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Putative therapies[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Skabelon:More medical citations needed The Dead Sea area has become a location for health research and potential treatment for several reasons. The mineral content of the water, the low content of pollens and other allergens in the atmosphere, the reduced ultraviolet component of solar radiation, and the higher atmospheric pressure at this great depth each may have specific health effects. For example, persons experiencing reduced respiratory function from diseases such as cystic fibrosis seem to benefit from the increased atmospheric pressure.[1]

The region's climate and low elevation have made it a popular center for assessment of putative therapies:

Climatotherapy at the Dead Sea may be a therapy for psoriasis[2] by sunbathing for long periods in the area due to its position below sea level and subsequent result that UV rays are partially blocked by the increased cloud cover[kilde mangler] over the Dead Sea.[3]

Rhinosinusitis patients receiving Dead Sea saline nasal irrigation exhibited improved symptom relief compared to standard hypertonic saline spray in one study.[4]

Dead Sea mud pack therapy has been suggested to temporarily relieve pain in patients with osteoarthritis of the knees. According to researchers of the Ben Gurion University of the Negev, treatment with mineral-rich mud compresses can be used to augment conventional medical therapy.[5]

Panorama of the Dead Sea from the Mövenpick Resort, Jordan.
Panorama of the Dead Sea from the Mövenpick Resort, Jordan.

Fauna and flora[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Dead Sea in the morning, seen from Masada

The sea is called "dead" because its high salinity prevents macroscopic aquatic organisms, such as fish and aquatic plants, from living in it, though minuscule quantities of bacteria and microbial fungi are present.

In times of flood, the salt content of the Dead Sea can drop from its usual 35% to 30% or lower. The Dead Sea temporarily comes to life in the wake of rainy winters. In 1980, after one such rainy winter, the normally dark blue Dead Sea turned red. Researchers from Hebrew University of Jerusalem found the Dead Sea to be teeming with a type of alga called Dunaliella. Dunaliella in turn nourished carotenoid-containing (red-pigmented) halobacteria, whose presence caused the color change. Since 1980, the Dead Sea basin has been dry and the algae and the bacteria have not returned in measurable numbers.

In 2011 a group of scientists from Be'er Sheva, Israel and Germany discovered fissures in the floor of the Dead Sea by scuba diving and observing the surface. These fissures allow fresh and brackish water to enter the Dead Sea. They sampled biofilms surrounding the fissures and discovered numerous species of bacteria and archaea.[6]

Many animal species live in the mountains surrounding the Dead Sea. Hikers can see ibex, hares, hyraxes, jackals, foxes, and even leopards. Hundreds of bird species inhabit the zone as well. Both Jordan and Israel have established nature reserves around the Dead Sea.

The delta of the Jordan River was formerly a jungle of papyrus and palm trees. The Jewish historian Flavius Josephus described Jericho as "the most fertile spot in Judea". In Roman and Byzantine times, sugarcane,[tvivlsomt ] henna, and sycamore fig all made the lower Jordan valley wealthy. One of the most valuable products produced by Jericho was the sap of the balsam tree, which could be made into perfume. By the 19th century, Jericho's fertility had disappeared.[tvivlsomt ]

Human settlement[redigér | redigér wikikode]

There are several small communities near the Dead Sea. These include Ein Gedi, Neve Zohar and the Israeli settlements in the Megilot Regional Council: Kalya, Mitzpe Shalem and Avnat. There is a nature preserve at Ein Gedi, and several Dead Sea hotels are located on the southwest end at Ein Bokek near Neve Zohar. Highway 90 runs north-south on the Israeli side for a total distance of 565 km (351 mi) from Metula on the Lebanese border in the north to its southern terminus at the Egyptian border near the Red Sea port of Eilat.

Potash City is a small community on the Jordanian side of the Dead Sea, and others including Suweima. Highway 65 runs north-south on the Jordanian side from near Jordan's northern tip down past the Dead Sea to the port of Aqaba.

Human history[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Mount Sodom, Israel, showing the so-called "Lot's Wife" pillar (made of Halite (mineral) like the rest of the mountain)

Biblical period[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Dwelling in caves near the Dead Sea is recorded in the Hebrew Bible as having taken place before the Israelites came to Canaan, and extensively at the time of King David.

