x[redigér | redigér wikikode]
Det første korstog (1096–1099) var det første af en række korstog, som havde til formål at erobre det hellige land, således som pave Urban 2. havde opfordret til i 1095. Det begyndte som en omfattende pilgrimsfærd i den vestlige kristenhed og endte som en militær ekspedition fra det romersk katolske Europa for at genvinde det Hellige land, som var blevet erobret under den muslimske erobring af Levanten (632–661), der endte med generobringen af Jerusalem i 1099.
Korstoget blev indledt den 27. november 1095 af pave Urban 2. med det primære formål at reagere på en appel fra den østromerske kejser Alexios 1., som bad om vestlige frivillige, der ville hjælpe ham med at slå de invaderende seldsjukker fra Anatolien tilbage. Et yderligere mål blev til hovedmålet - den kristne generobring af Jerusalem og det hellige land, og befrielsen af de østlige kristne fra muslimsk styre.
Under korstoget rejste riddere, bønder og livegne fra mange egne af Vesteuropa og land og sø, først til Konstantinopel og derpå virdere mod Jerusalem. Korsfarerne ankom ved Jerusalem, indledte et angreb på byen og erobrede den i juli 1099, hvorefter de massakrerede mange af byens muslimske, kristne og jødiske indbyggere. De grundlagde også korsfarer staterne - Kongeriget Jerusalem, grevskabet Tripoli, fyrstedømmet Antiokia, og grevskabet Edessa.
Det første korstog blev efterfulgt af det andet til niende korstog. Det var også det første store skridt mod en genåbning af international handel i vesten efter Romerrigets fald. Fordi det første korstog i høj grad handlede om Jerusalem, som ikke havde været under kristent styre i 461 år og fordi korsfarerhæren havde nægtet at give landet tilbage til det Østromerske rige, er det fortsat omstridt om det første korstog var grundlæggende defensivt eller aggressivt.
Oprindelse[redigér | redigér wikikode]
Oprindelsen af korstogene i almindelighed og det første korstog i særdeleshed diskuteres bredt blandt historikere. Forvirringen skyldes især de mange hære i det første korstog og deres mangel på en central ledelse. Den fælles ideologi holdt hærene sammen om fælles mål, men forbindelserne var sjældent stærke, og enigheden brød ofte sammen. Korstogene kædes i reglen sammen med den politiske og sociale situation i det 11. århundrede i Europa, fremkomsten af en reformbevægelse indenfor pavedømmet og de politiske og religiøse sammenstød mellem kristendom og islam i Mellemøsten. Kristendommen havde spredt sig ud over Europa, Afrika og Mellemøsten i senantikken, men i det 8. århundrede blev det kristne område indskrænket til Europa og Anatolien efter de muslimske erobringer.
Umayyade-kalifatet havde erobret Syrien, Egypten og Nordafrika fra det fortrinsvis kristne Østromerske rige og Spanien fra visigoterne. I Nordafrika brød Umayyade-riget til sidst sammen og der opstod en række mindre muslimske kongeriger, såsom Aghlabiderne, som angreb Italien i det 9. århundrede. Pisa, Genova og Catalonien begyndte at kæmpe mod forskellige muslimske kongeriger om kontrollen over middelhavsområdet, f.eks. i Mahdia felttoget og slagene ved Majorca og Sardinien.
Centralt var det, at de byzantinske grækere i årene mellem 1096 og 1101 oplevede korstoget, da det ankom til Konstantinopel i tre adskilte bølger.
Tidligt på sommeren 1096 ankom den første store uregerlige gruppe i omegnen af Konstantinopel. Denne bølge blev omtalt som udisciplineret og dårligt udrustet som hær. Denne første gruppe kaldes ofte for bøndernes eller folkets korstog. Den blev anført af Peter Eremit og Walter Sans Avoir og havde intet kendskab eller respekt for den byzantinske kejser Alexios 1.'s ønsker.
Den anden bølge blev ledet af Hugh 1., greve af Vermandois, bror til Filip 1. af Frankrig. I anden bølge var også Raymond 4. af Toulouse og hæren fra Provence. "Det var denne anden bølge af korsfarere, som senere passerede gennem Lilleasien, erobrede Antiokia i 1098 og til sidst erobrede Jerusalem den 15. juli 1099.”
Situationen i Europa[redigér | redigér wikikode]
I den vestlige udkant af Europa og af den islamiske ekspansion var Reconquista godt i gang på den iberiske halvø i det 11. århundrede. Den var til tider ideologisk, som det fremgår af Codex Vigilanus, der blev samlet i 881.[note 1] I det 11. århundrede kom der i stigende grad udenlandske riddere, fortrinsvis fra Frankrig, til Spanien for at bistå de kristne i deres bestræbelser.[note 2] Kort før det første korstog havde pave Urban 2. opmuntret de kristne på den iberiske halvø til at generobre Tarragona, med anvendelse af megen af den samme symbolik og retorik, som senere blev brugt til at prædike korstog til folkene i Europa.
Hjertet af Vesteuropa var blevet stabiliseret efter at sakserne, skandinaverne og ungarerne var blevet kristnet i slutningen af det 10. århundrede. Men sammenbruddet af karolingernes rige gav anledning til fremkomsten af en hel klasse af krigere, som nu ikke havde meget andet at lave end at kæmpe indbyrdes. Krigerklassens tilfældige vold blev jævnligt fordøbt af kirken og som modtræk indførte den gudsfred for at forhindre kampe på bestemte dage i året. På samme tid kom den reformorienterede pave i strid med de Tysk-romerske kejsere, hvilket førte til Investiturstriden. Paver såsom pave Gregor 7. forsvarede den efterfølgende krig mod kejserens forbundsfæller i teologiske vendinger. Det blev acceptabelt for paven at anvende riddere i kristendommens navn, ikke kun mod pavestolens politiske fjender, men også mod Al-Andalus, eller i teorien mod Seldsjukkerne i øst.
Øst for Europa lå det byzantinske eller Østromerske rige, som bestod af kristne, som længe havde benyttet et særskilt ortodokst ritual. Den ortodokse og den katolske kirke havde været dybt splittet siden det store skisma i 1054. Historikere har hævdet, at ønsket om at to udstrække den romerske kirkes autoritet i øst kan have et af målene med korstoget, om end Urban 2., som indledte det første korstog, aldrig omtaler et sådant mål i sine breve om korstog. De seldsjukkiske tyrkere havde erobret det meste af Anatolien efter det byzantinske nederlag i slaget ved Manzikert i 1071; men deres erobringer skete i små skridt og blev anført af delvist selvstændige krigsherrer, ikke af sultanen. Et dramatisk sammenbrud i det Østromerske riges stilling op til konsilet i Clermont bragte Byzans på katastrofens rand. I midten af 1090'erne var det Østromerske rige blevet reduceret til at bestå af områder på Balkan og den nordvestlige del af Anatolien, og det stod overfor normanniske fjender i vest såvel som tyrkere i øst. Som reaktion på nederlaget ved Manzikert og senere byzantinske tab i Anatolien havde pave Gregor 7. i 1074 opfordret milites Christi ("kristi soldater") om at komme Byzans til hjælp. Denne opfordring blev stort set ignoreret og mødte endda modstand. Årsagen hertil var, at mens nederlaget ved Manzikert var chokerende, havde det begrænset betydning og førte ikke til store vanskeligheder for det Østromerske rige, i hvert fald ikke på kort sigt.
