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Politisk karriere 1996–2008[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Medlem af Senatet i Illions - 1997–2004[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Obama blev valgt til Senatet i staten Illinois i 1996, hvor han overtog pladsen fra Alice Palmer som Senator for Illinois's 13. distrikt, som på daværende tidspunkt dækkede Chicagos sydlige kvarterer fra Hyde Park-Kenwood syd på til South Shore og vest på Chicago Lawn.[1] Efter at være blevet valgt fik Obama bred støtte til at reform af statens lovgivning indenfor sundhed og etik.[2] Han stod bag en lov der forøgede skattefradraget for lavindkomst grupper og øgede støtte til børnpasning.[3] In 2001, as co-chairman of the bipartisan Joint Committee on Administrative Rules, Obama supported Republican Governor Ryan's payday loan regulations and predatory mortgage lending regulations aimed at averting home foreclosures.[4]

Obama blev genvalgt til statssenatet i 1998, hvor han slog republikaneren Yesse Yehudah, og igen i 2002.[5] I 2000 tabte han et demokratisk primærvalg forud for valget til Repræsentanternes hus til Bobby Rush.[6][7]

In January 2003, Obama became chairman of the Illinois Senate's Health and Human Services Committee when Democrats, after a decade in the minority, regained a majority.[8] He sponsored and led unanimous, bipartisan passage of legislation to monitor racial profiling by requiring police to record the race of drivers they detained, and legislation making Illinois the first state to mandate videotaping of homicide interrogations.[3][9] During his 2004 general election campaign for U.S. Senate, police representatives credited Obama for his active engagement with police organizations in enacting death penalty reforms.[10] Obama resigned from the Illinois Senate in November 2004 following his election to the U.S. Senate.[11]

2004 U.S. Senate campaign[redigér | redigér wikikode]

In May 2002, Obama commissioned a poll to assess his prospects in a 2004 U.S. Senate race; he created a campaign committee, began raising funds and lined up political media consultant David Axelrod by August 2002, and formally announced his candidacy in January 2003.[12] Decisions by Republican incumbent Peter Fitzgerald and his Democratic predecessor Carol Moseley Braun not to contest the race launched wide-open Democratic and Republican primary contests involving fifteen candidates.[13] Obama's candidacy was boosted by Axelrod's advertising campaign featuring images of the late Chicago Mayor Harold Washington and an endorsement by the daughter of the late Paul Simon, former U.S. Senator for Illinois.[14] In the March 2004 primary election, Obama won an unexpected landslide victory with 53% of the vote in a seven-candidate field, 29% ahead of his nearest Democratic rival, which overnight made him a rising star in the national Democratic Party and started speculation about a presidential future.[15][16]

In July 2004, Obama wrote and delivered the keynote address at the 2004 Democratic National Convention in Boston, Massachusetts.[17] Though it was not televised by the three major broadcast news networks, a combined 9.1 million viewers saw Obama's speech, which was a highlight of the convention and elevated his status as a star in the Democratic Party.[18]

Obama's expected opponent in the general election, Republican primary winner Jack Ryan, withdrew from the race in June 2004.[19] Two months later, Alan Keyes accepted the Illinois Republican Party's nomination to replace Ryan.[20] A long-time resident of Maryland, Keyes established legal residency in Illinois with the nomination.[21] In the November 2004 general election, Obama received 70% of the vote to Keyes' 27%, the largest victory margin for a statewide race in Illinois history.[22][23]

U.S. Senator: 2005–2008[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Obama was sworn in as a senator on January 4, 2005.[24] Obama was the fifth African American Senator in U.S. history and the third to have been popularly elected.[25] He was the only Senate member of the Congressional Black Caucus.[26] CQ Weekly, a nonpartisan publication, characterized him as a "loyal Democrat" based on analysis of all Senate votes in 2005–2007. The National Journal ranked him as the "most liberal" senator based on an assessment of selected votes during 2007; in 2005 he was ranked sixteenth most liberal, and in 2006 he was ranked tenth.[27][28] In 2008, ranked him as the eleventh most powerful Senator,[29] and the politician who was the most popular in the Senate, enjoying 72% approval in Illinois.[30] Obama announced on November 13, 2008 that he would resign his senate seat on November 16, 2008, before the start of the lame-duck session, to focus on his transition period for the presidency.[31][32] This enabled him to avoid the conflict of dual roles as President-elect and Senator in the lame duck session of Congress, which no sitting member of Congress had faced since Warren Harding.[33]