Just northwest of the Dead Sea is Jericho. Somewhere, perhaps on the southeastern shore, would be the cities mentioned in the Book of Genesis which were said to have been destroyed in the time of Abraham: Sodom and Gomorra (Genesis 18) and the three other "Cities of the Plain", Admah, Zeboim and Zoar (Deuteronomy 29:23). Zoar escaped destruction when Abraham's nephew Lot escaped to Zoar from Sodom (Genesis 19:21–22). Before the destruction, the Dead Sea was a valley full of natural tar pits, which was called the vale of Siddim. King David was said to have hidden from Saul at Ein Gedi nearby.

In Skabelon:Bibleverse-lb there is a specific prophecy that the sea will "be healed and made fresh", becoming a normal lake capable of supporting marine life. A similar prophecy is stated in Skabelon:Bibleverse-lb, which says that "living waters will go out from Jerusalem, half of them to the eastern sea [likely the Dead Sea] and half to the western sea [the Mediterranean]."

Greek and Roman period[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Aristotle wrote about the remarkable waters. The Nabateans and others discovered the value of the globs of natural asphalt that constantly floated to the surface where they could be harvested with nets. The Egyptians were steady customers, as they used asphalt in the embalming process that created mummies. The Ancient Romans knew the Dead Sea as "Palus Asphaltites"[7] (Asphalt Lake).

A cargo boat on the Dead Sea as seen on the Madaba Map, from the 6th century AD

The Dead Sea was an important trade route with ships carrying salt, asphalt and agricultural produce. Multiple anchorages existed on both sides of the sea, including in Ein Gedi, Khirbet Mazin (where the ruins of a Hasmonean-era dry dock are located), Numeira and near Masada.[8][9]

King Herod the Great built or rebuilt several fortresses and palaces on the western bank of the Dead Sea. The most famous was Masada, where in 70 CE a small group of Jewish zealots fled after the fall of the destruction of the Second Temple. The zealots survived until 73 CE, when a siege by the X Legion ended in the deaths by suicide of its 960 inhabitants. Another historically important fortress was Machaerus (מכוור), on the eastern bank, where, according to Josephus, John the Baptist was imprisoned by Herod Antipas and died.[10]

Also in Roman times, some Essenes settled on the Dead Sea's western shore; Pliny the Elder identifies their location with the words, "on the west side of the Dead Sea, away from the coast ... [above] the town of Engeda" (Natural History, Bk 5.73); and it is therefore a hugely popular but contested hypothesis today, that same Essenes are identical with the settlers at Qumran and that "the Dead Sea Scrolls" discovered during the 20th century in the nearby caves had been their own library.

Josephus identified the Dead Sea in geographic proximity to the ancient Biblical city of Sodom. However, he referred to the lake by its Greek name, Asphaltites.[11]

Various sects of Jews settled in caves overlooking the Dead Sea. The best known of these are the Essenes of Qumran, who left an extensive library known as the Dead Sea Scrolls.[12] The town of Ein Gedi, mentioned many times in the Mishna, produced persimmon for the temple's fragrance and for export, using a secret recipe. "Sodomite salt" was an essential mineral for the temple's holy incense, but was said to be dangerous for home use and could cause blindness.[13] The Roman camps surrounding Masada were built by Jewish slaves receiving water from the towns around the lake. These towns had drinking water from the Ein Feshcha springs and other sweetwater springs in the vicinity.[14]

Byzantine period[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Intimately connected with the Judean wilderness to its northwest and west, the Dead Sea was a place of escape and refuge. The remoteness of the region attracted Greek Orthodox monks since the Byzantine era. Their monasteries, such as Saint George in Wadi Kelt and Mar Saba in the Judaean Desert, are places of pilgrimage.

Modern times[redigér | redigér wikikode]

The southern basin of the Dead Sea as of 1817-18, with the Lisan Peninsula and its ford (now named Lynch Strait). North is to the right.

In the 19th century the River Jordan and the Dead Sea were explored by boat primarily by Christopher Costigan in 1835, Thomas Howard Molyneux in 1847, William Francis Lynch in 1848, and John MacGregor in 1869.[15] The full text of W. F. Lynch's 1949 book Narrative of the United States' Expedition to the River Jordan and the Dead Sea is available online. Charles Leonard Irby and James Mangles travelled along the shores of the Dead Sea already in 1817–18, but didn't navigate on its waters.[16]

World's lowest (dry) point, Jordan, 1971

Explorers and scientists arrived in the area to analyze the minerals and research the unique climate.

