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Social outcomes[redigér | redigér wikikode]

IQ scorer har til en hvis grad korrelationer med diverse sociale udkom i forhold til økonomisk realaterede faktorer som indkomst og arbejdsløshed over til socialt relaterede faktorer som sandsygligheden for skilsmisse og gennemsnitsalderen for ægteskab. Intelligense er en bedre indikator af uddannelse og arbejds succes end nogen anden faktor.[1]

Skole Ydeevne[redigér | redigér wikikode]

The American Psychological Association's report "Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns" states that wherever it has been studied, children with high scores on tests of intelligence tend to learn more of what is taught in school than their lower-scoring peers. The correlation between IQ scores and grades is about .50. This means that the explained variance is 25%. Achieving good grades depends on many factors other than IQ, such as "persistence, interest in school, and willingness to study" (p. 81).[2]

It has been found that IQ's correlation with school performance depends on the IQ measurement used. For undergraduate students, the Verbal IQ as measured by WAIS-R has been found to correlate significantly (0.53) with the GPA of the last 60 hours. In contrast, Performance IQ correlation with the same GPA was only 0.22 in the same study.[3]

Job performance[redigér | redigér wikikode]

According to Schmidt and Hunter, "for hiring employees without previous experience in the job the most valid predictor of future performance is general mental ability."[1] The validity of IQ as a predictor of job performance is above zero for all work studied to date, but varies with the type of job and across different studies, ranging from 0.2 to 0.6.[4] The correlations were higher when the unreliability of measurement methods was controlled for.[2] While IQ is more strongly correlated with reasoning and less so with motor function,[5] IQ-test scores predict performance ratings in all occupations.[1] That said, for highly qualified activities (research, management) low IQ scores are more likely to be a barrier to adequate performance, whereas for minimally-skilled activities, athletic strength (manual strength, speed, stamina, and coordination) are more likely to influence performance.[1] It is largely through the quicker acquisition of job-relevant knowledge that higher IQ mediates job performance.

In establishing a causal direction to the link between IQ and work performance, longitudinal studies by Watkins and others suggest that IQ exerts a causal influence on future academic achievement, whereas academic achievement does not substantially influence future IQ scores.[6] Treena Eileen Rohde and Lee Anne Thompson write that general cognitive ability, but not specific ability scores, predict academic achievement, with the exception that processing speed and spatial ability predict performance on the SAT math beyond the effect of general cognitive ability.[7]

The US military has minimum enlistment standards at about the IQ 85 level. There have been two experiments with lowering this to 80 but in both cases these men could not master soldiering well enough to justify their costs.[8]

In 2000 the New London, CT police department turned away a recruit for having an IQ above 125, under the argument that those with overly-high IQs will become bored and exhibit high turnover in the job. This policy has been challenged as discriminatory, but was upheld by the 2nd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in New York.[9]

The American Psychological Association's report "Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns" states that since the explained variance is 29%, [it says 25% in earlier paragraph] other individual characteristics such as interpersonal skills, aspects of personality etc. are probably of equal or greater importance, but at this point there are no equally reliable instruments to measure them.[2]

Income[redigér | redigér wikikode]

While it has been suggested that "in economic terms it appears that the IQ score measures something with decreasing marginal value. It is important to have enough of it, but having lots and lots does not buy you that much.",[10][11] large scale longitudinal studies indicate an increase in IQ translates into an increase in performance at all levels of IQ: i.e., that ability and job performance are monotonically linked at all IQ levels.[12] Charles Murray, coauthor of The Bell Curve, found that IQ has a substantial effect on income independently of family background.[13]

The link from IQ to wealth is much less strong than that from IQ to job performance. Some studies indicate that IQ is unrelated to net worth.[14][15]

The American Psychological Association's 1995 report Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns stated that IQ scores accounted for (explained variance) about a quarter of the social status variance and one-sixth of the income variance. Statistical controls for parental SES eliminate about a quarter of this predictive power. Psychometric intelligence appears as only one of a great many factors that influence social outcomes.[2]

Some studies claim that IQ only accounts for (explains) a sixth of the variation in income because many studies are based on young adults, many of whom have not yet reached their peak earning capacity, or even their education. On pg 568 of The g Factor, Arthur Jensen claims that although the correlation between IQ and income averages a moderate 0.4 (one sixth or 16% of the variance), the relationship increases with age, and peaks at middle age when people have reached their maximum career potential. In the book, A Question of Intelligence, Daniel Seligman cites an IQ income correlation of 0.5 (25% of the variance).

A 2002 study[16] further examined the impact of non-IQ factors on income and concluded that an individual's location, inherited wealth, race, and schooling are more important as factors in determining income than IQ.

