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PROTEINER[redigér | redigér wikikode]

The seven transmembrane α-helix structure of a G protein-coupled receptor such as LHCGR, luteinizing Hormone/Choriogonadotropin Receptor

"The human protein atlas" beskriver 20 035 humane gener og genprodukter[1] her er nogle eksempler:

Prion, Prionsygdomme obs sammenskrivning

Type membranprotein Antal membranproteiner
>9TM protein 493
9TM protein 133
8TM protein 165

Congenital_disorder_of_glycosylation[redigér | redigér wikikode]

[2] [3]


MELATONIN[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Evolutionært har melatonin en 700 millioners historie bag sig, idet det har vist sig at genet for melatinin ud over dyr ( både vertebrater og invertebrater) deles af planter og mikrober.[4][5][6]

novel drugs[redigér | redigér wikikode]

NBOMe is considered a "replacement psychedelic" that aims to mimic the effects of LSD or psilocybin (the main ingredient in magic mushrooms). Psychoactives like NBOMe is attempting to mimic work by essentially sprouting new links across previously disconnected brain regions, temporarily altering the brain's entire organizational framework. These new connections are likely what allow users to experience things like seeing sounds or hearing colors. NBOMe is distributed on blotter paper, similar to traditional LSD. Palamar says several deaths have been linked to the drug.

MXE is a "replacement dissociative" that mimics the effects of drugs like Ketamine and PCP. Dissociatives disrupt the actions of the brain chemical glutamate at certain types of receptors on nerve cells throughout the brain causing the distortion of perceptions of sight and sound and producing a feeling of detachment from the environment and one's self. Dissociatives can impair vision and hearing, cause anxiety, memory loss, impaired motor skills, numbness, and many other unpredictable symptoms that can last for hours and sometimes days.

Flakka and bath salts are considered "replacement euphoric stimulants and empathogens" and are meant to mimic the effects of both amphetamines and hallucinogens. Flakka contains alpha-PVP, a chemical cousin of cathinone, the amphetamine-like drug found in bath salts which was banned in 2011. These drugs cause a surge in two chemicals: the feel-good chemical dopamine (responsible for the euphoric sensations) and norepineprhine (which raises heart rate and blood pressure and can make us more alert). Excessive use has been linked with feelings of extreme anxiety, paranoia, hallucinations, and violent behavior.

Read more:

Virotherapy og RNA-interferens[redigér | redigér wikikode]

RNAi rediger den danske tekst. Se en. + billede. RNAi: What is its position in agriculture? Springer 2020

skin cancer successfully treated with herpes-based drug Virotherapy: skin cancer successfully treated with herpes-based drug. The Guardian Drug based on herpes successfully treats skin cancer patients. Science alert

Nanocellulose[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Is a term referring to nano-structured cellulose. This may be either cellulose nanofibers (CNF) also called microfibrillated cellulose (MFC), nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC), or bacterial nanocellulose, which refers to nano-structured cellulose produced by bacteria.

CNF is a material composed of nanosized cellulose fibrils with a high aspect ratio (length to width ratio). Typical lateral dimensions are 5–20 nanometers and longitudinal dimension is in a wide range, typically several micrometers. It is pseudo-plastic and exhibits the property of certain gels or fluids that are thick (viscous) under normal conditions, but flow (become thin, less viscous) over time when shaken, agitated, or otherwise stressed. This property is known as thixotropy. When the shearing forces are removed the gel regains much of its original state. The fibrils are isolated from any cellulose containing source including wood-based fibers (pulp fibers) through high-pressure, high temperature and high velocity impact homogenization, grinding or microfluidization (see manufacture below).

Nanocellulose can also be obtained from native fibers by an acid hydrolysis, giving rise to highly crystalline and rigid nanoparticles (often referred to as CNC or nanowhiskers) which are shorter (100s to 1000 nanometers) than the nanofibrils obtained through the homogenization, microfluiodization or grinding routes. The resulting material is known as nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC).[1]

Se her for smart anvendelse Scientists develop biodegradable computer chips made from wood. Sciencealert

Signal transduction[redigér | redigér wikikode]


AMPK[redigér | redigér wikikode]

AMP-aktiveret proteinkinase = metabolisk hovedkontakt


AMPK Signaling Pathway | CST Cell Signaling Technology Expert-reviewed pathway providing a current overview of AMPK Signaling, a pathway description, select PubMed references, and links to PhosphoSitePlus.

