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'''Birmingham''' er en by og storbyområde i [[West Midlands (county)|West Midlands]], [[England]], med {{WD indbyg1/år/text|ref=ja}} indbyggere, hvilket gør det til den næststørste by i [[Storbritannien]].<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.birmingham.gov.uk/cs/Satellite?c=Page&childpagename=Planning-and-Regeneration%2FPageLayout&cid=1223096353755&pagename=BCC%2FCommon%2FWrapper%2FWrapper |title=Population and Census |publisher=Birmingham City Council |date=7. Julyjuli 2014 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20151126101950/http://www.birmingham.gov.uk/cs/Satellite?c=Page&childpagename=Planning-and-Regeneration%2FPageLayout&cid=1223096353755&pagename=BCC%2FCommon%2FWrapper%2FWrapper |archivedate=26. Novembernovember 2015 |deadurl=yes}}</ref><ref name="ONS-2001-2011_census">{{cite web|url=http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/census/2011-census/population-and-household-estimates-for-england-and-wales---unrounded-figures-for-the-data-published-16-july-2012/rft-1-2-ew-fact-file.xls|title=2011 Census: Population and household estimates fact file, unrounded estimates, local authorities in England and Wales (Excel sheet 708Kb)|accessdate=30. Decemberdecember 2013|date=24. Septemberseptember 2012|format=xls|publisher=Office for National Statistics}}</ref><ref name="BUA2011">{{cite web | url=http://www.nomisweb.co.uk/articles/747.aspx|title=2011 Census – Built-up areas| work= | publisher=[[Office for National Statistics|ONS]] | accessdate=4. Julyjuli 2013}}</ref><ref name="BrookingsMetroEconomy">{{cite web|url=http://www.brookings.edu/research/interactives/global-metro-monitor-3 |title=Global MetroMonitor |accessdate=23. Decemberdecember 2013 |last1=Istrate |first1=Emilia |last2=Nadeau |first2=Carey Anne |date=November 2012 |place=Washington, DC |publisher=The Brookings Institution |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://www.webcitation.org/6H7Jql2A9?url=http://www.brookings.edu/research/interactives/global-metro-monitor-3 |archivedate=4. Junejuni 2013}}</ref> Den er centrum for [[West Midlands konurbation]], som er det tredje mest befolkede område i Storbritannien med en estimeret population på 2.440.986 i 2011.<ref name="BUAR2011">{{cite web | url=http://www.nomisweb.co.uk/articles/747.aspx|title=2011 Census - Built-up areas| work= | publisher=[[Office for National Statistics|ONS]] | accessdate=4. Julyjuli 2013}}</ref> The wider [[List of metropolitan areas in the United Kingdom|Birmingham metropolitan area]] is the second largest in the United Kingdom, with a population of 3.7 million. Birmingham is frequently referred to as the second city of England.<ref>{{cite web |title=England’s second city: Birmingham |url=http://www.britain-magazine.com/carousel/birmingham-englands-second-city/ |publisher=Britain Magazine |accessdate=11. Junejuni 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Nation’s ‘second city’, Birmingham, is UK’s fastest growing regional tourist destination, according to figures |url=http://www.thisismoney.co.uk/money/smallbusiness/article-3287741/Nation-s-second-city-Birmingham-UK-s-fastest-growing-regional-tourist-destination-according-figures.html |publisher=This is Money |accessdate=11. Junejuni 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=An ode to Birmingham: how can the UK's second city fix its image problem? |url=https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2014/jul/12/ode-to-birmingham-britain-second-city |publisher=The Guardian |accessdate=11. Junejuni 2018}}</ref>
 
Det er en [[købstad]] fra [[middelalderen]], men særligt i 1700-tallet og under den efterfølgende [[industrielle revolution]] skete der en stor udvikling inden for både videnskab, teknologi og økonomi i byen, der producerede en række innovation, der lagde grundstenene til det moderne [[industrisamfund]].<ref name="indsoc">{{harvnb|Uglow|2011|pp=iv, 860–861}}; {{harvnb|Jones|2008|pp=14, 19, 71, 82–83, 231–232}}</ref> I 1791 blev den hyldet som "den første produktionsby i verden".<ref>{{harvnb|Hopkins|1989|p=26}}</ref> Birminghams særlige økonomiske profil, med tusindvis af små virksomheder, der udførte en lang række højt specialiserede erhverv medførte en enorm mængde kreativitet og innovation, hvilket gav byen et økonomisk boost der fortsatte helt frem til den sidste fjerdel af 1900-tallet. [[Watt-dampmaskine]] blev opfundet i Birmingham.<ref>{{harvnb|Berg|1991|pp=174, 184}}; {{cite book|last=Jacobs|first=Jane|title=The economy of cities|year=1969|publisher=Random House|location=New York|oclc=5585|pages=86–89}}</ref>
 
