- The Conditions, Means and Methods of the MfS in the GDR: An Analysis of the Post and Telephone Control, Nessim Ghouas, 2004, Cuvillier Verlag
- The Workers' and Peasants' State: Communism and Society in East Germany Under Ulbricht 1945-71, Patrick Major, Jonathan Osmond, Manchester University Press, 2002
- The Conditions, Means and Methods of the MfS in the GDR: An Analysis of the Post and Telephone Control, Nessim Ghouas, Cuvillier Verlag, 2004
Volkspolizei (fulde navn Deutsche Volkspolizei (Tyske Folkepoliti), forkortet DVP eller VP og ofte kaldet VoPo) var den statslige polititjeneste i DDR. Volkspolizei var ansvarlig for udførelsen af politiarbejde i DDR.
NOGET OM TIDEN 1946-56 OG HEREFTER 56 TIL GENFORENINGEN
however, its organisation and structure were such that it could be considered to be as much a paramilitary as a civilian police force. The VP was equipped with armoured personnel carriers and artillery, and its recruits received military training.
Grundlæggelse[redigér | redigér wikikode]
Umiddelbart efter afslutningen af kamphandlingerne i Europa efter afslutningen af 2. verdenskrig aftalte de allierede ved Potsdamkonferencen (17. juli-2. august 1945), at det besatte Tyskland skulle demilitariseres. Sovjetunionen havde imidlertid allerede i juni 1945 givet tilladelse til oprettelse af en tysk politistyrke i den sovjetiske besættelseszone, der blev oprettet i det østlige Tyskland efter afslutningen af 2. verdenskrig. Politistyrken fungerede parallelt med det tyske "Landespolizei", der var politimyndighed i hvert af de tidligere tyske lande. Den nye tyske politistyrke oprettet af de sovjetiske besættelsesmyndigheder var initialt organiseret som den tilsvarende organisering af Militsiya i Sovjetunionen og var styret centralt.
Den sovjetiske militære ledelse af besættelseszonen gav den 31. oktober 1945 tilladelse til, at politistyrken kunne bevæbnes. Tilladelsen til at bevæbne den nye centrale politistyrke medførte protester fra Storbritannien, der anså oprettelsen af den nye politistyrke som et brud på Potsdamaftalens krav om demilitarisering af det besatte Tyskland. Politistyrkens bevæbning bestod i bl.a. artilleri, kampvogne og andre tunge køretøjer.
Mange af de første Volkspolizisten havde en baggrund som officerer i den tyske Wehrmacht, ligesom politistyrken optog tyskere, der havde deltaget i de Internationale brigader under den Spanske borgerkrig. I november 1946 havde Volkspolizei mere end 45.000 officerer.[kilde mangler] Den tunge bevæbning af politistyrken, ledelsens sammensætning af tidligere militærpersoner fra Nazitysklands Wehrmacht (bl.a. tidligere general Vincenz Müller) og politistyrkens åbenbare paramilitære funktioner gav anledning til bekymring og prostester blandt de allierede og blandt tyske politikere i de allierede besættelseszoner. (NOGET OM CHURCHILS TALE)
Betegnelsen 'Volkspolizei' blev benyttet fra 1946, og ved opløsningen af de tyske lande i den sovjetiske besættelseszone overtog Volkspolizei den samlede politimyndighed i den sovjetiske besættelseszone.
På dette tidspunkt etablerede de sovjetiske myndigheder i besættelseszonen et Grænsepoliti, der blev en afdeling af Volkspolizei. Grænsepolitiets opgave var at hindre masseemigration til de vestlige besættelseszoner. I december 1946 blev ligeledes etableret et Transportpolizei.
Udrensning i 1949[redigér | redigér wikikode]
In the spring of 1949, the SVAG ordered that the Volkspolizei be purged of all "undesirable officers". This label included anybody who had served in the Wehrmacht, anybody who had been a prisoner of war in an Allied country other than the USSR, enhver med familie i Vesttyskland og enhver, der var kommet til den sovjetiske besættelseszone fra de tidligere tyske territorier i øst i forbindelse med fordrivelsen af tyskere efter 2. verdenskrig.