AMPk: Master Metabolic Regulator | BodyRecomposition - The ... AMPk: Master Metabolic Regulator examines the effects and regulation of AMPk ( adenosine monophosphate kinase) and its relevance to changing body ...

AMP-Activated Protein Kinase, AMPK - Medical Biochemistry Dec 31, 2013 - The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) page provides a discussion of the structure and function of this master metabolic regulating enzyme.

AMPK Signaling (Homo sapiens) - WikiPathways May 9, 2014 - AMPK signaling pathway, a fuel sensor and regulator, promotes ATP-producing and inhibits ATP-consuming pathways in various tissues.

Structural basis of AMPK regulation by small molecule activators ... by B Xiao - ‎2013 - ‎Cited by 18 - ‎Related articles Dec 19, 2013 - AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a major role in regulating cellular energy balance by sensing and responding to increases in ...

[PDF]AMPK Signaling: The Fuel Sensor and Regulator Pathway - Abcam AMPK-α(1,2). AMPK-β(1,2). AMPK-γ(1,2,3). TAK1. Leptin. AMP/ATP. LKB1. ATM. Akt. IL-6. Insulin. PP2C. CaMKK. Ca2+. Adiponectin. Lipolysis. Fatty Acid.

[PDF]AMPK: Biological Action and Therapeutic Perspectives ... - faseb

CANCER[redigér | redigér wikikode]


Only in recent years has science determined that developmental regulation proceeds through a sequential activation of series of regulatory switches that, in turn, activate networks of other genes. These regulatory genes produce proteins that bind to and affect the activity of other genes. The protein products of these genes then activate still other genes, and the cascade continues building an animal cell type by cell type in a distinct order. The best studied regulatory genes are the Hox genes that are so highly conserved as to predate the appearance of animals. [2]

PRC2 [3]

CANCER VAR2CSA[redigér | redigér wikikode] Targeting Human Cancer by a Glycosaminoglycan Binding Malaria Protein • The placenta and cancer express a similar type of oncofetal chondroitin sulfate • Oncofetal chondroitin sulfate is displayed on proteoglycans in cancer • Recombinant VAR2CSA proteins detect oncofetal chondroitin modifications • Human cancer can be broadly targeted by malarial VAR2CSA drug conjugates in vivo Summary Plasmodium falciparum engineer infected erythrocytes to present the malarial protein, VAR2CSA, which binds a distinct type chondroitin sulfate (CS) exclusively expressed in the placenta. Here, we show that the same CS modification is present on a high proportion of malignant cells and that it can be specifically targeted by recombinant VAR2CSA (rVAR2). In tumors, placental-like CS chains are linked to a limited repertoire of cancer-associated proteoglycans including CD44 and CSPG4. The rVAR2 protein localizes to tumors in vivo and rVAR2 fused to diphtheria toxin or conjugated to hemiasterlin compounds strongly inhibits in vivo tumor cell growth and metastasis. Our data demonstrate how an evolutionarily refined parasite-derived protein can be exploited to target a common, but complex, malignancy-associated glycosaminoglycan modification.

ENZYMHÆMMER[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Triclocarbans antibakterielle virkning beror på at stoffet hæmmer aktiviteten af enzymet ACP reduktase (enoyl-acyl-carrier protein reduktase), der er vidt udbredt i bakterier, svampe og planter. ACP reduktase katalyserer det sidste trin i hver cyklus af fedtsyre-forlængelsen i type II fedtsyre-syntesen, og ved hæmning af dette trin hindres den normale fedtsyre-syntese og fedtsyre-indbygningen i cellemembranen, der medførere hæmning af bakterievæksten.

cyanide ion halts cellular respiration by inhibiting an enzyme in the mitochondria called cytochrome c oxidase.