Situationen i Mellemøsten[redigér | redigér wikikode]
Indtil korsfarernes ankomst havde byzantinerne til stadighed kæmpet mod seldjukkerne og andre tyrkiske dynastier om kontrollen over Anatolien og Syrien. Seldjukkerne, som var ortodokse sunnimuslimer havde tidligere regeret over det Storseldjukkiske rige, men på tidspunktet for det første korstog var det blevet delt i flere mindre stater efter at Malik-Shah 1. døde i 1092.
Malik-Shah blev efterfulgt i det anatolske Sultanatet Rum af Kilij Arslan 1., og i Syrien af hans bror Tutush 1., som døde i 1095. Tutushs sønner Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan og Duqaq arvede henholdsvis Aleppo og Damaskus, så Syrien blev yderligere opdelt mellem emirer som var fjendtlige overfor hinanden samt Kerbogha, atabegen i Mosul.
Egypten og store dele af Palæstina blev styret af det arabiske shiamuslimske fatimide-kalifat, som var blevet væsentligt mindre efter seldjukkernes ankomst. Seljuqs. Krige mellem fatimiderne og sejdjukkerne forårsagede store vanskeligheder for de lokale kristne og vestlige pilgrimme. Fatimiderne, som formelt var underlagt kalif al-Musta'li, men i virkeligheden blev styret af visir al-Afdal Shahanshah, havde mistet Jerusalem til seldjukkerne i 1073 (selv om nogle ældre kilder siger 1076); de generobrede byen i 1098 fra artukiderne, en mindre tyrkisk stamme i forbund med seldjukkerne, lige inden korsfarernes ankomst.
Historieskrivning[redigér | redigér wikikode]
Det er i dag umuligt fastslå præcis hvorfor det første korstog blev til noget, selv om historikerne har fremdraget mange mulige årsager, senest Jay Rubenstein. Historieskrivningen om korstogene afspejler forskellige historikeres forsøg på at forstå korstogenes sammensatte årsager og begrundelser. En tidlig teori, den såkaldte "Erdmann tese", som blev udviklet af den tyske historiker Carl Erdmann, knyttede korstogene direkte til det 11. århundredes gregorianske reformer. Denne første teori hævdede at overførslen af volden mod øst, og støtten til det vaklende østromerske rige var korsfarernes primære mål og at erobringen af Jerusalem var et sekundært folkeligt mål.
Generelt har senere historikere enten fulgt Erdmann, med yderligere udvikling af hans teori, eller afvist den. Nogle historikere, såsom Speros Vryonis, har understreget påvirkningen fra fremkomsten af islam i almindelighed, og virkningen af seldjukkernes fremtrængen i særdeleshed. Steven Runciman hævdede, at korstoget skyldtes en kombination af teologisk begrundelse for en hellig krig og en generel rastløshed og lyst til eventyr, især blandt normannerne og den franske adels yngre sønner, som ikke havde andre muligheder.[note 3]
Runciman antyder endda, at der ikke var nogen umiddelbar trussel fra den islamiske verden, og hævder, at "i midten af det 11. århundrede havde de kristnes lod i Palæstina sjældent været bedre". Men Runciman hævder det kun i forbindelse med Palæstina under fatimiderne ca. 1029–1073, ikke under seldjukkernes. Desuden er det uklart hvad der er kilden til hans generelt positive syn på de palæstinensiske kristnes lod i den senere del af det 11. århundrede, da der er meget få samtidige kristne kilder fra Palæstina i denne periode, og der findes så godt som ingen kristne kilder fra det seldjukkiske Palæstina.
I modsætning til Runcimans påstand og på grundlag af samtidige jødiske Cairo Geniza dokumenter samt senere muslimske beretninger hævder Moshe Gil seldjukkernes erobring og besættelse af Palæstina (ca. 1073–1098) var en periode med "nedslagtninger og vandalisme, økonomiske vanskeligheder og fordrivelse af befolkninger". Tidligere skribenter såsom Ignatius af Melitene, Michael af Syrien havde skrevet at seldjukkerne underkastede Coele-Syrien og Palestinas kyst "grusom ødelæggelse og plyndring".
Thomas Asbridge hævder, at det første korstog var pave Urban 2.'s forsøg på at udvide kirkens magt og genforene kirkerne i Rom og Konstantinobel, som havde været i et skisma siden 1054. Asbridge giver imidlertid ikke mange beviser ud fra Urbans egne skrifter til at understøtte denne påstand, og Urbans fire eksisterende breve om korstog lader ikke til at udtrykke et sådant motiv. Ifølge Asbridge var spredningen af islam uden betydning fordi "Islam og kristendom havde levet sammen i århundreder i relativ fredsommelighed". Asbridge undlader imidlertid at bemærke, at den nylige tyrkiske erobringer i Anatolien og det sydlige Syrien havde ødelagt den anspændte men relativt stabile magtbalance, som Det Byzantinske Rige gradvis havde udviklet overfor tidligere islamiske stormagter i løbet af det 10. og tidlige 11. århundrede. Efter nederlaget ved Manzikert i 1071 havde muslimerne taget halvdelen af det byzantinske riges territorium, og strategisk og religiøst vigtige byer som Antiokia og Nicæa var faldet i hænderne på muslimerne i årtiet op til konsilet i Piacenza. Hertil kommer, at de rystende beretninger om den tyrkiske invasion og erobring af Anatolien, som blev nedskrevet af østlige kristne såsom Johannes Skylitzes, Michael Attaleiates, Matthæus af Edessa, Michael Syrerenog andre som er opsummeret af Vryonis, synes at modsige Asbridges billede af fredelig sameksistens mellem den kristne og den muslimske verden i den 2. halvdel af det 11. århundrede.
Thomas Madden udtrykket et synspunkt, som er næsten direkte modsat Asbridge. Mens korstoget bestemt var knyttet til reformer i kirken og forsøg på at fremhæve pavens autoritet, hævder han, at det først og fremmest var en from kamp for at befri andre kristne, som, ifølge Madden, "havde lidt voldsomt under tyrkerne". Dette argument fremhæver den forholdsvis nylige vold og krig som fulgte tyrkernes erobringer fra islams generelle fremrykning, hvis betydning Runciman og Asbridge ser bort fra. Christopher Tyerman indbygger begge argumenter i sin tese, nemlig at korstoget udsprang af kirkereform og teorier om hellig krig i samme grad som det var et svar på konflikter med den islamisme verden i hele Europa og Mellemøsten. Efter Jonathan Riley-Smiths mening var dårlige høstresultater, overbefolkning og en allerede eksisterende tendens til at kolonisere europas grænseområder også medvirkende til korstoget, men han sørger også for at sige at "de fleste kommentatorer dengang og et mindretal af historikere nu har fastholdt at den vigtigste årsag var ægte idealisme".
Peter Frankopan has argued that the First Crusade has been fundamentally distorted by the attention paid by historians to western (Latin) sources, rather than Greek, Syriac, Armenian, Arabic and Hebrew material from the late 11th and 12th centuries. The expedition to Jerusalem, he argues, was conceived of not by the Pope but by the Emperor Alexios I Komnenos, in response to a dramatic deterioration of Byzantium's position in Asia Minor and also as a result of the a state of near anarchy at the imperial court where plans to depose Alexios or even murder him were an open secret by 1094. The appeal to Pope Urban II was a desperate move to shore up Emperor and Empire. Frankopan goes further, showing that the Crusade's primary military targets in Asia Minor - Nicaea and Antioch - required large numbers of men with experience of siege warfare; precisely the sort recruited by Urban during his preaching in France in 1095-6.