Legislation[redigér | redigér wikikode]

A man with glasses and Obama sit and hold a sheet of paper. Obama points at the paper and talks. Both men wear dark suits and ties.
Senate bill sponsors Tom Coburn (R-OK) and Obama discussing the Coburn–Obama Transparency Act[34]

Obama voted in favor of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and cosponsored the Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act.[35] In September 2006, Obama supported a related bill, the Secure Fence Act.[36] Obama introduced two initiatives bearing his name: Lugar–Obama, which expanded the Nunn–Lugar cooperative threat reduction concept to conventional weapons,[37] and the Coburn–Obama Transparency Act, which authorized the establishment of, a web search engine on federal spending.[38] On June 3, 2008, Senator Obama, along with Senators Thomas R. Carper, Tom Coburn, and John McCain, introduced follow-up legislation: Strengthening Transparency and Accountability in Federal Spending Act of 2008.[39]

Gray-haired man and Obama stand, wearing casual polo shirts. Obama wears sunglasses and holds something slung over his right sholder.
Obama and U.S. Sen. Richard Lugar (R-IN) visit a Russian mobile launch missile dismantling facility in August 2005.[40]

Obama sponsored legislation that would have required nuclear plant owners to notify state and local authorities of radioactive leaks, but the bill failed to pass in the full Senate after being heavily modified in committee.[41] Obama is not hostile to tort reform and voted for the Class Action Fairness Act of 2005 and the FISA Amendments Act of 2008 which grants immunity from civil liability to telecommunications companies complicit with NSA warrantless wiretapping operations.[42]

In December 2006, President Bush signed into law the Democratic Republic of the Congo Relief, Security, and Democracy Promotion Act, marking the first federal legislation to be enacted with Obama as its primary sponsor.[43] In January 2007, Obama and Senator Feingold introduced a corporate jet provision to the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act, which was signed into law in September 2007.[44] Obama also introduced Deceptive Practices and Voter Intimidation Prevention Act, a bill to criminalize deceptive practices in federal elections[45] and the Iraq War De-Escalation Act of 2007,[46] neither of which has been signed into law.

Later in 2007, Obama sponsored an amendment to the Defense Authorization Act adding safeguards for personality disorder military discharges.[47] This amendment passed the full Senate in the spring of 2008.[48] He sponsored the Iran Sanctions Enabling Act supporting divestment of state pension funds from Iran's oil and gas industry, which has not passed committee, and co-sponsored legislation to reduce risks of nuclear terrorism.[49][50] Obama also sponsored a Senate amendment to the State Children's Health Insurance Program providing one year of job protection for family members caring for soldiers with combat-related injuries.[51]

Committees[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Obama held assignments on the Senate Committees for Foreign Relations, Environment and Public Works and Veterans' Affairs through December 2006.[52] In January 2007, he left the Environment and Public Works committee and took additional assignments with Health, Education, Labor and Pensions and Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs.[53] He also became Chairman of the Senate's subcommittee on European Affairs.[54] As a member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Obama made official trips to Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia and Africa. He met with Mahmoud Abbas before he became President of the Palestinian Authority, and gave a speech at the University of Nairobi condemning corruption in the Kenyan government.[55][56][57][58]

Fodnoter[redigér | redigér wikikode]