After the find of the "Moabite Stone" in 1868 on the plateau east of the Dead Sea, Moses Wilhelm Shapira and his partner Salim al-Khouri forged and sold a whole range of presumed "Moabite" antiquities, and in 1883 Shapira presented what is now known as the "Shapira Strips", a supposedly ancient scroll written on leather strips which he claimed had been found near the Dead Sea. The strips were declared to be forgeries and Shapira took his own life in disgrace.

In the late 1940s and early 1950s, hundreds of religious documents dated between 150 BCE and 70 CE were found in caves near the ancient settlement of Qumran, about en mile (1,6 kilometer) inland from the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea (presently in the West Bank). They became known and famous as the Dead Sea Scrolls.

The world's lowest roads, Highway 90, run along the Israeli and West Bank shores of the Dead Sea, along with Highway 65 on the Jordanian side, at 393 m (1.289 ft) below sea level.

Tourism and leisure[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Ein Bokek, a resort on the Israeli shore

British Mandate period[redigér | redigér wikikode]

A golf course named for Sodom and Gomorrah was built by the British at Kalia on the northern shore.

Israel[redigér | redigér wikikode]

The first major Israeli hotels were built in nearby Arad, and since the 1960s at the Ein Bokek resort complex.

Israel has 15 hotels along the Dead Sea shore, generating total revenues of $291 million in 2012. Most Israeli hotels and resorts on the Dead Sea are on a seks-kilometer (3,7-mile) stretch of the southern shore.[17]

Jordan[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Kempinski Hotel, one of the many hotels on the Jordanian shore

On the Jordanian side, nine international franchises have opened seaside resort hotels near the King Hussein Bin Talal Convention Center, along with resort apartments, on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. The 9 hotels have boosted the Jordanian side's capacity to 2,800 rooms.[18]

On November 22, 2015, the Dead Sea panorama road was included along with 40 archaeological locations in Jordan, to become live on Google Street View.[19]

West Bank[redigér | redigér wikikode]

The Palestinian Dead Sea Coast is about 40 kilometer (25 miles) long. The World Bank estimates that a Palestinian Dead Sea tourism industry could generate $290 million of revenues per year and 2,900 jobs.[17] However, Palestinians have been unable to obtain construction permits for tourism-related investments on the Dead Sea.[17] According to the World Bank, Officials in the Palestinian Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities state that the only way to apply for such permits is through the Joint Committees established under the Oslo Agreement, but the relevant committee has not met with any degree of regularity since 2000.[17]

Chemical industry[redigér | redigér wikikode]

View of salt evaporation pans on the Dead Sea, taken in 1989 from the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-28). The southern half is separated from the northern half at what used to be the Lisan Peninsula because of the fall in level of the Dead Sea.
View of the mineral evaporation ponds almost 12 years later (STS-102). A northern and small southeastern extension were added and the large polygonal ponds subdivided.
The dwindling water level of the Dead Sea

British Mandate period[redigér | redigér wikikode]

In the early part of the 20th century, the Dead Sea began to attract interest from chemists who deduced the sea was a natural deposit of potash (potassium chloride) and bromine. The Palestine Potash Company was chartered in 1929, after its founder, Siberian Jewish engineer and pioneer of Lake Baikal exploitation, Moses Novomeysky, worked for the charter for over ten years having first visited the area in 1911.[20] The first plant, on the north shore of the Dead Sea at Kalya, commenced production in 1931[20] and produced potash by solar evaporation of the brine. Employing Arabs and Jews, it was an island of peace in turbulent times.[21] The company quickly grew into the largest industrial site in the Middle East,[kilde mangler] and in 1934 built a second plant on the southwest shore, in the Mount Sodom area, south of the 'Lashon' region of the Dead Sea. Palestine Potash Company supplied half of Britain's potash during World War II. Both plants were destroyed by the Jordanians in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.[22]

Israel[redigér | redigér wikikode]

