Internet of Things

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Tingenes internet eller mere kendt som det engelske Internet of Things (IoT) refererer til unikt identificerbare objekter og deres virtuelle repræsentationer i et internetlignende struktur. Termen Internet of Things blev første gang anvendt af Kevin Ashton i 1999.[1]

Begrebet Internet of Things blev først populært gennem Auto-ID Centeret og relaterede markedsanalyse udgivelser.[2]

RFID bliver ofte set som en forudsætning for Internet of Things.

Hvis alle objekter og mennesker til dagligt var udstyret med radio tags, kunne de identificeres og lageroptælles af computere.[3][4]

Men unik identifikation af ting kan opnås ved andre midler såsom stregkoder eller matrix-koder (f.eks. QR-kode).

Manglende sikkerhed?[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Der er kritik af tingenes internets it-sikkerhed, bl.a. grundet utilstrækkelig sikkerhedsniveau af krypteringen og for let netadgang - og tingene, fx professionelle nettilkoblede overvågningskameraer, DSL-modems, hjemmeroutere, køleskabe, toiletter, Smart-tv, bygningsautomatik, industriautomatik, videooptagere - bliver yderst sjældent opdateret for sårbarheder, hvis det i det hele taget er muligt at få sikkerhedspatchet firmware til dem.[5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16]

Der har været nogle forslag til, hvordan sikkerheden kan forbedres. Et af dem er Trusted Platform Module med den rette test firmware ifølge Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft.[17]

Kilder/referencer[redigér | redigér wikikode]

  1. Ashton, Kevin (June 22, 2009). "That 'Internet of Things' Thing, in the real world things matter more than ideas". RFID Journal. http://www.rfidjournal.com/articles/view?4986. 
  2. Analyst Geoff Johnson interviewed by Sue Bushell in Computerworld, on 24 July 2000 (“M-commerce key to ubiquitous internet”)
  3. P. Magrassi, T. Berg, A World of Smart Objects, Gartner research report R-17-2243, 12 August 2002 A World of Smart Objects: The Role of Auto-Identification Technologies | 366151
  4. Commission of the European Communities (18 June 2009). "Internet of Things — An action plan for Europe" (PDF). http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/policy/rfid/documents/commiot2009.pdf. 
  5. 27. marts 2014, version2.dk: Sikkerhedsekspert: 'Internet of Things' er skræmmende
  6. 23. apr 2012, ing.dk: Ringe Zigbee-sikkerhed kan sætte fut i komfuret Citat: "...Zigbee eller Zwave, men disse protokoller har ikke samme sikkerhedsniveau, som vi eksempelvis kender fra wifi, advarer dansk forsker..."
  7. 12 Aug 2013, flatpanels.dk: Dit TVs kamera kan overvåge dig, siger senator Citat: "...Sagen omkring Smart TV startede egentlig i 2012, hvor en hacker demonstrerede, hvordan han på nem vis kunne overvåge familier hjemme i stuen via det indbyggede kamera i Samsungs Smart TV – uden familien vel og mærke bemærkede det..."
  8. November 2, 2010, Shodan search exposes insecure SCADA systems fx industriautomatik og bygningsautomatik.
  9. 01.06.14, wired.com: The Internet of Things Is Wildly Insecure — And Often Unpatchable Citat: "...a researcher looked at thirty home routers and broke into half of them...survey of common home routers found that the software components were four to five years older than the device...To make matters worse, it’s often impossible to patch the software or upgrade...Even when a patch is possible, it’s rarely applied...Last month, Symantec reported on a Linux worm that targets routers, cameras, and other embedded devices...And the Internet of Things will only make this problem worse,...new embedded devices that will be equally poorly maintained and unpatchable..."
  10. June 10, 2014, labs.sogeti.com: The Internet of un-maintained and insecure Things? Citat: "...However, it also poses a problem: increased vulnerability trough an internet of un-maintained things. And it’s already happening today. Security firm Proofpoint found that more than 100,000 smart devices–including a connected refrigerator–were used to send out more than 750,000 malicious emails between Dec. 23, 2013 and Jan. 6, 2014. Other embedded systems that got hacked included gadgets, routers, media servers and televisions..."
  11. April 7, 2014, computerworld.com: 6 ways the Internet of Things will transform enterprise security Citat: "...1. The IoT will create billions of new (insecure) end points...IoT devices will typically not be protected with whatever anti-spam, anti-virus and anti-malware infrastructures are available, nor will they be routinely monitored by IT teams or receive patches to address new security issues as they arise, Chiu said..."
  12. thestreet.com: #DigitalSkeptic: We Have Built an Internet of Really Vulnerable Things Citat: "...I kid you not, Chicago-based security firm Trustwave has reverse-engineered a high-end Japanese Internet-enabled toilet called the LIXIL Satis. Now any creep with a Web connection can ... I can't even write the sentence, it's so bizarre...it's clear most everything in our homes thus connected can be compromised in similar ways..."
  13. April 11, 2014, motherboard.vice.com: The Heartbleed Bug Will Lurk in the Internet of Things for Decades Citat: "...The internet is still reeling from the Heartbleed bug discovered this week...Anything from industry IT equipment to home automation systems are vulnerable: wireless routers, cable boxes, security cameras, and an array of smart gadgets...And 10 years from now you're going to have a factory blow up or something because someone has been able to exploit this bug..."
  14. 05.15.12, wired.com: Popular Surveillance Cameras Open to Hackers, Researcher Says
  15. 1/28/13, gizmodo.com: Tons and Tons of Security Cameras Are Wide Open to Hackers Citat: "...In short, the flaw allows anyone connected to a specific port full access to the DVR functions of the cameras..."
  16. 12. august 2014, version2.dk: Googles termostater afsløret med gabende sikkerhedshul Citat: "...På egen hånd kan en Nest-enhed inficeret med malware bruges til at spionere på husets beboere, for eksempel ved at sende beskeder af sted om, hvornår der er nogen hjemme. Men fordi den er tilsluttet netværket, og koderne til netværket ligger tilgængelige i klartekst, kan en hacker også udnytte en Nest-enhed som en trædesten til angreb på mere traditionelle computere i hjemmet..."
  17. Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft. (2014, March 5). Security tools for Industry 4.0. ScienceDaily Citat: "...the Trusted Platform Module. This relates to a small computer chip that can encrypt, decrypt, and digitally sign the data. Installed into a network component, it indicates which software is running on the component, and assigns a distinct identity to it. "As soon as the software changes in a component, the adjacent component registers this occurrence and notifies the administrator. Hacker attacks can be exposed quickly and easily this way," says Rudolph. "Both security technologies are important building blocks for the targeted Industry 4.0 scenario," says Dexheimer..."

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