The idea that the crusades were a response to Islam dates back as far as 12th-century historian William of Tyre, who began his chronicle with the fall of Jerusalem to Umar. Although the original Islamic conquests had taken place centuries before the First Crusade, more recent events would have been fresh in the minds of the European Christians of the time. For example, in 1009 the Church of the Holy Sepulchre had been destroyed by the Fatimid Caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah; Pope Sergius IV supposedly called for a military expedition in response, and in France, many Jewish communities were even attacked in a misdirected retaliation. Despite the Church's rebuilding after al-Hakim's death, and pilgrimages resuming, including the Great German Pilgrimage of 1064–1065, pilgrims continued to suffer attacks from local Muslims. In addition, the even more recent Turkish incursions into Anatolia and northern Syria were certainly viewed as devastating by Eastern Christian chroniclers, and it is plausible they were presented as such by the Byzantines to the Pope in order to solicit the aid of European Christians.
Council of Clermont[redigér | redigér wikikode]
While the Crusades had causes deeply rooted in the social and political situations of 11th-century Europe, the event actually triggering the First Crusade was a request for assistance from Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos. Alexios was worried about the advances of the Seljuqs, who had reached as far west as Nicaea, not far from Constantinople. In March 1095, Alexios sent envoys to the Council of Piacenza to ask Pope Urban II for aid against the Turks.
Urban responded favourably, perhaps hoping to heal the Great Schism of forty years earlier, and to reunite the Church under papal primacy by helping the Eastern churches in their time of need. Alexios and Urban had previously been in close contact in 1089 and after, and had discussed openly the prospect of the (re)union of the Christian church. There were signs of considerable co-operation between Rome and Constantinople in the years immediately before the Crusade.
In July 1095, Urban turned to his homeland of France to recruit men for the expedition. His travels there culminated in the Council of Clermont in November, where, according to the various speeches attributed to him, he gave an impassioned sermon to a large audience of French nobles and clergy, graphically detailing the fantastical atrocities being committed against pilgrims and eastern Christians. There are five versions of the speech recorded by people who may have been at the council (Baldric of Dol, Guibert of Nogent, Robert the Monk, and Fulcher of Chartres) or who went on crusade (Fulcher and the anonymous author of the Gesta Francorum), as well as other versions found in later historians (such as William of Malmesbury and William of Tyre). All of these versions were written after Jerusalem had been captured. Thus it is difficult to know what was actually said and what was recreated in the aftermath of the successful crusade. The only contemporary records are a few letters written by Urban in 1095.
All five versions of the speech differ widely from one another in regard to particulars. All versions, except that in the Gesta Francorum, generally agree that Urban talked about the violence of European society and the necessity of maintaining the Peace of God; about helping the Greeks, who had asked for assistance; about the crimes being committed against Christians in the east; and about a new kind of war, an armed pilgrimage, and of rewards in heaven, where remission of sins was offered to any who might die in the undertaking. They do not all specifically mention Jerusalem as the ultimate goal; however, it has been argued that Urban's subsequent preaching reveals that he expected the expedition to reach Jerusalem all along. According to one version of the speech, the enthusiastic crowd responded with cries of Deus vult! ("God wills it!"). However, other versions of the speech do not include this detail.
Recruitment[redigér | redigér wikikode]
Urban's speech had been well-planned; he had discussed the crusade with Adhemar of Le Puy and Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse, and instantly the expedition had the support of two of southern France's most important leaders. Adhemar himself was present at the Council and was the first to "take the cross". During the rest of 1095 and into 1096, Urban spread the message throughout France, and urged his bishops and legates to preach in their own dioceses elsewhere in France, Germany, and Italy as well. However, it is clear that the response to the speech was much greater than even the Pope, let alone Alexios, expected. On his tour of France, Urban tried to forbid certain people (including women, monks, and the sick) from joining the crusade, but found this nearly impossible. In the end, most who took up the call were not knights, but peasants who were not wealthy and had little in the way of fighting skills, in an outpouring of a new emotional and personal piety that was not easily harnessed by the ecclesiastical and lay aristocracy. Typically, preaching would conclude with every volunteer taking a vow to complete a pilgrimage to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre; they were also given a cross, usually sewn onto their clothes.
As Thomas Asbridge wrote, "Just as we can do nothing more than estimate the number of thousands who responded to the crusading ideal, so too, with the surviving evidence, we can gain only a limited insight into their motivation and intent." Previous generations of scholars argued that the crusaders were motivated by greed, hoping to find a better life away from the famines and warfare occurring in France, but as Asbridge notes, "This image is ... profoundly misleading." He argues that greed was unlikely to have been a major factor because of the extremely high cost of travelling so far from home, and because almost all of the crusaders eventually returned home after completing their pilgrimage rather than trying to carve out possessions for themselves in the Holy Land. It is difficult or impossible to assess the motives of the thousands of poor for whom there is no historical record, or even those of important knights, whose stories were usually retold by monks or clerics. As the secular medieval world was so deeply ingrained with the spiritual world of the church, it is quite likely that personal piety was a major factor for many crusaders.
Despite this popular enthusiasm, however, Urban ensured that there would be an army of knights, drawn from the French aristocracy. Aside from Adhemar and Raymond, other leaders he recruited throughout 1096 included Bohemond of Taranto, a southern Italian ally of the reform popes; Bohemond's nephew Tancred; Godfrey of Bouillon, who had previously been an anti-reform ally of the Holy Roman Emperor; his brother Baldwin of Boulogne; Hugh I, Count of Vermandois, brother of the excommunicated Philip I of France; Robert Curthose, brother of William II of England; and his relatives Stephen II, Count of Blois and Robert II, Count of Flanders. The crusaders represented northern and southern France, Flanders, Germany, and southern Italy, and so were divided into four separate armies that were not always cooperative, though they were held together by their common ultimate goal.
The motives of the nobility are somewhat clearer than those of the peasants; greed was apparently not a major factor. It is commonly assumed, for example by Runciman as mentioned above, that only younger members of a family went on crusade, looking for wealth and adventure elsewhere, as they had no prospects for advancement at home. Riley-Smith has shown that this was not always the case. The crusade was led by some of the most powerful nobles of France, who left everything behind, and it was often the case that entire families went on crusade at their own great expense. For example, Robert of Normandy loaned the Duchy of Normandy to his brother William II of England, and Godfrey sold or mortgaged his property to the church. According to Tancred's biographer, he was worried about the sinful nature of knightly warfare, and was excited to find a holy outlet for violence. Tancred and Bohemond, as well as Godfrey, Baldwin, and their older brother Eustace III, Count of Boulogne, are examples of families who crusaded together. Riley-Smith argues that the enthusiasm for the crusade was perhaps based on family relations, as most of the French crusaders were distant relatives. Nevertheless, in at least some cases, personal advancement played a role in Crusaders' motives. For instance, Bohemond was motivated by the desire to carve himself out a territory in the east, and had previously campaigned against the Byzantines to try to achieve this. The Crusade gave him a further opportunity, which he took after the Siege of Antioch, taking possession of the city and establishing the Principality of Antioch.
People's Crusade[redigér | redigér wikikode]
The great French nobles and their trained armies of knights, however, were not the first to undertake the journey towards Jerusalem. Urban had planned the departure of the first crusade for 15 August 1096, the Feast of the Assumption, but months before this, a number of unexpected armies of peasants and petty nobles set off for Jerusalem on their own, led by a charismatic priest called Peter the Hermit. Peter was the most successful of the preachers of Urban's message, and developed an almost hysterical enthusiasm among his followers, although he was probably not an "official" preacher sanctioned by Urban at Clermont.