The Dead Sea Works was founded in 1952 as a state-owned enterprise based on the remnants of the Palestine Potash Company.[23] In 1995, the company was privatized and it is now owned by Israel Chemicals. From the Dead Sea brine, Israel produces (2001) 1.77 million tons potash, 206,000 tons elemental bromine, 44,900 tons caustic soda, 25,000 tons magnesium metal, and sodium chloride. Israeli companies generate around US$3 billion annually from the sale of Dead Sea minerals (primarily potash and bromine), and from other products that are derived from Dead Sea Minerals.[17]

Jordan[redigér | redigér wikikode]

On the Jordanian side of the Dead Sea, Arab Potash (APC), formed in 1956, produces 2.0 million tons of potash annually, as well as sodium chloride and bromine. The plant is located at Safi, South Aghwar Department, in the Karak Governorate.

Jordanian Dead Sea mineral industries generate about $1.2 billion in sales (equivalent to 4 percent of Jordan's GDP).

West Bank[redigér | redigér wikikode]

The Palestinian Dead Sea Coast is about 40 kilometer (25 miles) long. The Palestinian economy is unable to benefit from Dead Sea chemicals due to restricted access, permit issues and the uncertainties of the investment climate.[17] The World Bank estimates that a Palestinian Dead Sea chemicals industry could generate $918M incremental value added per year, "almost equivalent to the contribution of the entire manufacturing sector of Palestinian territories today".[17]

Extraction[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Both companies, Dead Sea Works Ltd. and Arab Potash, use extensive salt evaporation pans that have essentially diked the entire southern end of the Dead Sea for the purpose of producing carnallite, potassium magnesium chloride, which is then processed further to produce potassium chloride. The ponds are separated by a central dike that runs roughly north-south along the international border. The power plant on the Israeli side allows production of magnesium metal (by a subsidiary, Dead Sea Magnesium Ltd.).

Due to the popularity of the sea's therapeutic and healing properties, several companies have also shown interest in the manufacturing and supplying of Dead Sea salts as raw materials for body and skin care products.

Recession and environmental concerns[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Gully in unconsolidated Dead Sea sediments exposed by recession of water levels. It was excavated by floods from the Judean Mountains in less than a year.

Since 1930, when its surface was 1.050 km2 (410 sq mi) and its level was 390 m (1.280 ft) below sea level, the Dead Sea has been monitored continuously.[24] In recent decades,Skabelon:Which the Dead Sea has been rapidly shrinking because of diversion of incoming water from the Jordan River to the north. The southern end is fed by a canal maintained by the Dead Sea Works, a company that converts the sea's raw materials. From a water surface of 395 m (1.296 ft) below sea level in 1970[25] it fell 22 m (72 ft) to 418 m (1.371 ft) below sea level in 2006, reaching a drop rate of 1 m (3 ft) per year. As the water level decreases, the characteristics of the Sea and surrounding region may substantially change.

The Dead Sea level drop has been followed by a groundwater level drop, causing brines that used to occupy underground layers near the shoreline to be flushed out by freshwater. This is believed to be the cause of the recent appearance of large sinkholes along the western shore—incoming freshwater dissolves salt layers, rapidly creating subsurface cavities that subsequently collapse to form these sinkholes.[26]

In May 2009 at the World Economic Forum, Jordan announced its plans to construct the "Jordan National Red Sea Development Project" (JRSP). This is a plan to convey seawater from the Red Sea near Aqaba to the Dead Sea. Water would be desalinated along the route to provide fresh water to Jordan, with the brine discharge sent to the Dead Sea for replenishment. Israel has expressed its support and will likely benefit from some of the water delivery to its Negev region.[27][28]

At a regional conference in July 2009, officials expressed concern about the declining water levels. Some suggested industrial activities around the Dead Sea might need to be reduced. Others advised environmental measures to restore conditions such as increasing the volume of flow from the Jordan River to replenish the Dead Sea. Currently, only sewage and effluent from fish ponds run in the river's channel. Experts also stressed the need for strict conservation efforts. They said agriculture should not be expanded, sustainable support capabilities should be incorporated into the area and pollution sources should be reduced.[29]