People not deemed sufficiently committed to the communist cause were also dismissed. With these purges, the SVAG created a force that was steadfastly loyal in its politics. To further instill the correct politics into Volkspolizei officers, the Main Administration of Training was established in 1949. These training courses were run by communist heroes such as Spanish Civil War veteran Wilhelm Zaisser and the man who would later become East Germany's Minister of Defence, Heinz Hoffmann.
By 1950, East Germany, though officially still without an army, was able to muster a well organised and well-armed security force, and with the establishment of the Volkspolizei came the foundations of the future National People's Army.
Volkspolizei blev efter grundlæggelsen af DDR i 1949 lagt ind under DDR's indenrigsministerium (Ministerium des Innern (MdI)), hvor indenrigsministeren indtil 1963 tilige havde titel af "Chef der Deutschen Volkspolizei".
Fra 1952 blev efter sovjetiske forbillede indført et system med en "afsnits-befuldmægtiget" person for hver by/enhed ('Abschnittsbevollmächtigter'), der havde myndighed indenfor området. Interesserede borgere kunne også deltage frivilligt som Folkepolitihjælper ('Helfer der VP'). Omkring 1952 bestod Volkspolizei af omkring 20.000 mand. Organisationen var organiseret i en stram organisation med mange militærlignende træk, herunder med militærligende uniformer og tung bevæbning af den enkelte person i Folkepolitiet, der ligeledes var har tungt materiel til rådighed (lastvogn etc.).
Organization[redigér | redigér wikikode]
The Volkspolizei executed traditional police duties such as investigation and traffic control. The VP transferred most of their reports to the Ministry of State Security (MfS) and the high density of MfS informants in the GDR,[bør uddybes] especially in the forces, meant that every police action and investigation could be monitored as besides the official MfS liaison-officer (VO-Verbindungsoffizier), the MfS had agents in nearly every police unit.
Main administration of the Volkspolizei[redigér | redigér wikikode]
The Volkspolizei was administered by the Ministry of the Interior. The overall commander was the First Deputy Minister of the Interior and Chief of Police (Erster Stellvertreter des Ministers und Chef der Deutschen Volkspolizei). His section was subdivided into five departments:
- Criminal Investigation Department (Hauptabteilung Kriminalpolizei)
- Railway Police Department (Hauptabteilung Transportpolizei)
- Registration Department (Hauptabteilung Pass- und Meldewesen)
- Traffic Police Department (Hauptabteilung Verkehrspolizei)
- Uniformed Police Department (Hauptabteilung Schutzpolizei)
The standby units of the Volkspolizei, that were used for crowd control and anti-riot missions, that is the Kasernierte Einheiten, was administered by the Deputy Minister of the Interior and Chief of the Administrative Center (Stellvertreter des Minister und Chef der Hauptinspektion).
Regional commands[redigér | redigér wikikode]
- Berlin Presidium of the People's Police (Präsidium der Volkspolizei)
- Fourteen district commands—one per East German District, excluding Karl Marx Stadt.
- Area Command of the Volkpolizei in Karl-Marx-Stadt (today Chemnitz) to protect the state enterprise of Wismut AG.