  1. ^ Jackson, David; Ray Long (April 3, 2007). "Obama Knows His Way Around a Ballot". Chicago Tribune. Hentet January 14, 2008.  White, Jesse (2001). "Legislative Districts of Cook County, 1991 Reapportionment" (PDF). Illinois Blue Book 2001–2002. Springfield: Illinois Secretary of State. s. 65.  State Sen. District 13 = State Rep. Districts 25 & 26.
  2. ^ Slevin, Peter (February 9, 2007). "Obama Forged Political Mettle in Illinois Capitol". Washington Post. Hentet April 20, 2008.  Helman, Scott (September 23, 2007). "In Illinois, Obama dealt with Lobbyists". Boston Globe. Hentet April 20, 2008.  See also: "Obama Record May Be Gold Mine for Critics". CBS News. Associated Press. January 17, 2007. Hentet April 20, 2008.  "In-Depth Look at Obama's Political Career" (video). CLTV. February 9, 2007. Hentet April 20, 2008. 
  3. ^ a b Scott, Janny (July 30, 2007). "In Illinois, Obama Proved Pragmatic and Shrewd". The New York Times. Hentet April 20, 2008.  Se også: Pearson, Rick; Ray Long (May 3, 2007). "Careful Steps, Looking Ahead". Chicago Tribune. Arkiveret fra originalen February 16, 2008. Hentet April 20, 2008. 
  4. ^ Allison, Melissa (December 15, 2000). "State takes on predatory lending; Rules would halt single-premium life insurance financing". Chicago Tribune (paid archive). s. 1 (Business). Hentet June 1, 2008.  Long, Ray; Allison, Melissa (April 18, 2001). "Illinois OKs predatory loan curbs; State aims to avert home foreclosures.". Chicago Tribune (paid archive). s. 1. Hentet June 1, 2008. 
  5. ^ "13th District: Barack Obama". Illinois State Senate Democrats. August 24, 2000. Arkiveret fra originalen (archive) April 12, 2000. Hentet April 20, 2008.  "13th District: Barack Obama". Illinois State Senate Democrats. October 9, 2004. Arkiveret fra originalen (archive) August 2, 2004. Hentet April 20, 2008. 
  6. ^ "Federal Elections 2000: U.S. House Results - Illinois". Federal Election Commission. Hentet April 24, 2008. . See also: "Obama's Loss May Have Aided White House Bid".  and Scott, Janny (September 9, 2007). "A Streetwise Veteran Schooled Young Obama". The New York Times. Hentet April 20, 2008. 
  7. ^ McClelland, Edward (February 12, 2007). "How Obama Learned to Be a Natural". Salon. Hentet April 20, 2008.  See also: Wolffe, Richard; Daren Briscoe (July 16, 2007). "Across the Divide". Newsweek. Hentet April 20, 2008.  Helman, Scott (October 12, 2007). "Early Defeat Launched a Rapid Political Climb". Boston Globe. Hentet April 20, 2008.  and Wills, Christopher (October 24, 2007). 24, 2007-3157940059_x.htm "Obama learned from failed Congress run" Tjek |url= (hjælp). USA Today. Hentet September 20, 2008. 
  8. ^ Calmes, Jackie (February 23, 2007). "Statehouse Yields Clues to Obama". Wall Street Journal. Hentet April 20, 2008. 
  9. ^ Tavella, Anne Marie (April 14, 2003). "Profiling, taping plans pass Senate". Daily Herald (paid archive). s. 17. Hentet June 1, 2008.  Haynes, V. Dion (June 29, 2003). "Fight racial profiling at local level, lawmaker says; U.S. guidelines get mixed review". Chicago Tribune (paid archive). s. 8. Hentet June 1, 2008.  Pearson, Rick (July 17, 2003). "Taped confessions to be law; State will be 1st to pass legislation". Chicago Tribune (paid archive). s. 1 (Metro). Hentet June 1, 2008. 
  10. ^ Youngman, Sam; Aaron Blake (March 14, 2007). "Obama's Crime Votes Are Fodder for Rivals". The Hill. Hentet April 20, 2008.  See also: "US Presidential Candidate Obama Cites Work on State Death Penalty Reforms". International Herald Tribune. Associated Press. November 12, 2007. Hentet April 20, 2008. 