A century later he was already a legendary figure; William of Tyre believed that it was Peter who had planted the idea for the crusade in Urban's mind (which was taken as fact by historians until the 19th century). It is commonly believed that Peter led a massive group of untrained and illiterate peasants who did not even have any idea where Jerusalem was, but indeed there were many knights among the peasants, including Walter Sans Avoir, who was lieutenant to Peter and led a separate army.
Lacking military discipline, in what likely seemed to the participants a strange land (Eastern Europe), Peter's fledgling army quickly found itself in trouble despite the fact they were still in Christian territory. The army led by Walter fought with the Hungarians over food at Belgrade, but otherwise arrived in Constantinople unharmed. Meanwhile, the army led by Peter, which marched separately from Walter's army, also fought with the Hungarians, and may have captured Belgrade. At Nish the Byzantine governor tried to supply them, but Peter had little control over his followers and Byzantine troops were needed to quell their attacks. Peter arrived at Constantinople in August, where his army joined with the one led by Walter, which had already arrived, as well as separate bands of crusaders from France, Germany, and Italy. Another army of Bohemians and Saxons did not make it past Hungary before splitting up.
This unruly mob began to attack and pillage outside the city in search of supplies and food, prompting Alexios to hurriedly ferry the gathering across the Bosporus one week later. After crossing into Asia Minor, the crusaders split up and began to pillage the countryside, wandering into Seljuq territory around Nicaea. The greater experience of the Turks was overwhelming; most of this group of the crusaders were massacred. Some Italian and German crusaders were defeated and killed at Xerigordon at the end of August. Meanwhile, Walter and Peter's followers, who, although for the most part untrained in battle but led by about 50 knights, fought a battle against the Turks at Civitot in October. The Turkish archers destroyed the crusader army, and Walter was among the dead. Peter, who was absent in Constantinople at the time, later joined the main crusader army, along with the few survivors of Civetot.
Attacks on Jews in the Rhineland[redigér | redigér wikikode]
At a local level, the preaching of the First Crusade ignited violence against Jews, which some historians have deemed "the first Holocaust". At the end of 1095 and beginning of 1096, months before the departure of the official crusade in August, there were attacks on Jewish communities in France and Germany. In May 1096, Emicho of Flonheim (sometimes incorrectly known as Emicho of Leiningen) attacked the Jews at Speyer and Worms. Other unofficial crusaders from Swabia, led by Hartmann of Dillingen, along with French, English, Lotharingian and Flemish volunteers, led by Drogo of Nesle and William the Carpenter, as well as many locals, joined Emicho in the destruction of the Jewish community of Mainz at the end of May. In Mainz, one Jewish woman killed her children rather than see them killed; the chief rabbi, Kalonymus Ben Meshullam, committed suicide in anticipation of being killed.
Emicho's company then went on to Cologne, and others continued on to Trier, Metz, and other cities. Peter the Hermit may have been involved in violence against the Jews, and an army led by a priest named Folkmar also attacked Jews further east in Bohemia. Emicho's army eventually continued into Hungary but was defeated by the army of Coloman of Hungary. His followers dispersed; some eventually joined the main armies, although Emicho himself went home.
Many of the attackers seem to have wanted to force the Jews to convert, although they were also interested in acquiring money from them. Physical violence against Jews was never part of the church hierarchy's official policy for crusading, and the Christian bishops, especially the Archbishop of Cologne, did their best to protect the Jews. A decade before, the Bishop of Speyer had taken the step of providing the Jews of that city with a walled ghetto to protect them from Christian violence and given their chief Rabbis the control of judicial matters in the quarter. Nevertheless, some also took money in return for their protection. The attacks may have originated in the belief that Jews and Muslims were equally enemies of Christ, and enemies were to be fought or converted to Christianity. Godfrey of Bouillon was rumoured to have extorted money from the Jews of Cologne and Mainz, and many of the Crusaders wondered why they should travel thousands of miles to fight non-believers when there were already non-believers closer to home. The attacks on the Jews were witnessed by Ekkehard of Aura and Albert of Aix; among the Jewish communities, the main contemporary witnesses were the Mainz Anonymous, Eliezer ben Nathan, and Solomon bar Simson.
Princes' Crusade[redigér | redigér wikikode]
The four main crusader armies left Europe around the appointed time in August 1096. They took different paths to Constantinople and gathered outside its city walls between November 1096 and April 1097; Hugh of Vermandois arrived first, followed by Godfrey, Raymond, and Bohemond. This time, Emperor Alexios was more prepared for the crusaders; there were fewer incidents of violence along the way.
The size of the entire crusader army is difficult to estimate; various numbers were given by the eyewitnesses, and equally various estimates have been offered by modern historians. Crusader military historian David Nicolle considers the armies to have consisted of about 30,000–35,000 crusaders, including 5,000 cavalry. Raymond had the largest contingent of about 8,500 infantry and 1,200 cavalry.
The princes arrived in Constantinople with little food and expected provisions and help from Alexios. Alexios was understandably suspicious after his experiences with the People's Crusade, and also because the knights included his old Norman enemy, Bohemond, who had invaded Byzantine territory on numerous occasions with his father, Robert Guiscard, and may have even attempted to organize an attack on Constantinople while encamped outside the city.
The crusaders may have expected Alexios to become their leader, but he had no interest in joining them, and was mainly concerned with transporting them into Asia Minor as quickly as possible. In return for food and supplies, Alexios requested the leaders to swear fealty to him and promise to return to the Byzantine Empire any land recovered from the Turks. Godfrey was the first to take the oath, and almost all the other leaders followed him, although they did so only after warfare had almost broken out in the city between the citizens and the crusaders, who were eager to pillage for supplies. Raymond alone avoided swearing the oath, instead pledging that he would simply cause no harm to the Empire. Before ensuring that the various armies were shuttled across the Bosporus, Alexios advised the leaders on how best to deal with the Seljuq armies that they would soon encounter.
Siege of Nicaea[redigér | redigér wikikode]
The Crusader armies crossed over into Asia Minor during the first half of 1097, where they were joined by Peter the Hermit and the remainder of his little army. In addition, Alexios also sent two of his own generals, Manuel Boutoumites and Tatikios, to assist the crusaders. The first objective of their campaign was Nicaea, previously a city under Byzantine rule, but which had become the capital of the Seljuq Sultanate of Rum under Kilij Arslan I. Arslan was away campaigning against the Danishmends in central Anatolia at the time, and had left behind his treasury and his family, underestimating the strength of these new crusaders.
Subsequently, upon the Crusaders' arrival, the city was subjected to a lengthy siege, and when Arslan had word of it he rushed back to Nicaea and attacked the crusader army on 16 May. He was driven back by the unexpectedly large crusader force, with heavy losses being suffered on both sides in the ensuing battle. The siege continued, but the crusaders had little success as they found they could not blockade the lake, which the city was situated on, and from which it could be provisioned. To break the city, Alexios sent the Crusaders' ships rolled over land on logs, and at the sight of them the Turkish garrison finally surrendered on 18 June. The city was handed over to the Byzantine troops, which has often been depicted as a source of conflict between the Empire and the crusaders; Byzantine standards flew from the walls while the crusaders were forbidden from looting the city or even entering it except in small escorted bands.