Crime[redigér | redigér wikikode]

The American Psychological Association's 1995 report Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns stated that the correlation between IQ and crime was −0.2. It was −0.19 between IQ scores and number of juvenile offenses in a large Danish sample; with social class controlled, the correlation dropped to −0.17. A correlation of 0.20 means that the explained variance is 4%. It is important to realize that the causal links between psychometric ability and social outcomes may be indirect. Children with poor scholastic performance may feel alienated. Consequently, they may be more likely to engage in delinquent behavior, compared to other children who do well.[2]

In his book The g Factor (1998), Arthur Jensen cited data which showed that, regardless of race, people with IQs between 70 and 90 have higher crime rates than people with IQs below or above this range, with the peak range being between 80 and 90.

The 2009 Handbook of Crime Correlates stated that reviews have found that around eight IQ points, or 0.5 SD, separate criminals from the general population, especially for persistent serious offenders. It has been suggested that this simply reflects that "only dumb ones get caught" but there is similarly a negative relation between IQ and self-reported offending. That children with conduct disorder have lower IQ than their peers "strongly argues" for the theory.[17]

A study of the relationship between US county-level IQ and US county-level crime rates found that higher average IQs were associated with lower levels of property crime, burglary, larceny rate, motor vehicle theft, violent crime, robbery, and aggravated assault. These results were not "confounded by a measure of concentrated disadvantage that captures the effects of race, poverty, and other social disadvantages of the county."[18][19]

Other correlations[redigér | redigér wikikode]

In addition, IQ and its correlation to health, violent crime, gross state product, and government effectiveness are the subject of a 2006 paper in the publication Intelligence. The paper breaks down IQ averages by U.S. states using the federal government's National Assessment of Educational Progress math and reading test scores as a source.[20]

The American Psychological Association's 1995 report Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns stated that the correlations for most "negative outcome" variables are typically smaller than 0.20, which means that the explained variance is less than 4%.[2]

Tambs et al.[21]Skabelon:Better source found that occupational status, educational attainment, and IQ are individually heritable; and further found that "genetic variance influencing educational attainment ... contributed approximately one-fourth of the genetic variance for occupational status and nearly half the genetic variance for IQ." In a sample of U.S. siblings, Rowe et al.[22] report that the inequality in education and income was predominantly due to genes, with shared environmental factors playing a subordinate role.

A recent USA study that reviewed political views and intelligence has shown that the mean adolescent intelligence of young adults who identify themselves as "very liberal" is 106.4, while that of those who identify themselves as "very conservative" is 94.8.[23] Two other studies conducted in the UK reached similar conclusions.[24][25]

There are also other correlations such as those between religiosity and intelligence and fertility and intelligence.

Real-life accomplishments[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Average adult combined IQs associated with real-life accomplishments by various tests[26][27]
Accomplishment IQ Test/study Year
MDs, JDs, and PhDs 125+ WAIS-R 1987
College graduates 112 KAIT 2000
K-BIT 1992
115 WAIS-R
1–3 years of college 104 KAIT
K-BIT
105–110 WAIS-R
Clerical and sales workers 100–105
High school graduates, skilled workers (e.g., electricians, cabinetmakers) 100 KAIT
WAIS-R
97 K-BIT
1–3 years of high school (completed 9–11 years of school) 94 KAIT
90 K-BIT
95 WAIS-R
Semi-skilled workers (e.g. truck drivers, factory workers) 90–95
Elementary school graduates (completed eighth grade) 90
Elementary school dropouts (completed 0–7 years of school) 80–85
Have 50/50 chance of reaching high school 75
Average IQ of various occupational groups:[28]
Accomplishment IQ Test/study Year
Professional and technical 112
Managers and administrators 104
Clerical workers, sales workers, skilled workers, craftsmen, and foremen 101
Semi-skilled workers (operatives, service workers, including private household) 92
Unskilled workers 87
Type of work that can be accomplished:[26]
Accomplishment IQ Test/study Year
Adults can harvest vegetables, repair furniture 60
Adults can do domestic work 50

There is considerable variation within and overlap among these categories. People with high IQs are found at all levels of education and occupational categories. The biggest difference occurs for low IQs with only an occasional college graduate or professional scoring below 90.[29]