  11. ^ Coffee, Melanie (November 6, 2004). "Attorney Chosen to Fill Obama's State Senate Seat". HPKCC. Associated Press. Hentet April 20, 2008. 
  12. ^ Helman, Scott (October 12, 2007). "Early Defeat Launched a Rapid Political Climb". Boston Globe. Hentet April 13, 2008. 
  13. ^ Davey, Monica (March 7, 2004). "Closely Watched Illinois Senate Race Attracts 7 Candidates in Millionaire Range". The New York Times. Hentet April 13, 2008. 
  14. ^ Wallace-Wells, Ben (April 1, 2007). "Obama's Narrator". The New York Times Magazine. Hentet April 13, 2008. 
  15. ^ Mendell, David (March 17, 2004). "Obama routs Democratic foes; Ryan tops crowded GOP field; Hynes, Hull fall far short across state". Chicago Tribune. s. 1. Hentet March 1, 2009.  Davey, Monica (March 18, 2004). "As quickly as overnight, a Democratic star is born". The New York Times. s. A20. Hentet March 1, 2009.  Howlett, Debbie (March 19, 2004). "Dems see a rising star in Illinois Senate candidate". USA Today. s. A04. Hentet March 1, 2009.  Mendell (2007), pp. 235–246.
  16. ^ Scheiber, Noam (May 31, 2004). "Race Against History. Barack Obama's miraculous campaign". The New Republic. 230 (20): 21-22, 24-26 (cover story). Hentet March 24, 2009.  Finnegan, William (May 31, 2004). "The Candidate. How far can Barack Obama go?". The New Yorker. 20 (14): 32-38. Hentet March 24, 2009.  Dionne Jr., E. J. (June 25, 2004). "In Illinois, a star prepares". The Washington Post. s. A29. Hentet March 24, 2009.  Mendell (2007), pp. 247–259.
  17. ^ Bernstein, David (June 2007). "The Speech". Chicago Magazine. Hentet April 13, 2008. 
  18. ^ . (August 2, 2004). "Star Power. Showtime: Some are on the rise; others have long been fixtures in the firmament. A galaxy of bright Democratic lights". Newsweek. s. 48-51. Hentet November 15, 2008.  Samuel, Terence (August 2, 2004). "A shining star named Obama. How a most unlikely politician became a darling of the Democrats". U.S. News & World Report. s. 25. Hentet November 15, 2008.  Lizza, Ryan (2004). "The Natural. Why is Barack Obama generating more excitement among Democrats than John Kerry?". The Atlantic Monthly. s. 30, 33. Hentet November 15, 2008.  Ukendt parameter |month= ignoreret (hjælp) Davey, Monica (July 26, 2004). "A surprise Senate contender reaches his biggest stage yet". The New York Times. s. A1. Hentet November 15, 2008.  Leibovich, Mark (July 27, 2004). "The other man of the hour". The Washington Post. s. C1. Hentet November 15, 2008.  Milligan, Susan (July 27, 2004). "In Obama, Democrats see their future". The Boston Globe. s. B8. Hentet November 15, 2008.  Seelye, Katharine Q. (July 28, 2004). "Illinois Senate nominee speaks of encompassing unity". The New York Times. s. A1. Hentet November 15, 2008.  Broder, David S. (July 28, 2004). "Democrats focus on healing divisions; Addressing convention, newcomers set themes". The Washington Post. s. A1. Hentet November 15, 2008.  Bing, Jonathan; McClintock, Pamela (July 29, 2004). "Auds resist charms of Dem stars". Daily Variety. s. 1. Hentet November 15, 2008.  Mendell (2007), pp. 272–285.
  19. ^ "Ryan Drops Out of Senate Race in Illinois". CNN. June 25, 2004. Hentet April 13, 2008.  Mendell (2007), pp. 260–271.
  20. ^ Lannan, Maura Kelly (August 9, 2004). "Alan Keyes Enters U.S. Senate Race in Illinois Against Rising Democratic Star". Union-Tribune (San Diego). Associated Press. Hentet April 13, 2008. 
  21. ^ Liam, Ford; David Mendell (August 13, 2004). "Keyes Sets Up House in Cal City". Chicago Tribune. Hentet April 13, 2008. 