Ledelse[redigér | redigér wikikode]
- Indenrigsminister (Minister des Innern)
- Chef for det tykse Folkepoliti (Chef der deutschen Volkspolizei)
- Indenrigsminister og chef for det tyske Folkepoliti (Minister des Innern und Chef der deutschen Volkspolizei)
Rekruttering og uddannelse[redigér | redigér wikikode]
Optagelse som rekrut i Volkspolizei krævede gennemført grunduddannelse, en grundlæggende erhvervsuddannsle ('Berufsausbildung') og gennemført militærtjeneste. Om end det ikke var et eksplicit krav, så var medlemskab af den kommunistiske ungdomsorganisation FDJ, eller anden loyalitet overfor DDR's kommunistparti SED en reel forudsætning for optagelse i Volkpolizei. [kilde mangler]
I 1962 blev etableret en højskole i Berlin-Biesdorf for uddannelse af officerer i Volkpolizeis. I perioden mellem 1962 og 1989 blev uddannet ca. 3.500 officerer på højskolen. Udover højskolen i Berln-Biersdorf fandtes en række andre fagskoler for Volkspolizei i DDR. Enhederne knyttet til kasernerne ('Kasernierten Einheiten') fulgte deres egen uddannelesretning. Officerer skulle have gjort tjeneste ved Folkehærens landstyrker, og blev herefter uddannet med efter 1963 ved Officerskolen og efter 1971 ved Officerhøjskolen ('Offiziershochschule') i Dresden
Kasernen enheder havde deres egne træningsfaciliteter. Officerer var oprindeligt på NVA landstyrker, fra 1963 ved Officer Skole og fra 1971 på Military Academy - i - Villighed Dresden-Wilder Mann dannet. De underofficerer til tiden på underofficerer School i Liegau eller efter æglæggende i Dresden indtil dens opløsning.
Die Kasernierten Einheiten verfügten über eigene Ausbildungseinrichtungen. Offiziere wurden zunächst bei den NVA-Landstreitkräften, ab 1963 an der Offizierschule und ab 1971 an der Offiziershochschule – Bereitschaften – in Dresden-Wilder Mann ausgebildet. Die Unterführer auf Zeit an der Unterführerschule in Liegau bzw. nach Verlegung in Dresden bis zu ihrer Auflösung.
Recruitment to the Volkspolizei required at least ten years of education, vocational training (see education in East Germany), military service, and a history of political loyalty.
Upon joining, a recruit would take a five-month course at the Police Academy (VP-Schule). The schedule contained political education, police law, criminal law and procedures, and military-style fitness training. Afterwards the recruit completed a 6-month practical internship.
From 1962, the DVP had its own school in Berlin-Biesdorf which trained around 3,500 officers up to 1989. There were several other schools. The Kasernierten Einheiten (barracks units) had their own training facilities. Officers were initially trained in the army ground forces, from 1963 at the Officers' school and from 1971 to the officers' school in Dresden-Wilder Mann.
- Fachschule des MdI "Heinrich Rau" - College of MdI "Heinrich Rau", Radebeul
- Fachschule des MdI, „ Wilhelm Pieck “ - College of the MdI, "Wilhelm Pieck", Aschersleben
- Hochschule der VP — University of the VP, Berlin-Biesdorf (Cecilienstraße)
- Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin /Sektion Kriminalistik — Humboldt University Berlin / Criminalistics Section
- Offiziershochschule Bereitschaften "Artur Becker", Dresden (Officer school for standby units, "Artur Becker", Dresden (now the headquarters of the State Criminal Office Saxony)
- Schule für Abschnittsbevollmächtigte (school for the section represented), Wolfen
- Schule des Nachrichtenwesens (School of Communication), Dommitzsch
- Spezialschule des MdI für Diensthundewesen — Special School for service dogs, Pretzsch (Elbe)
- Spezialschule des MdI für medizinische Dienste (im Bezirk Magdeburg ) - Special School of medical services (in the district of Magdeburg)
- Transportpolizei-Schule (Transport Police School), Halle (Saale)
- Verkehrspolizei-Schule "Hans Beimler" (Traffic Police School), Magdeburg
- VP-Schule "Ernst Thälmann", Neustrelitz (since 1984 central service similar school)
The Volkspolizei had approximately 80,000 full-time police officers and 177,500 volunteers.
With the accession of the GDR to the Federal Republic on 3 October 1990, authority over the police went to the newly created federal jurisdiction. About 40 percent of the DVP employees had to leave the service.