|- | 7TM protein |952 |- | 6TM protein |16 |- | 5TM protein |290 |- | 4TM protein |554 |- | 3TM protein |558 |- | 2TM protein |934 |- |1TM protein |3106 |}

ENZYMER[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Photoreceptorer[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Poriner[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Porins in prokaryotes and eukaryotes: common themes and variations

AMYLOID BETA[redigér | redigér wikikode]

One of the most common areas of research in the fight against Alzheimer’s disease focuses on amyloid beta, the sticky proteins that clump together in the brain, forming plaques that choke nerve cells and impede regular neural functions. Amyloid beta is produced in the brain by enzymes that divide a larger protein - the amyloid precursor protein (APP) - into smaller sections. In a process called dimerisation, which scientists don’t fully understand, two APP proteins sometimes join together, resulting in the production of amyloid beta [[4]] [[5]]

DNA-bindende proteiner[redigér | redigér wikikode]

bZIP AP-1 transcription factor c-jun c-fos heterodimer
bZIP mafA homodimer


AP-1 transcription factor, Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a transcription factor that regulates gene expression in response to a variety of stimuli, including cytokines, growth factors, stress, and bacterial and viral infections.[1] AP-1 controls a number of cellular processes including differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis.[2] The structure of AP-1 is a heterodimer composed of proteins belonging to the c-Fos, c-Jun, ATF and JDP families.

CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) is a cellular transcription factor. It binds to certain DNA sequences called cAMP response elements (CRE), thereby increasing or decreasing the transcription of the downstream genes. CREB was first described in 1987 as a cAMP-responsive transcription factor regulating the somatostatin gene. Genes whose transcription is regulated by CREB include: c-fos, BDNF, tyrosine hydroxylase, numerous neuropeptides (such as somatostatin, enkephalin, VGF, corticotropin-releasing hormone), and genes involved in the mammalian circadian clock (PER1, PER2).


homeodomain proteins are transcription factors sharing a characteristic protein fold structure that binds DNA

The characteristic homeodomain protein fold consists of a 60-amino acid helix-turn-helix (HTH) structure in which three alpha helices are connected by short loop regions. The N-terminal two helices are antiparallel and the longer C-terminal helix is roughly perpendicular to the axes established by the first two. It is this third helix that interacts directly with DNA via a number of hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions, which occur between specific side chains and the exposed bases and thymine methyl groups within the major groove of the DNA.

Beskrivelse English: Crystal structure of RecA-DNA complex. This protein from E. coli is essential for homologous recombination, which is an important mechanism of DNA repair. While many crystal structures of RecA had been previous solved, this structure was the first of RecA in complex with DNA.

RecA is a 38 kilodalton protein essential for the repair and maintenance of DNA.[2] A RecA structural and functional homolog has been found in every species in which one has been seriously sought and serves as an archetype for this class of homologous DNA repair proteins. The homologous protein is called RAD51 in eukaryotes and RadA in archaea.

RAD51 is a eukaryote gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the RAD51 protein family which assist in repair of DNA double strand breaks. RAD51 family members are homologous to the bacterial RecA, Archaeal RadA and yeast Rad51.[2] The protein is highly conserved in most eukaryotes, from yeast to humans.[3]

TOXINER[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Colony collapse neonicotinoider Toksiner er betegnelsen for giftstoffer af biologisk oprindelse, f.eks. fra slanger, planter eller bakterier. Toksiner forekommer vidt udbredt i naturen. Det anslås at der findes 20 millioner forskellige toksiner i naturen.[7]

Graden af farlighed udtrykkes i form af hvor stor en dosis, der udløser enten død (LD50) eller giftvirkning TD50.

Den mest giftige slangegift har en LD50 på 25 μg per kg legemsvægt. For tetrodotoksin er den tilsvarende mængde 8 μg. For batrachotoksin, giftstoffet fra pilegiftfrøens hud, er tallet 2-7 μg. For palytoksin er det 300 ng.[8]

Det stærkest virkende toksin er Botulinumtoksinet, der har en skønnet dødelig dosis for mennesker på 1,3-2,1 ng per kg legemsvægt intravenøst eller intramuskulært og 10-13 ng per kg indåndet.[9]

Bakterielle toxiner[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Blandt kendte toksiner er botulinumtoksin (botox), som dannes af bakterien Clostridium botulinum og kan føre til den dødelige sygdom botulisme, bedre kendt som pølseforgiftning.