However, this policy was in accordance with the previous oaths made to Alexios, and the emperor ensured that the crusaders were well-paid for their efforts. As Thomas Asbridge writes, "the fall of Nicaea was a product of the successful policy of close co-operation between the crusaders and Byzantium." After handing custody of Nicaea to the Byzantines, the crusaders resumed their march to Jerusalem. Stephen of Blois, in a letter to his wife Adela of Blois wrote that he believed the journey would take five weeks; in reality, it took two years.
Battle of Dorylaeum[redigér | redigér wikikode]
At the end of June, the crusaders marched on through Anatolia. They were accompanied by some Byzantine troops under Tatikios, and still harboured the hope that Alexios would send a full Byzantine army after them. They also divided the army into two more-easily managed groups—one contingent led by the Normans, the other by the French. The two groups intended to meet again at Dorylaeum, but on 1 July the Normans, who had marched ahead of the French, were attacked by Kilij Arslan. Arslan had gathered a much larger army than he previously had after his defeat at Nicaea, and now surrounded the Normans with his fast-moving mounted archers. The Normans "deployed in a tight-knit defensive formation", surrounding all their equipment and the non-combatants who had followed them along the journey, and sent for help from the other group. When the French arrived, Godfrey broke through the Turkish lines and the legate Adhemar outflanked the Turks from the rear; thus the Turks, who had expected to destroy the Normans and did not anticipate the quick arrival of the French, fled rather than face the combined crusader army.
The crusaders' march through Anatolia was thereafter unopposed, but the journey was unpleasant, as Arslan had burned and destroyed everything he left behind in his army's flight. It was the middle of summer, and the crusaders had very little food and water; many men and horses died. Fellow Christians sometimes gave them gifts of food and money, but more often than not, the crusaders simply looted and pillaged whenever the opportunity presented itself. Individual leaders continued to dispute the overall leadership, although none of them were powerful enough to take command on their own, as Adhemar was always recognized as the spiritual leader. After passing through the Cilician Gates, Baldwin of Boulogne set off on his own towards the Armenian lands around the Euphrates; his wife, his only claim to European lands and wealth, had died after the battle, giving Baldwin no incentive to return to Europe. Thus, he resolved to seize a fiefdom for himself in the Holy Land. Early in 1098, he was adopted as heir by Thoros of Edessa, a ruler who was disliked by his Armenian subjects for his Greek Orthodox religion. Thoros was later killed, during an uprising that Baldwin may have instigated. Then, in March 1098, Baldwin became the new ruler, thus creating the County of Edessa, the first of the crusader states.
Siege of Antioch[redigér | redigér wikikode]
The crusader army, meanwhile, marched on to Antioch, which lay about halfway between Constantinople and Jerusalem. Described by Stephen of Blois as "a city great beyond belief, very strong and unassailable", the idea of taking the city by assault was a discouraging one to the crusaders. Hoping rather to force a capitulation, or find a traitor inside the city—a tactic that had previously seen Antioch change to the control of the Byzantines and then the Seljuq Turks—the crusader army set Antioch to siege on 20 October 1097. During the almost eight months of the siege, they were forced to defeat two large relief armies under the leadership of Duqaq and Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan. Antioch was so large that the crusaders did not have enough troops to fully surround it, and as a result it was able to stay partially supplied. On 4 March 1098, relief arrived in the form of a Crusader fleet, the "Saxon Crusade", bringing much needed supplies from the west.
In May 1098, Kerbogha of Mosul approached Antioch to relieve the siege. Bohemond bribed an Armenian guard named Firuz to surrender his tower, and in June the crusaders entered the city and killed most of the inhabitants. However, only a few days later the Muslims arrived, laying siege to the former besiegers. According to Raymond D'Aguilers, it was at this point that a monk named Peter Bartholomew claimed to have discovered the Holy Lance in the city, and although some were skeptical, this was seen as a sign that they would be victorious.
On 28 June 1098, the crusaders defeated Kerbogha in a pitched battle outside the city, a victory caused by Kerbogha's inability to organize the different factions in his army. While the crusaders were marching towards the Muslims, the Fatimid section of the army deserted the Turkish contingent, as they feared Kerbogha would become too powerful were he able to defeat the Crusaders. According to Christian eyewitnesses, an army of Christian saints came to the aid of the crusaders during the battle and crippled Kerbogha's army.
Stephen of Blois, a Crusade leader, was in Alexandretta when he learned of the situation in Antioch. It seemed like their situation was hopeless so he left the Middle East, warning Alexios and his army on his way back to France. Because of what looked like a massive betrayal, the leaders at Antioch, most notably Bohemond, argued that Alexios had deserted the Crusade and thus invalidated all of their oaths to him. While Bohemond asserted his claim to Antioch, not everyone agreed (most notably Raymond of Toulouse), so the crusade was delayed for the rest of the year while the nobles argued amongst themselves. When discussing this period, a common historiographical viewpoint advanced by some scholars is that the Franks of northern France, the Provençals of southern France, and the Normans of southern Italy considered themselves separate "nations", creating turmoil as each tried to increase its individual status. Others argue that while this may have had something to do with the disputes, personal ambition among the Crusader leaders might just be as easily blamed.
Meanwhile, a plague broke out, killing many among the army, including the legate Adhemar, who died on 1 August. There were now even fewer horses than before, and worse, the Muslim peasants in the area refused to supply the crusaders with food. Thus, in December, after the Arab town of Ma'arrat al-Numan was captured following a siege, history describes the first occurrence of cannibalism among the crusaders. Radulph of Caen wrote, "In Ma'arrat our troops boiled pagan adults in cooking pots; they impaled children on spits and devoured them grilled." At the same time, the minor knights and soldiers had become increasingly restless and threatened to continue to Jerusalem without their squabbling leaders. Finally, at the beginning of 1099, the march restarted, leaving Bohemond behind as the first Prince of Antioch.
Continued march to Jerusalem[redigér | redigér wikikode]
Proceeding down the Mediterranean coast, the crusaders encountered little resistance, as local rulers preferred to make peace with them and furnish them with supplies rather than fight, with a notable exception of the abandoned siege of Arqa. On 7 June, the crusaders reached Jerusalem, which had been recaptured from the Seljuqs by the Fatimids only the year before. Many Crusaders wept upon seeing the city they had journeyed so long to reach.
Siege of Jerusalem[redigér | redigér wikikode]
Crusaders' arrival at Jerusalem revealed an arid countryside, lacking in water or food supplies. Here there was no prospect of relief, even as they feared an imminent attack by the local Fatimid rulers. There was no hope of trying to blockade the city as they had at Antioch; the crusaders had insufficient troops, supplies, and time. Rather, they resolved to take the city by assault. They might have been left with little choice, as by the time the Crusader army reached Jerusalem, it has been estimated that only about 12,000 men including 1,500 cavalry remained. These contingents, composed of men with differing origins and varying allegiances, were also approaching another low ebb in their camaraderie; e.g., while Godfrey and Tancred made camp to the north of the city, Raymond made his to the south. In addition, the Provençal contingent did not take part in the initial assault on 13 June. This first assault was perhaps more speculative than determined, and after scaling the outer wall the Crusaders were repulsed from the inner one.