  1. ^ a b c d Schmidt, Frank L.; Hunter, John E. (1998). "The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel psychology: Practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research findings". Psychological Bulletin. 124 (2): 262–74. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.124.2.262. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Fodnotefejl: Ugyldigt <ref>-tag; ingen tekst er angivet for referencer med navnet Neisser95
  3. ^ Kamphaus, Randy W. (2005). Clinical assessment of child and adolescent intelligence. Springer. ISBN 0-387-26299-7. 
  4. ^ Hunter, John E.; Hunter, Ronda F. (1984). "Validity and utility of alternative predictors of job performance". Psychological Bulletin. 96 (1): 72–98. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.96.1.72. 
  5. ^ Warner, Molly; Ernst, John; Townes, Brenda; Peel, John; Preston, Michael (1987). "Relationships Between IQ and Neuropsychological Measures in Neuropsychiatric Populations: Within-Laboratory and Cross-Cultural Replications Using WAIS and WAIS-R". Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology. 9 (5): 545–62. PMID 3667899. doi:10.1080/01688638708410768. 
  6. ^ Watkins, M; Lei, P; Canivez, G (2007). "Psychometric intelligence and achievement: A cross-lagged panel analysis". Intelligence. 35 (1): 59–68. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2006.04.005. 
  7. ^ Rohde, T; Thompson, L (2007). "Predicting academic achievement with cognitive ability". Intelligence. 35 (1): 83–92. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2006.05.004. 
  8. ^ Gottfredson, L. S. (2006). Social consequences of group differences in cognitive ability (Consequencias sociais das diferencas de grupo em habilidade cognitiva). In C. E. Flores-Mendoza & R. Colom (Eds.), Introducau a psicologia das diferencas individuais (pp. 433-456). Porto Allegre, Brazil: ArtMed Publishers.
  9. ^ ABC News, "Court OKs Barring High IQs for Cops", http://abcnews.go.com/US/story?id=95836
  10. ^ Detterman and Daniel, 1989.
  11. ^ Earl Hunt (July 1995). The Role of Intelligence in Modern Society (July-Aug, 1995). American Scientist. ss. 4 (Nonlinearities in Intelligence). Arkiveret fra originalen May 21, 2006. 
  12. ^ Coward, W. Mark; Sackett, Paul R. (1990). "Linearity of ability-performance relationships: A reconfirmation". Journal of Applied Psychology. 75 (3): 297–300. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.75.3.297. 
  13. ^ Murray, Charles (1998) (PDF). Income Inequality and IQ. AEI Press. ISBN 0-8447-7094-9. [side mangler]
  14. ^ Henderson, Mark (April 25, 2007). "Brains don't make you rich IQ study finds". The Times (London). Hentet May 5, 2010. 
  15. ^ You Don't Have To Be Smart To Be Rich, Study Finds. ScienceDaily. Hentet 2014-08-26. 
  16. ^ Bowles, Samuel; Gintis, Herbert (2002). "The Inheritance of Inequality". Journal of Economic Perspectives. 16 (3): 3–30. doi:10.1257/089533002760278686. 
  17. ^ Handbook of Crime Correlates; Lee Ellis, Kevin M. Beaver, John Wright; 2009; Academic Press
  18. ^ doi:10.1016/j.intell.2010.12.002
  19. ^ Intelligence is associated with criminal justice processing: Arrest through incarceration. Sciencedirect.com. 2013-10-31. Hentet 2014-08-26. 
  20. ^ McDaniel, M (2006). "Estimating state IQ: Measurement challenges and preliminary correlates" (PDF). Intelligence. 34 (6): 607–19. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2006.08.007. 
  21. ^ Tambs, Kristian; Sundet, Jon Martin; Magnus, Per; Berg, Kåre (1989). "Genetic and environmental contributions to the covariance between occupational status, educational attainment, and IQ: A study of twins". Behavior Genetics. 19 (2): 209–22. PMID 2719624. doi:10.1007/BF01065905. 
  22. ^ Rowe, D. C., W. J. Vesterdal, and J. L. Rodgers, "The Bell Curve Revisited: How Genes and Shared Environment Mediate IQ-SES Associations," University of Arizona, 1997[side mangler]
  23. ^ Kanazawa S (2010). "Why Liberals and Atheists Are More Intelligent" (PDF). Social Psychology Quarterly. 73 (1): 33–57. doi:10.1177/0190272510361602. 
  24. ^ Deary I. J., Batty G. D., Gale C. R. (2008). "Bright Children Become Enlightened Adults". Psychological Science. 19: 1–6. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02036.x. 
  25. ^ Deary I. J., Batty G. D., Gale C. R. "Childhood Intelligence Predicts Voter Turnout, Voting Preferences, and Political Involvement in Adulthood: The 1970 British Cohort Study". Intelligence. 36: 548–55. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2008.09.001. 
  26. ^ a b Kaufman 2009, s. 126.
  27. ^ Kaufman, Alan; Lichtenberger, Elizabeth (2002). Assessing adolescent and adult intelligence. 
  28. ^ Kaufman 2009, s. 132.
  29. ^ Fodnotefejl: Ugyldigt <ref>-tag; ingen tekst er angivet for referencer med navnet Kaufman2009