Toxiner fra andre mikroorganismer[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Mykotoksin er en gruppe af giftstoffer, som produceres af forskellige svampearter, hvis toksiditet varierer kraftigt. Hos gærsvampen drejer det sig om ethanol (alkohol), men blandt de mere frygtede mykotoksiner kan nævnes aflatoksin,

Plantetoxiner[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Lectiner i bønner og løg er naturligt forekommende toksiner som f.eks. ricin.[10] Endvidere findes curare, der er en samlet betegnelse for meget toksiske plantegifte brugt på pile af Sydamerikanske indianere.

Giftige svampe[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Uddybende Uddybende artikel: Giftige svampe

Amatoxiner[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Den fælles kemiske struktur af amatoxinerne er otte aminosyrer i to ringe, hvor R er H eller OH, R3 kan dog være endten OH eller NH2

The backbone structure (black) is the same in all the amatoxins and five variable groups (red) determine the specific compound.]]

I Danmark er der omkring 100 giftige svampe, deribland tde meget farlige Snehvid Fluesvamp, Grøn fluesvamp, Rød Fluesvamp, [[|Hjelmhat|Randbæltet Hjelmhat]], Puklet Giftslørhat, Sandmorkel, Panter Fluesvamp og Spids Nøgenhat.

Toxiner fra dyr[redigér | redigér wikikode] America’s Most Lethal Animal

MADVARER[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Toxiske madvarer[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Nogle dyr indeholder toxiner

Planter indeholder alkaloider, lectiner og andre toxiske stoffer. Igennem mange år har det været diskuteret om lectiner i fødemidlerne ud over deres direkte toxiske virkning også er sygdomsfremkaldende faktorer.[11][12]


Kulinarisk Japansk fisk!

Genmodificerede organismer

Forurenede madvarer[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Både dyr og planter kan være forurenet med toxiske eller sygdomsfremkaldende mikrober, med pesticider og andre kemikalier, plastik nanopartikler.

Salmonella, MRSA,

Eksempler på Muslinger og hindbær, bønnespirer

reflist[redigér | redigér wikikode]


  1. ^ The human protein atlas
  2. ^ [6]
  3. ^ [7]
  4. ^ The Evolution of Sleep: 700 Million Years of Melatonin. The New York Times. Science
  5. ^ Caniato R, Filippini R, Piovan A, Puricelli L, Borsarini A, Cappelletti EM (2003). "Melatonin in plants". Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 527: 593-7. ISBN 978-0-306-47755-3. PMID 15206778. doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-0135-0_68. 
  6. ^ Paredes SD, Korkmaz A, Manchester LC, Tan DX, Reiter RJ (2009). "Phytomelatonin: a review". J. Exp. Bot. 60 (1): 57-69. PMID 19033551. doi:10.1093/jxb/ern284. 
  7. ^ The bite that heals. National Geographic. Februar 2013
  8. ^ World's 2nd deadliest poison, in an aquarium store near you. Discover 2011
  9. ^ Arnon, Stephen S.; Schechter R, Inglesby TV, Henderson DA, Bartlett JG, Ascher MS, Eitzen E, Fine AD, Hauer J, Layton M, Lillibridge S, Osterholm MT, O'Toole T, Parker G, Perl TM, Russell PK, Swerdlow DL, Tonat K; Working Group on Civilian Biodefense. (21. februar 2001). "Botulinum Toxin as a Biological Weapon: Medical and Public Health Management" (PDF, 0.5 MB). Journal of the American Medical Association. 285 (8): 1059-1070. PMID 11209178. doi:10.1001/jama.285.8.1059. 
  10. ^ Giftige planter og dyr kan bruges i medicin. 2009
  11. ^ Do dietary lectins cause disease? David L.J.Freed
  12. ^ The Lectin Report. Krispin Sullivan