After the failure of the initial assault, a meeting between the various leaders was organized in which it was agreed upon that a more concerted attack would be required in the future. On 17 June, a party of Genoese mariners under Guglielmo Embriaco arrived at Jaffa, and provided the Crusaders with skilled engineers, and perhaps more critically, supplies of timber (cannibalized from the ships) to build siege engines. The Crusaders' morale was raised when a priest, Peter Desiderius, claimed to have had a divine vision, of Bishop Adhemar, instructing them to fast and then march in a barefoot procession around the city walls, after which the city would fall, following the Biblical story of Joshua at the siege of Jericho. After a three days fast, on 8 July the crusaders performed the procession as they had been instructed by Desiderius, ending on the Mount of Olives where Peter the Hermit preached to them, and shortly afterward the various bickering factions arrived at a public rapprochement. News arrived shortly after that a Fatimid relief army had set off from Egypt, giving the Crusaders a very strong incentive to make another assault on the city.
The final assault on Jerusalem began on 13 July; Raymond's troops attacked the south gate while the other contingents attacked the northern wall. Initially the Provençals at the southern gate made little headway, but the contingents at the northern wall fared better, with a slow but steady attrition of the defence. On 15 July, a final push was launched at both ends of the city, and eventually the inner rampart of the northern wall was captured. In the ensuing panic, the defenders abandoned the walls of the city at both ends, allowing the Crusaders to finally enter.
Massacre[redigér | redigér wikikode]
The massacre that followed the capture of Jerusalem has attained particular notoriety, as a "juxtaposition of extreme violence and anguished faith". The eyewitness accounts from the crusaders themselves leave little doubt that there was great slaughter in the aftermath of the siege. Nevertheless, some historians propose that the scale of the massacre has been exaggerated in later medieval sources.
After the successful assault on the northern wall, the defenders fled to the Temple Mount, pursued by Tancred and his men. Arriving before the defenders could secure the area, Tancred's men assaulted the precinct, butchering many of the defenders, with the remainder taking refuge in the Al-Aqsa Mosque. Tancred then called a halt to the slaughter, offering those in the mosque his protection. When the defenders on the southern wall heard of the fall of the northern wall, they fled to the citadel, allowing Raymond and the Provençals to enter the city. Iftikhar al-Dawla, the commander of the garrison, struck a deal with Raymond, surrendering the citadel in return for being granted safe passage to Ascalon.
The slaughter continued for the rest of the day; Muslims were indiscriminately killed, and Jews who had taken refuge in their synagogue died when it was burnt down by the Crusaders. The following day, Tancred's prisoners in the mosque were slaughtered. Nevertheless, it is clear that some Muslims and Jews of the city survived the massacre, either escaping or being taken prisoner to be ransomed. The Eastern Christian population of the city had been expelled before the siege by the governor, and thus escaped the massacre.
Establishment of the Kingdom of Jerusalem[redigér | redigér wikikode]
On 22 July, a council was held in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre to establish a king for the newly created Kingdom of Jerusalem. Raymond of Toulouse at first refused to become king, perhaps attempting to show his piety, but probably hoping that the other nobles would insist upon his election anyway. Godfrey, who had become the more popular of the two after Raymond's actions at the siege of Antioch, did no damage to his own piety by accepting a position as secular leader. Raymond was incensed at this development and took his army out into the countryside.
The exact nature and meaning of Godfrey's title is somewhat controversial. Although it is widely claimed that he took the title Advocatus Sancti Sepulchri ("advocate" or "defender" of the Holy Sepulchre), this title is only used in a letter that was not written by Godfrey. Instead, Godfrey himself seems to have used the more ambiguous term princeps, or simply retained his title of dux from Lower Lorraine. According to William of Tyre, writing in the later 12th century when Godfrey was already a legendary hero in crusader Jerusalem, he refused to wear "a crown of gold" where Christ had worn "a crown of thorns". Robert the Monk is the only contemporary chronicler of the crusade to report that Godfrey took the title "king".
Battle of Ascalon[redigér | redigér wikikode]
The crusaders had attempted to negotiate with the Fatimids during their march to Jerusalem, but to no avail. After the crusaders captured Jerusalem from the Fatimids, they learned of a Fatimid army about to attack them. On 10 August Godfrey of Bouillon led the remaining troops from Jerusalem to Ascalon, a day's march away.
The Fatimids were estimated to have as many as 50,000 troops (other sources estimate about 20,000–30,000) entering the battle. Their troops consisted of Seljuq Turks, Arabs, Persians, Kurds, and Ethiopians, led by vizier al-Afdal Shahanshah. Opposing them were the crusaders, whose numbers, estimated by Raymond of Aguilers, were around 1,200 knights and 9,000 infantry.
On 12 August, crusader scouts discovered the location of the Fatimid camp, which the crusaders immediately marched towards. According to most crusader and Muslim accounts, the Fatimids were caught unaware. Because of a somewhat ill-prepared Fatimid army, the battle was fairly short, although it still took some time to resolve, according to Albert of Aix. al-Afdal Shahanshah and his army retreated into the heavily guarded and fortified city of Ascalon. The next day the crusaders learned that al-Afdal Shahanshah had retreated back to Egypt via boat, so they plundered what remained of the Fatimid camp. After returning to Jerusalem most of the crusaders returned to their homes in Europe.
Crusade of 1101[redigér | redigér wikikode]
Having captured Jerusalem and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the crusading vow had hence been fulfilled. However, there were many who had gone home before reaching Jerusalem, and many who had never left Europe at all. When the success of the crusade became known, these people were mocked and scorned by their families and threatened with excommunication by the Pope. Many crusaders who had remained with the crusade all the way to Jerusalem also went home; according to Fulcher of Chartres, there were only a few hundred knights left in the newfound kingdom in 1100. Godfrey himself only ruled for one year, dying in July 1100. He was succeeded by his brother, Baldwin of Edessa, the first person to take the title King of Jerusalem.
Among the crusaders in the Crusade of 1101 were Stephen II, Count of Blois and Hugh of Vermandois, both of whom had returned home before reaching Jerusalem. This crusade was almost annihilated in Asia Minor by the Seljuqs, but the survivors helped to reinforce the kingdom upon their arrival in Jerusalem. In the following years, assistance was also provided by Italian merchants who established themselves in Syrian ports, and from the religious and military orders of the Knights Templar and the Knights Hospitaller, which were created during Baldwin I's reign.
Aftermath[redigér | redigér wikikode]
The First Crusade succeeded in establishing the "crusader states" of Edessa, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Tripoli in Palestine and Syria (as well as allies along the Crusaders' route, such as the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia).
Back at home in Western Europe, those who had survived to reach Jerusalem were treated as heroes. Robert of Flanders was nicknamed "Hierosolymitanus" thanks to his exploits. The life of Godfrey of Bouillon became legendary even within a few years of his death. In some cases, the political situation at home was greatly affected by crusader absences. For instance, while Robert Curthose was away on crusade the throne of England had passed to his brother Henry I of England instead, and their resultant conflict led to the Battle of Tinchebray in 1106.
Meanwhile, the establishment of the crusader states in the east helped ease Seljuq pressure on the Byzantine Empire, which had regained some of its Anatolian territory with crusader help, and experienced a period of relative peace and prosperity in the 12th century. The effect on the Muslim dynasties of the east was gradual but important. In the wake of the death of Malik Shah I in 1092 the political instability and the division of Great Seljuq Empire, which had pressed the Byzantine call for aid to the pope, meant that it had prevented a coherent defence against the Latin states. Cooperation between them remained difficult for many decades, but from Egypt to Syria to Baghdad there were calls for the expulsion of the crusaders, culminating in the recapture of Jerusalem under Saladin later in the century when the Ayyubids had united the surrounding areas.