The planned Red Sea–Dead Sea Water Conveyance, whose first phase will begin construction in 2021, will work towards stabilizing the falling levels of the Dead Sea
Year Water level (m) Surface (km2)
1930 −390 1050
1980 −400 680
1992 −407 675
1997 −411 670
2004 −417 662
2010 −423 655
2016 −430.5 605

Sources: Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research,[30] Haaretz,[31] Jewish Virtual Library,[32][33] Jordan Valley Authority.[34]

In October 2009, the Jordanians announced accelerated plans to extract around 300 million cubic metres (11 milliard cubic feet) of water per year from the Red Sea, desalinate it for use as fresh water and send the waste water to the Dead Sea by tunnel, despite concerns about inadequate time to assess the potential environmental impact. According to Jordan's minister for water, General Maysoun Zu'bi, this project could be considered as the first phase of the Red Sea–Dead Sea Water Conveyance.[35]

In December 2013, Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority signed an agreement for laying a water pipeline to link the Red Sea with the Dead Sea. The pipeline will be 180 km (110 mi) long and is estimated to take up to five years to complete.[36] In January 2015 it was reported that the level of water is now dropping by 1 m (3 ft) a year.[37]

On 27 November 2016, it was announced that the Jordanian government is shortlisting five consortiums to implement the project. Jordan's ministry of Water and Irrigation said that the $100 million first phase of the project will begin construction in the first quarter of 2018, and will be completed by 2021.[38]

Views in 1972, 1989, and 2011 compared[39]

References[redigér | redigér wikikode]