Effectiveness[redigér | redigér wikikode]
The National People's Army and the Volkspolizei erected the Berlin Wall in 1961. The leadership declared it would protect the country against what they represented as the negative elements of West German and NATO societies, particularly fascist sympathisers (the wall was officially called the "anti-fascist protection rampart") and help on the way to a crime-free workers' state.
Oath[redigér | redigér wikikode]
The official oath that all Volkspolizei officers swore was:
|Original German||English translation|
meinem sozialistischen Vaterland, der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik und ihrer Regierung allzeit treu ergeben zu sein, Dienst- und Staatsgeheimnisse zu wahren und die Gesetze und Weisungen genau einzuhalten.
to be loyal to my socialist fatherland, the German Democratic Republic and its government at all times, to keep official and state secrets, and to strictly obey laws and instructions.
I will unswervingly strive to fulfill my official duties conscientiously, honestly, courageously, vigilantly and with discipline.
that I will, without reservation, under risk of my life protect the socialist social, state and legal order, the socialist property, the personality, the rights and the personal property of the citizens against felonious attacks.
If I nevertheless break this, my solemn oath, I shall be confronted with the punishment of the laws of our republic.
Uniforms[redigér | redigér wikikode]
With the exception of the Kasernierte Volkspolizei, whose grey-green uniforms follow the style of the East German National People’s Army (Nationale Volksarmee - NVA), all Volkspolizei services wore the same basic uniform adopted in 1956 when it was officially established. There were various kinds of uniforms, worn according to the work or social situation and differing in material for summer or winter wear. Most uniforms — service, semi-dress, and parade — are gray-green but the transport police wore dark blue. The better quality and texture of the cloth in officers' uniforms distinguished them from the uniforms of enlisted personnel. The field and service uniforms became normal attire in garrison and for most other duty activities.
The basic categories of uniforms were field, service, semi-dress, and parade.
Field uniforms (Felddienstuniform) were for only the Kasernierte Volkspolizei. The field uniform consisted of the NVA's service uniform. The uniform was worn with a field cap, service cap, or steel helmet; high black boots; and a leather belt with vertical web shoulder suspenders. In the winter, a quilted stone-grey padded suit without a camouflage pattern is worn over the service uniform. The winter uniform also includes a fur pile cap or a steel helmet, boots, knitted grey gloves, belt, and suspenders.
The service uniform (Dienstuniform) was a summer service uniform for officers with a bloused jacket, worn without a shirt, trousers, and a visored service cap. The winter service uniform featured a jacket had four large patch pockets with button-down tabs, worn with a black belt, the service cap, breeches, shirt, tie, belt, and high boots are provided for officers and NCOs. For winter, there also is a long, heavy, belted overcoat.
The semi-dress uniform (Ausgangsuniform), except in details, was the same for all ranks and was worn on off-duty or off-post occasions. It included the service cap, jacket, long trousers, and black low-quarter shoes. The single-breasted jacket was worn without a belt, with a white or grey-green shirt and a green tie. Officers were allowed to wear the jacket with a white shirt. During periods of warm summer weather, either the shirt and tie or the jacket may be omitted. For a while a double-breasted jacket could be worn as optional wear by officers and warrant officers.
The parade uniform (Paradeuniform) for officers was the semi-dress jacket worn with all awards and decorations, breeches and riding boots, steel helmet or police shako (Tschako) from 1950 to the late 1960s, white shirt, green neck-tie, and a ceremonial dagger on the left side, fastened to a silver-grey parade belt. Officers in guards of honour carry sabres. In winter, overcoat, scarf, and gloves were worn.
The type of work uniform (Arbeitsuniform) worn was governed by seasonal considerations and weather. Generally, reconditioned items of service clothing; field, semi-dress and winter padded uniforms; some dyed black, were issued for all types of fatigue and maintenance details. Coveralls are also used by the lower ranks, especially heavy vehicle and flying personnel. Officers in technical branches supervising fatigue details wear a laboratory-style smock.