Inspiration to the future[redigér | redigér wikikode]
The success of the crusade inspired the literary imagination of poets in France, who, in the 12th century, began to compose various chansons de geste celebrating the exploits of Godfrey of Bouillon and other crusaders. Some of these, such as the Chanson d'Antioche, are semi-historical, while others are completely fanciful, describing battles with a dragon or connecting Godfrey's ancestors to the legend of the Knight of the Swan. Together, the chansons are known as the crusade cycle.
The First Crusade was also an inspiration to artists in later centuries. In 1580, Torquato Tasso wrote Jerusalem Delivered, a largely fictionalized epic poem about the capture of Jerusalem. George Frideric Handel composed music based on Tasso's poem in his opera Rinaldo. The 19th-century poet Tommaso Grossi also wrote an epic poem, which was the basis of Giuseppe Verdi's opera I Lombardi alla prima crociata.
Se også[redigér | redigér wikikode]
Noter[redigér | redigér wikikode]
- De (Saracenerne) holder goternes kongerige, som de hidtil stædigt har delvist besiddet, og mod hvem de kristne kæmper dag og nat og efterstræber, indtil den guddommelige skygge giver ordre til at de grusomt skal fordrives herfra. Amen."
- Normanneren Roger 1. af Tosny tog afsted i 1018. Andre udenlandske fremstød ind i Aragon: Barbastro-krigen i 1063; Moctadir af Zaragoza frygtede en ekspedition med udenlandsk assistance i 1067; Ebles 2. af Roucy planlagde et i 1073; Guillaume 8. af Aquitaine blev sendt tilbage fra Aragon i 1090. En fransk hær kom Sancho Ramírez til hjælp i 1087 efter at Kongeriget Castilien blev besejret i slaget ved Sagrajas; Centule 5. af Béarn var i Tena-dalen i 1088 og der var et stort fransk indslag i det "korstog", som blev indledt mod Zaragoza af Peter 1. af Aragon og Navarre i 1101.
- Runciman er blevet læst af mange, og det kan roligt siges, at de mest udbredte opfattelser om korstogene stammer fra hans beskrivelse, selv om den akademiske verden forlængst er nået længere.
Henvisninger[redigér | redigér wikikode]
- Nicolle 2003, s. 21 and 32.
- France, John (2005). The Crusades and the expansion of Catholic Christendom. New York: Routledge. s. 64.
- Tyerman 2006, s. 51–54.
- H .E. J. Cowdrey (1977), "The Mahdia campaign of 1087" The English Historical Review 92, pp. 1–29.
- Hindley, Geoffrey (2004). The Crusades: Islam and Christianity in the Struggle for World Supremacy. Carrol & Graf. ISBN 0-7867-1344-5.
- Runciman, Steven (1952). A History of the Crusades, vol. II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Frankish East, 1100–1187 (repr. Folio Society, 1994 ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Harris, Jonathan (2006), "Byzantium and the Crusades", , London: Hambledon Continuum, p. 54.
- Harris, Jonathan (2006), "Byzantium and the Crusades", London: Hambledon Continuum, pp. 53–55. ISBN 1-85285-501-0
- R. A. Fletcher (1987), "Reconquest and Crusade in Spain c. 1050–1150," Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Fifth Series, 37, p. 34.
- Lynn H. Nelson (1979), "The Foundation of Jaca (1077): Urban Growth in Early Aragon," Speculum, 53 p. 697 note 27.
- Riley-Smith 2005, s. 7.
- Asbridge 2004, s. 3–4.
- Riley-Smith 1991, s. 5–8.
- Asbridge 2004, s. 17.
- Frankopan 2012, s. 57–71
- Treadgold 1997, s. 8 Graph 1
- Asbridge 2004, s. 15–20
- Frankopan 2012, s. 97–99
- Holt 1989, s. 11, 14–15.
- Gil 1997, s. 410, 411 note 61.
- Holt 1989, s. 11–14.
- Rubenstein, Jay. (2011). Armies of Heaven: The First Crusade and the Quest for Apocalypse. Basic Books. 2011. ISBN 0-465-01929-3.
- Erdmann (1935), Die Entstehung des Kreuzzugsgedankens.
- Riley-Smith 1991, s. 1.
- Runciman 1980, s. 76.
- Runciman 1980, s. 31.
- Runciman 1980, s. 30–31.
- Gil 1997, s. 420; for detaljer om seldjukkernes besættelse af Palæstina se pp. 410–420.
- Chronique de Michel le Syrien, pp. 170–171.
- Asbridge 2004, s. 17; om Urban's personlige motiver se pp. 19–21.
- Vryonis 1971, s. 85–117.
- Madden 2005, s. 7.
- Tyerman 2006, s. 56–57.
- Riley-Smith 2005, s. 17.
- Frankopan 2012, s. 87–101
- William of Tyre, s. 60.
- Riley-Smith 2005, s. 10–12.
- William of Tyre, s. 65–66, where he mentions the destruction of the Holy Sepulchre as a cause of the First Crusade.
- Asbridge 2004, s. 15.
- Frankopan 2012, s. 19–23
- Asbridge 2004, s. 32.
- The first attempt to reconcile the different speeches was made by Dana Munro, "The Speech of Urban II at Clermont, 1095", American Historical Review 11 (1906), pp. 231–242. The different versions of the speech are collected in The First Crusade: The Chronicle of Fulcher of Chartres and Other Source Materials, ed. Edward Peters (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2nd ed., 1998). The accounts can also be read online at The Internet Medieval Sourcebook.
- Asbridge 2004, s. 31–39
- Riley-Smith 2005, s. 8.
- Tyerman 2006, s. 65.
- Asbridge 2004, s. 46–49.
- Asbridge 2004, s. 65–66.
- Asbridge 2004, s. 41.
- Asbridge 2004, s. 68.
- Asbridge 2004, s. 69.
- Riley-Smith 1998, s. 15.
- Asbridge 2004, s. 69–71.
- Asbridge 2004, s. 55–65.
- Riley-Smith 1998, s. 21.
- Asbridge 2004, s. 77.
- Asbridge 2004, s. 71.
- Riley-Smith 1998, s. 93–97.
- Neveux 2008, s. 186–188.
- Asbridge 2004, s. 78–82.
- William of Tyre, s. 82–85.
- Asbridge 2004, s. 80–81.
- Riley-Smith 2005, s. 28.
- Asbridge 2004, s. 82.
- Riley-Smith 2005, s. 26–27.
- Asbridge 2004, s. 101–103.
- Riley-Smith 1991, s. 50.
- Asbridge 2004, s. 84–85.
- Tyerman 2006, s. 102.
- Tyerman 2006, s. 103.
- Riley-Smith 2005, s. 24.
- Tyerman 2006, s. 103–106.
- Asbridge 2004, s. 103–105.
- Nicolle 2003, s. 21, 32.
- Asbridge 2004, s. 106.
- Asbridge 2004, s. 110.
- Asbridge 2004, s. 110–113.
- Asbridge 2004, s. 117–120.
- Asbridge 2004, s. 124–126.
- Asbridge 2004, s. 126–130.
- Asbridge 2004, s. 130.
- Tyerman 2006, s. 122.
- Asbridge 2004, s. 132–34.
- Asbridge 2004, s. 135.
- Asbridge 2004, s. 135–37.
- Asbridge 2004, s. 138–39.
- Hindley 2004, s. 37.
- Runciman 1980, s. 149.
- Hindley 2004, s. 38.
- Hindley 2004, s. 39.
- Asbridge 2004, s. 163–187.
- Tyerman 2006, s. 135.
