi, the Missing Laureates". Nobelstiftelsen. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/articles/gandhi/index.html. Hentet 3. januar 2010. "Later, there have been speculations that the committee members could have had another deceased peace worker than Gandhi in mind when they declared that there was "no suitable living candidate", namely the Swedish UN envoy to Palestine, Count Bernadotte, who was murdered in September 1948. Today, this can be ruled out; Bernadotte had not been nominated in 1948. Thus it seems reasonable to assume that Gandhi would have been invited to Oslo to receive the Nobel Peace Prize had he been alive one more year." 
  12. "The Nobel Peace Prize 2010 - Presentation Speech". Nobelstiftelsen. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/2010/presentation-speech.html. Hentet 10. oktober 2011. 

Eksterne henvisninger[redigér | redigér wikikode]