Other types of Volkspolizei uniforms existed. High-ranking officers occasionally wore white uniforms, or at least a white jacket, and staff officers were supplied with staff service uniforms. Women had their own uniforms consisting of jackets, skirts or slacks, blouses, caps, boots or pumps, and other appropriate items in accordance with the season and the occasion. Traffic police, motorcyclists, armoured vehicle personnel, and others have special items of apparel.
Waffenfarben[redigér | redigér wikikode]
Volkspolizei uniform initially had green waffenfarben, but later reverted to white except for the transport police who wore blue. The uniform of the Kasernierte Volkspolizei is distinguished from that of the NVA ground force and Air Defence Force by a green armband with large silver letters identifying the wearer's affiliation.
Equipment[redigér | redigér wikikode]
Bereitschaftspolizei (del af Volkpolizei) under opførelsen af Berlinmuren i august 1961
Robur LO 2002 trucks
The Volkspolizei (German for "People's Police") served as the armed forces and the national police of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) from 1946 to 1956. The Volkspolizei was responsible for most law enforcement in East Germany, but because of its organisation and structure it was also considered a paramilitary force. Unlike police forces in most countries, they were equipped with armored personnel carriers and artillery and trained as military units.
Creation of an armed forces under the Ministry of the Interior[redigér | redigér wikikode]
In the initial stages of reorganization, the nonmilitary units of the People's Police, the Border Police, and the Transport Police were subordinated to the Main Administration of the People's Police, within the Ministry of the Interior. The Alert Units of the Kasernierte Volkspolizei (KVP) were assigned to the Main Administration of Training, as the first step toward creation of the NVA and the Ministry of Defense.
In the spring of 1950, the process of dividing the Alert Units into separate branches of the armed services was initiated. The first pilot training occurred at an aviation club at Lausitz, and shortly thereafter Special Section 2 of the KVP was created as the nucleus of the East German air force. In 1952 Special Section 2 was redesignated Main Administration for Air Police.
A similar process established East Germany's navy. On June 15, 1950, the existence of the Main Administration Sea Police (Hauptverwaltung Seepolizei) was formally announced. Headquartered at Berlin-Niederschöneweide, the Sea Police were initially responsible for the protection of fisheries and for antismuggling activities. A school for sailors was established at Kühlungsborn, a school for petty officers at Parow, and an officer training school at Stralsund, all on the Baltic coast. These provided the basis for the future navy. By 1952 the Sea Police had assumed the additional duties of minesweeping in coastal waters and, in cooperation with the Border Police, surveillance of the sea. Until shipyards, which began operation in 1952, could launch new ships, the Sea Police were limited to a few German World War II patrol boats and minesweepers, turned over to them by the Soviets.
The ground forces were structured on the light infantry battalions of the KVP and subordinated to the Main Administration of Garrisoned People's Police. Except for resubordination of the Border Police, the KVP changed the least of the three services.
Organization and training for all services closely adhered to the Soviet model, and Soviet advisers were present at all levels down to battalion. Although much of the equipment and most of the weapons were initially of German World War II vintage, there was an increasingly rapid introduction of newer Soviet matériel. In a move to assert a separate identity, the East German leadership introduced unique uniforms, similar to the Soviet field uniforms, to differentiate the armed forces from the police forces.
1953 Uprising[redigér | redigér wikikode]
In the early 1950s, problems within the country were causing dissatisfaction among East German citizens. These included confusion within the ruling Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED) following the death of Joseph Stalin, economic pressures resulting from collectivization, payment of reparations, an increasingly disadvantageous comparison with West Germany, and resentment of Soviet presence and influence. This dissatisfaction triggered a spontaneous general uprising that started in East Berlin on June 17, 1953, and rapidly spread throughout much of the country. The rebellion was quickly suppressed by Soviet troops. This short but intense episode had far-reaching effects on the evolution of the national security system.