- Runciman 1987, s. 231.
- Tyerman 2006, s. 142–143.
- Tyerman 2006, s. 137.
- Madden 2006, 28
- Lock 2006, s. 23.
- Runciman 1987, s. 261.
- Hotaling 2003, s. 114
- Tyerman 2006, s. 150.
- Tyerman 2006, s. 153–157.
- Konstam 2004, s. 133.
- Tyerman 2006, s. 157–159
- Tyerman 2006, s. 159.
- Madden 2005, s. 34
- Tyerman 2006, s. 159–160.
- William of Tyre, Book 9, Chapter 9.
- Riley-Smith (1979), "The Title of Godfrey of Bouillon", Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research 52, pp. 83–86.
- Murray, Alan V. (1990), "The Title of Godfrey of Bouillon as Ruler of Jerusalem", Collegium Medievale 3, pp. 163–178.
- Baldwin 1969, s. 340.
- Baldwin 1969, s. 341.
- Lock 2006, s. 141.
- Riley-Smith 2005, s. 35
- Tyerman 2006, s. 161.
- Lock 2006, s. 142–144.
- Baldwin 1969, s. 379–380.
- Neveux 2008, s. 176–177.
- Baldwin 1969, s. 404–405.
- Baldwin 1969, s. 443–447.
- Baldwin 1969, s. 616–620.
- Edgington, Susan B., "Albert of Aachen and the Chansons de Geste", The Crusades and their Sources: Essays Presented to Bernard Hamilton, pp. 23–37.
Kilder[redigér | redigér wikikode]
Primære kilder[redigér | redigér wikikode]
- Albert af Aix, Historia Hierosolymitana
- Anna Comnena, Alexiad
- Guibert af Nogent, Dei gesta per Francos
- Fulcher af Chartres, Historia Hierosolymitana
- Gesta Francorum et aliorum Hierosolimitanorum, (anonym)
- Ibn al-Qalanisi, Damaskus krøniken om korstogene
- Michael Syreren, Krønike
- Peter Tudebode, Historia de Hierosolymitano itinere
- Raymond af Aguilers, Historia Francorum qui ceperunt Iherusalem
- William af Tyre, A History of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea
Primære online kilder[redigér | redigér wikikode]
- Udvalgte breve fra korsfarere:
- Anselm af Ribemont, Anselm af Ribemont, brev til Manasses 2., ærkebiskop i Reims (1098) (engelsk)
- Stephen, greve af Blois og Chartres, Breve til hans kone, Adele (1098) (engelsk)
- Daimbert, Godfrey og Raymond, Brev til paven, (1099) (engelsk)
- Online primary sources fra Internet middelalderkilder:
- Peter the Hermit and the Popular Crusade: Indsamlede beretninger. (engelsk)
- Korsfarernes rejse til Konstantinopel: Indsamlede beretninger. (engelsk)
- Korsfarerne i Konstantinopel The Crusaders: Indsamlede beretninger. (engelsk)
- Belejringen og erobringen af Nicea: Indsamlede beretninger. (engelsk)
- Belejringen og erobringen af Antiokia: Indsamlede beretninger. (engelsk)
- Belejringen og erobringen af Jerusalem: Indsamlede beretninger. (engelsk)
- Fulcher af Chartres: Erobringen af Jerusalem, 1099. (engelsk)
- Ekkehard of Aura: Om begyndelsen af det første korstog. (engelsk)
- Albert af Aix og Ekkehard af Aura: Emico og nedslagtningen af jøder i Rhinlandet. (engelsk)
- Soloman bar Samson: Korsfarerne i Mainz, angreb på jøder i Rhinlandet. (engelsk)
- Ali ibn Tahir al-Sulami (d. 1106): Kitab al-Jihad (udtog). Først kendte islamiske diskussino af begrebet jihad skrevet i kølvandet på det første korstog. (engelsk)
Sekundære kilder[redigér | redigér wikikode]
- Asbridge, Thomas (2004). The First Crusade: A New History. Oxford. ISBN 0-19-517823-8.
- Baldwin, Marshall W. (1969). A History of the Crusades: The First Hundred Years. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0-299-04834-1.
- Bartlett, Robert (1994). The Making of Europe: Conquest, Colonization and Cultural Change 950–1350. Princeton. ISBN 0-691-03780-9.
- Chazan, Robert (1997). In the Year 1096: The First Crusade and the Jews. Jewish Publication Society. ISBN 0-8276-0575-7.
- Frankopan, Peter (2012). The First Crusade: The Call from the East. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-05994-8.
- Gil, Moshe (1997). A History of Palestine, 634–1099. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-59984-9.
- Hamilton, Bernard; France, John; Zajac, William G. (1998). The Crusades and their Sources: Essays Presented to Bernard Hamilton. Ashgate. ISBN 0-86078-624-2.
- Harris, Jonathan (2014), Byzantium and the Crusades, Bloomsbury, 2nd ed. ISBN 978-1-78093-767-0
- Hillenbrand, Carole (2000). The Crusades: Islamic Perspectives. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-92914-8.
- Hindley, Geoffrey (2004). A Brief History of the Crusades: Islam and Christianity in the Struggle for World Supremacy. London: Constable & Robinson. s. 300. ISBN 978-1-84119-766-1.
- Holt, Peter M. (1989). The Age of the Crusades: The Near East from the Eleventh Century to 1517. Longman. ISBN 0-582-49302-1.
- Hotaling, Edward (2003). Islam Without Illusions: Its Past, Its Present, and Its Challenge for the Future. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 978-0-8156-0766-3.
- Housley, Norman (2006). Contesting the Crusades. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 1-4051-1189-5.
- Konstam, Angus (2004). Historical Atlas of the Crusades. Mercury Books. ISBN 1-904668-00-3.
- Lock, Peter (2006). Routledge Companion to the Crusades. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-39312-4.
- Madden, Thomas (2005). New Concise History of the Crusades. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-7425-3822-2.
- Magdalino, Paul (1996). The Byzantine Background to the First Crusade. Canadian Institute of Balkan Studies.
- Mayer, Hans Eberhard (1988). The Crusades. John Gillingham. Oxford. ISBN 0-19-873097-7.
- Neveux, Francois (2008). The Normans. Howard Curtis. Robinson. ISBN 978-1-84529-523-3.
- Nicolle, David (2003). The First Crusade, 1096–99: Conquest of the Holy Land. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-515-5.
- Riley-Smith, Jonathan (1991). The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading. University of Pennsylvania. ISBN 0-8122-1363-7.
- Riley-Smith, Jonathan, (red.) (2002). The Oxford History of the Crusades. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280312-3.
- Riley-Smith, Jonathan (2005). The Crusades: A History (2nd udgave). Yale University Press. ISBN 0-8264-7270-2.
- Riley-Smith, Jonathan (1998). The First Crusaders, 1095–1131. Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-64603-0.
- Runciman, Steven (1987). A History of the Crusades: Volume 1, The First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Cambridge. ISBN 978-0-521-34770-9.
- Runciman, Steven (1980). The First Crusade. Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-23255-4.
- Setton, Kenneth (1969-1989). A History of the Crusades. Madison.
- Treadgold, Warren (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-2630-2.
- Tyerman, Christopher (2006). God's War: A New History of the Crusades. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-02387-0.
- Vryonis, Speros (1971). Decline of Medieval Hellenism in Asia Minor and the Process of Islamization in the Eleventh through Fifteenth Centuries. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-01597-5.
Bibliografi[redigér | redigér wikikode]