  22. ^ "America Votes 2004: U.S. Senate / Illinois". CNN. Hentet April 13, 2008.  Slevin, Peter (November 13, 2007). "For Obama, a Handsome Payoff in Political Gambles". The Washington Post. Hentet April 13, 2008. 
  23. ^ Chase, John and Mendell, David (November 3, 2004). "Obama scores a record landslide" (PDF). Chicago Tribune. s. 1. Hentet April 3, 2009.  Fornek, Scott (November 3, 2004). "Obama takes Senate seat in a landslide". Chicago Sun-Times. Hentet April 3, 2009. 
  24. ^ "About Barack Obama". Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office. Hentet April 27, 2008. 
  25. ^ "Breaking New Ground: African American Senators". U.S. Senate Historical Office. Hentet June 25, 2008. 
  26. ^ "Member Info". Congressional Black Caucus. Hentet June 25, 2008.  See also: Zeleny, Jeff (June 26, 2005). "When It Comes to Race, Obama Makes His Point—With Subtlety". Chicago Tribune. Arkiveret fra originalen February 16, 2008. Hentet June 25, 2008. 
  27. ^ Nather, David (January 14, 2008). "The Space Between Clinton and Obama". CQ Weekly. Hentet June 25, 2008.  See also: Curry, Tom (February 21, 2008). "What Obama's Senate Votes Reveal". MSNBC. Hentet June 25, 2008. 
  28. ^ "Obama: Most Liberal Senator In 2007". National Journal. January 31, 2008. Hentet June 25, 2008. 
  29. ^ KnowLegis. "Power Rankings: Senate". Hentet September 7, 2008. 
  30. ^ Melissa Lee. "UPDATE; Obama leads Senate with 72% approval.". Star Tribune. Hentet February 26, 2009. 
  31. ^ Mason, Jeff (November 16, 2008). "Obama resigns Senate seat, thanks Illinois". Reuters. Hentet March 10, 2009. 
  32. ^ Sidoti, Liz (November 13, 2008). "Obama to Resign Senate Seat on Sunday". Time. Time Inc. Hentet November 22, 2008. 
  33. ^ Baker, Peter (November 14, 2008). "ON THE WHITE HOUSE; If the Senate Reconvenes, Two Seats May Be Empty". The New York Times. Hentet November 21, 2008. 
  34. ^ "President Bush Signs Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act.". White House. September 26, 2006.  Teksten "April 27, 2008" ignoreret (hjælp)
  35. ^ U.S. Senate, 109th Congress, 1st Session (May 12, 2005). "S. 1033, Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act". Thomas. Hentet April 27, 2008. 
  36. ^ "Latinos Upset Obama Voted for Border Fence". CBS 2 (Chicago). November 20, 2006. Arkiveret fra originalen September 27, 2007. Hentet April 27, 2008. 
  37. ^ "Lugar–Obama Nonproliferation Legislation Signed into Law by the President". Richard Lugar U.S. Senate Office. January 11, 2007. Hentet April 27, 2008.  See also: Lugar, Richard G; Barack Obama (December 3, 2005). "Junkyard Dogs of War". Washington Post. Hentet April 27, 2008. 
  38. ^ McCormack, John (December 21, 2007). "Google Government Gone Viral". Weekly Standard. Hentet April 27, 2008.  See also: "President Bush Signs Coburn–Obama Transparency Act". Tom Coburn U.S. Senate Office. September 26, 2006. Hentet April 27, 2008.  and
  39. ^ S. 3077: Strengthening Transparency and Accountability in Federal Spending Act of 2008, 2007-2008 (110th Congress)
  40. ^ "Nunn–Lugar Report" (PDF). Richard Lugar U.S. Senate Office. 2005. Hentet April 30, 2008.  Ukendt parameter |month= ignoreret (hjælp)
  41. ^ McIntire, Mike (February 3, 2008). "Nuclear Leaks and Response Tested Obama in Senate". The New York Times. Hentet April 27, 2008. 
  42. ^ Daniel Fisher (August 11, 2008). "November Election A Lawyer's Delight". Forbes Magazine. Hentet January 11, 2009. 
  43. ^ "Democratic Republic of the Congo". United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. 2006. Hentet April 27, 2008.  Ukendt parameter |month= ignoreret (hjælp) "The IRC Welcomes New U.S. Law on Congo". International Rescue Committee. January 5, 2007. Hentet April 27, 2008. 