For its part, the Ulbricht government also was forced to recognize that it lacked legitimacy in the eyes of its own people. In the short run, the most notable response was another purge in the summer of 1953. This purge resulted in changes in the top ranks of the SED, including the replacement of Zaisser, the minister of state security. During the remainder of the summer, 12,000 men of all ranks and grades were dismissed from the People's Police for "unreliability."
Establishment of the Ministry of National Defense[redigér | redigér wikikode]
On January 18, 1956, the People's Chamber passed a bill creating the Ministry of National Defense and formally acknowledging the existence of East Germany's armed forces, the National People's Army or NVA. The NVA incorporated the Kasernierte Volkspolizei, Sea Police, and Air Police into a single armed force with ground, naval, and air branches. The new Minister of Defense was Colonel General (Generaloberst) Willi Stoph, who was also minister of the interior. In 1987 Stoph was chairman of the Council of Ministers and a member of the SED Politburo. General Hoffmann, who was listed as first deputy minister of defense, attended the Soviet General Staff Academy in the mid-1950s and replaced Stoph as defense minister in 1960.
The creation of the Ministry of Defense and the NVA seemingly should have been a blow to the authority and prestige of the Ministry of the Interior. The bureaucratic impact of this action was mitigated by permitting Stoph to carry both portfolios for four years. In addition, police activities, both civil and secret, remained under the Ministry of the Interior, as did the Border Police. The Ministry of the Interior established its own Volkspolizei-Bereitschaften (VPB) (Alert Units) for the specific function of internal security. The Alert Units were militarily structured, fully motorized units with modern weapons and equipment. Garrisoned and trained in battalion-size units, they were capable of carrying out police tasks and other security functions. They were used in major disturbances or in civil disasters affecting public order and safety.
German reunification[redigér | redigér wikikode]
In preparation for German reunification in East Germany, five federal states were founded. Every state created its own police forces. Every former Volkspolizei officer could apply for a job with the new police if he had not worked as an agent for the Stasi. Just before and after the reunification every Volkspolizei officer had to undergo a new training based on West German law.
Even in the 21st century, there is much social stigma connected with being a former "VoPo", and the blame of having been on the "wrong side" during the Cold War is often leveled against many ex-Volkspolizei officers to this day.
Noter[redigér | redigér wikikode]
- Protokol over resultatet af forhandlingerne ved Potsdamkonferencen, bl.a. artikel II.A.3(i) og II.B.15(a)
- The European Defence Community: A History, p. 53f, Edward Fursdon, The MacMillan Press Ltd, 1980
- Constructing Socialism at the Grass-Roots: The Transformation of East Germany, 1945-65, Corey Ross, Palgrave, 23 Mar 2000
- Almeldelse af bogen "Ulbricht's helpers": the role of Hitler's army generals in former East Germany, World Socialist Web Site, Hendrik Paul, 25. april 2001
- Constructing Socialism at the Grass-Roots: The Transformation of East Germany 1945-65, Corey Ross, Palgrave ISBN 978-1-349-41860-2
- Bessel, Richard (2003). "Policing in East Germany in the wake of the Second World". Crime, History & Societies. 7 (2). Hentet 28 April 2013.
- http://www.ddr-geschichte.de/Politik/Staatsorgane/Polizei/polizei.php Die Deutsche Volkspolizei (DVP)
- Forester, Thomas M., The East German Army; Second in the Warsaw Pact, George Allen & Unwin Ltd, London, 1980
Eksterne henvisninger[redigér | redigér wikikode]
- Official Site of the German Police
- EAST GERMANY - A Country Study (based on information from the Library of Congress)
- The Democratisation of the Police (With Reference to the Brandenburg Police) by John Chivers
- IG Deutsche Volkspolizei, in German
- Volkspolizei page, at www.polizeiautos.de
- Official Site of the German Police
- EAST GERMANY – A Country Study (based on information from the Library of Congress)
- The Democratisation of the Police (With Reference to the Brandenburg Police) by John Chivers
- IG Deutsche Volkspolizei in German.
- Volkspolizei page at polizeiautos.de