  1. ^ "Asthma, Cystic Fibrosis, Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease". Dead Sea Research Center. Hentet May 22, 2007. 
  2. ^ Cohen, Arnon D.; Van‐Dijk, Dina; Naggan, Lechaim; Vardy, Daniel A. (2005). "Effectiveness of climatotherapy at the Dead Sea for psoriasis vulgaris: A community-oriented study introducing the Beer Sheva Psoriasis Severity Score". Dermatological Treatment. 16 (5–6): 308-313. PMID 16428150. doi:10.1080/09546630500375841. 
  3. ^ S. Halevy; et al. (1997). "Dead sea bath salt for the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris: a double-blind controlled study". Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology. 9 (3): 237-242. doi:10.1111/j.1468-3083.1997.tb00509.x. 
  4. ^ Michael Friedman; Ramakrishnan Vidyasagar; Ninos Joseph (June 2006). "A Randomized, Prospective, Double-Blind Study on the Efficacy of Dead Sea Salt Nasal Irrigations" (PDF). The Laryngoscope. 116 (6): 878-882. PMID 16735920. doi:10.1097/01.mlg.0000216798.10007.76. 
  5. ^ Flusser, Daniel; Abu-Shakra, Mahmoud; Friger, Michael; Codish, Shlomi; Sukenik, Shaul (August 2002). "Therapy With Mud Compresses for Knee Osteoarthritis: Comparison of Natural Mud Preparations With Mineral-Depleted Mud" (PDF). Journal of Clinical Rheumatology. 8 (4): 197-203. PMID 17041359. doi:10.1097/00124743-200208000-00003. Arkiveret fra originalen (PDF) 2011-08-16. 
  6. ^ Ionescu, Danny; Siebert, Christian; Polerecky, Lubos; Munwes, Yaniv Y.; Lott, Christian; Häusler, Stefan; Bižić-Ionescu, Mina; Quast, Christian; Peplies, Jörg; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Ramette, Alban; Rödiger, Tino; Dittmar, Thorsten; Oren, Aharon; Geyer, Stefan; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Sauter, Martin; Licha, Tobias; Laronne, Jonathan B.; De Beer, Dirk (2012). "Microbial and Chemical Characterization of Underwater Fresh Water Springs in the Dead Sea". PLOS ONE. 7 (6): e38319. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...738319I. PMC 3367964free to read. PMID 22679498. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038319. 
  7. ^ "Asphaltites examples from ancient sources". Hentet 2013-08-22. 
  8. ^ Hadas, Gideon (April 2011). "Dead Sea Anchorages". Revue Biblique. 118 (2): 161-179. JSTOR 44092052. 
  9. ^ Sailing the Dead Sea, Israel Museum
  10. ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 18.119 (Website ikke længere tilgængelig).
  11. ^ Josephus. "9". Antiquities of the Jews. 1. 
  12. ^ Found today in the Shrine of the Book at the Israel Museum of Jerusalem
  13. ^ "Sodomite salt could cause blindness". Arkiveret fra originalen 2009-08-15. 
  14. ^ A synagogue mosaic floor (circa 100 BCE) at Ein Gedi repeats the Mishna, portraying a curse on whoever reveals the town's secret persimmon recipe. Papyrus parchments found in caves near the Dead Sea document the vast amount of cultivated land in the area, especially persimmon trees, but also olive and date trees
  15. ^ "History of the Dead Sea - Discover the Dead Sea with Us!". 1 July 2016. 
  16. ^ "'The unfortunate Costigan', first surveyor of the Dead Sea". 25 February 2013. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g World Bank, Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Department, Area C and the Future of the Palestinian Economy, October 2, 2013
  18. ^ "Dead Sea, Aqaba hotels packed during Eid Al Fitr holiday". The Jordan Times. 10 July 2016. Hentet 12 July 2016. 
  19. ^ "Google Street View". 
  20. ^ a b Jacob Norris (11 April 2013). Land of Progress: Palestine in the Age of Colonial Development, 1905-1948. OUP Oxford. s. 159-. ISBN 978-0-19-966936-3. 
  21. ^ "Wealth From The Dead Sea". Popular Mechanics. Chicago: Hearst Magazines. 54 (5): 794-798. November 1930. 
  22. ^ Hurlbert, Stuart H. (6 December 2012). Saline Lakes V: Proceedings of the Vth International Symposium on Inland Saline Lakes, held in Bolivia, 22–29 March 1991. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9789401120760 – via Google Books. 
  23. ^ Schechter, Asher (14 April 2013). "Who Really Owns the Dead Sea?". Haaretz. 
  24. ^ Overview of Middle East Water Resources_Dead Sea. Jewish Virtual Library. December 1998. Hentet 31 May 2014. 
  25. ^ C. Klein; A. Flohn. Contribution to the Knowledge in the Fluctuations of the Dead Sea Level. 38. Theoretical and Applied Climatology. s. 151-156, 1987. 
  26. ^ M. Abelson; Y. Yechieli; O. Crouvi; G. Baer; D. Wachs; A. Bein; V. Shtivelman (2006). Evolution of the Dead Sea Sinkholes in. special paper 401. Geological Society of America. s. 241-253. 
  27. ^ "Jordan, Israel agree $900 million Red Sea-Dead Sea project". Reuters (engelsk). 26 February 2015. Hentet 11 December 2018. 
  28. ^ Jordan Red Sea Project: Arkiveret 2012-03-24 hos Wayback Machine Original: Jordan Red Sea Project Description, retrieved on May 11, 2011
  29. ^ Ehud Zion Waldoks (July 8, 2009). "Back from the Dead?". The Jerusalem Post. Arkiveret fra originalen October 27, 2013. 
  30. ^ Fodnotefejl: Ugyldigt <ref>-tag; ingen tekst er angivet for referencer med navnet ISRAMAR
  31. ^ Fodnotefejl: Ugyldigt <ref>-tag; ingen tekst er angivet for referencer med navnet HRTZ
  32. ^ Water level of the Dead Sea. Jewish Virtual Library. Hentet 31 May 2014. 
  33. ^ Water level and surface area of the Dead Sea. Jewish Virtual Library. Hentet 31 May 2014. 
  34. ^ Eng. Sa’ad Abu Hammour, JVA. "River Basin Management" (PDF). Jordan Valley Authority. Arkiveret fra originalen (PDF) 2014-05-31. Hentet 31 May 2014. 
  35. ^ "Jordan to refill shrinking Dead Sea". Daily Telegraph. 10 October 2009. 
  36. ^ Sherwood, Harriet (2013-12-09). "Dead Sea neighbours agree to pipeline to pump water from Red Sea". The Guardian. 
  37. ^ Catholic Online. "Dead Sea Dying: Levels of salt water are dropping by three feet annually". 
  38. ^ Fodnotefejl: Ugyldigt <ref>-tag; ingen tekst er angivet for referencer med navnet JT
  39. ^ "The Dead Sea : Image of the Day". 6 April 2012. 

Further reading[redigér | redigér wikikode]