  44. ^ Weixel, Nathaniel (November 15, 2007). "Feingold, Obama Go After Corporate Jet Travel". The Hill. Hentet April 27, 2008.  Weixel, Nathaniel (December 5, 2007). "Lawmakers Press FEC on Bundling Regulation". The Hill. Hentet April 27, 2008.  See also: "Federal Election Commission Announces Plans to Issue New Regulations to Implement the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act of 2007". Federal Election Commission. September 24, 2007. Hentet April 27, 2008. 
  45. ^ Stern, Seth (January 31, 2007). "Obama–Schumer Bill Proposal Would Criminalize Voter Intimidation". Hentet April 27, 2008.  U.S. Senate, 110th Congress, 1st Session (January 31, 2007). "S. 453, Deceptive Practices and Voter Intimidation Prevention Act of 2007". Thomas. Hentet April 27, 2008.  See also: "Honesty in Elections" (editorial). The New York Times. January 31, 2007. Hentet April 27, 2008. 
  46. ^ Krystin, E. Kasak (February 7, 2007). "Obama Introduces Measure to Bring Troops Home". Medill News Service. Hentet April 27, 2008.  "Latest Major Action: 1/30/2007 Referred to Senate committee". U.S. Senate, 110th Congress, 1st Session (January 30, 2007). "S. 433, Iraq War De-Escalation Act of 2007". Thomas. Hentet April 27, 2008. 
  47. ^ "Obama, Bond Hail New Safeguards on Military Personality Disorder Discharges, Urge Further Action". Kit Bond U.S. Senate Office. October 1, 2007. Hentet April 27, 2008.  See also: Dine, Philip (December 23, 2007). "Bond Calls for Review of Military Discharges". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Hentet April 27, 2008. 
  48. ^ "Obama, Bond Applaud Senate Passage of Amendment to Expedite the Review of Personality Disorder Discharge Cases". 
  49. ^ Graham-Silverman, Adam (September 12, 2007). "Despite Flurry of Action in House, Congress Unlikely to Act Against Iran". CQ Today. Hentet April 27, 2008. 
  50. ^ "Obama, Schiff Provision to Create Nuclear Threat Reduction Plan Approved". Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office. December 20, 2007. Hentet April 27, 2008. 
  51. ^ "Senate Passes Obama, McCaskill Legislation to Provide Safety Net for Families of Wounded Service Members". Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office. August 2, 2007. Hentet April 27, 2008.  Arkivkopi fra Internet Archives Wayback Machine
  52. ^ "Committee Assignments" (archive). Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office. December 9, 2006. Hentet April 27, 2008. 
  53. ^ "Obama Gets New Committee Assignments". Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office. Associated Press. November 15, 2006. Hentet April 27, 2008. 
  54. ^ Baldwin, Tom (December 21, 2007). "Stay-At-Home Barack Obama Comes Under Fire for a Lack of Foreign Experience". Sunday Times (UK). Hentet April 27, 2008. 
  55. ^ Larson, Christina (September 2006). "Hoosier Daddy: What Rising Democratic Star Barack Obama Can Learn from an Old Lion of the GOP". Washington Monthly. Hentet April 27, 2008. 
  56. ^ Goudie, Chuck (January 12, 2006). "Obama Meets with Arafat's Successor". WLS-TV. Hentet April 27, 2008. 
  57. ^ "Obama Slates Kenya for Fraud". August 28, 2006. Hentet April 27, 2008. 
  58. ^ Wamalwa, Chris (September 2, 2006). "Envoy Hits at Obama Over Graft Remark". The Standard (Nairobi). Arkiveret fra originalen October 10, 2007. Hentet April 27, 2008.  Moracha, Vincent; Mangoa Mosota (September 4, 2006). "Leaders Support Obama on Graft Claims". The Standard (Nairobi). Arkiveret fra originalen October 7, 2007. Hentet April 27, 2008.