Den affødte høje grad af [[social mobilitet]] fostrede også en kultur med [[politisk radikalisering]] under ledere som [[Thomas Attwood (økonom)|Thomas Attwood]] og [[Joseph Chamberlain]], der fik stor politisk indflydelse, som ikke blev set andre steder i Storbritannien uden for [[London]], og de fik afgørende betydning for udviklignen af det britiske demokrati.<ref>{{harvnb|Ward|2005|loc=jacket|quote=Such a firm basis of local support enabled political leaders, from Thomas Attwood to Neville Chamberlain, to exert leverage in national politics. No provincial city had a greater influence on the shaping of British democracy and on the governance of the British state than Birmingham.}}; {{cite book|last=Briggs|first=Asa|authorlink=Asa Briggs, Baron Briggs|title=Victorian Cities|origyear=1965|year=1990|publisher=Penguin Books|location=Harmondsworth|isbn=0-14-013582-0|pages=185; 187–189}}; {{cite book|last=Jenkins|first=Roy|authorlink=Roy Jenkins|title=Twelve cities: a personal memoir|url=https://books.google.com/?id=UBmWDk5V9BAC|accessdate=2. Octoberoktober 2011|year=2004|publisher=Pan Macmillan|location=London|isbn=0-330-49333-7|pages=50–51}}</ref> Fra sommeren 1940 og frem til foråret 1943 blev Birmingham voldsomt bombet af det [[Luftwaffe|tyske Luftwaffe]] under [[anden verdenskrig]], under det som nu er kendt som [[Birmingham Blitz]]. Ødelæggelserne i byens infrastruktur samt den overlagte politik om at nedrive og opføre nye bygninger i stedet ledte til en stor [[byfornyelse]] i de efterfølgende årtier.
 
Birminghams er i dag domineret af [[servicesektor]]en.<ref name="nomisweb">{{cite web|url=http://www.nomisweb.co.uk/reports/lmp/la/1946157186/report.aspx#tabjobs|title=Employee jobs (2012)|accessdate=29. Marchmarts 2014|work=Nomis – official labour market statistics|publisher=Office for National Statistics}}</ref> Byen er et stort international kommercielt centrum, og er rangeret som en gamma+ [[verdensby]] af [[Globalization and World Cities Research Network]];<ref name="TheWorld">{{cite web|url=http://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/world2016t.html|title=The World According to GaWC 2016|last=|first=|date=|website=|publisher=Globalization and World Cities Research Network|accessdate=5. Maymaj 2017}}</ref> og det er et vigtig sted for transport, handel, events og konferencer. Det er metropoløkonomi og den næststørste i Storbritannien med et [[GDP]] på $121.1 mia. (2014),<ref name="brookingsgdp">{{cite web|url=http://www.brookings.edu/research/interactives/global-metro-monitor-3 |title=Global city GDP 2014 |publisher=Brookings Institution |accessdate=18. Novembernovember 2014 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://www.webcitation.org/6H7Jql2A9?url=http://www.brookings.edu/research/interactives/global-metro-monitor-3 |archivedate=4. Junejuni 2013}}</ref> og byens seks universiteter gør den til det største uddannelsescentrum for [[videregående uddannelse]]r uden for London.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.hesa.ac.uk/dox/dataTables/studentsAndQualifiers/download/institution0809.xls?v=1.0 |title=Table 0 – All students by institution, mode of study, level of study and domicile 2008/09 |accessdate=31. Januaryjanuar 2011 |publisher=Higher education Statistics Agency }}; {{cite web|url=http://www.centreforcities.org/assets/files/09-12-17%20Birmingham%20University%20Challenge.pdf |title=University Challenge: Growing the Knowledge Economy in Birmingham |accessdate=11. Novembernovember 2013 |last=Aldred |first=Tom |year=2009 |format=PDF |location=London |publisher=Centre for Cities |page=12 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20131111215357/http://www.centreforcities.org/assets/files/09-12-17%20Birmingham%20University%20Challenge.pdf |archivedate=11. Novembernovember 2013 |df= }}</ref> Birminghams store kulturinstitutioner – [[City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra]], [[Birmingham Royal Ballet]], [[Birmingham Repertory Theatre]], [[Library of Birmingham]] og[[Barber Institute of Fine Arts]] – nyder alle et internationalt ry,<ref>{{cite news|first=Fiona |last=Maddocks |title=Andris Nelsons, magician of Birmingham |url=https://www.theguardian.com/music/2010/jun/06/andris-nelsons-conductor-cbso-city-culture-2013?cat=music&type=article |work=The Observer |publisher=Guardian News and Media |date=6. Junejuni 2010 |accessdate=31. Januaryjanuar 2011 |location=London }}; {{cite news|first=Debra |last=Craine |title=Birmingham Royal Ballet comes of age |url=http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/stage/dance/article7036522.ece |work=The Times |publisher=Times Newspapers |date=23. Februaryfebruar 2010 |accessdate=31. Januaryjanuar 2011 }}; {{cite web|url=http://www.johansens.com/england/birmingham/the-barber-institute-of-fine-arts |title=The Barber Institute of Fine Arts |accessdate=31. Januaryjanuar 2011 |work=Johansens |publisher=Condé Nast |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110703140935/http://www.johansens.com/england/birmingham/the-barber-institute-of-fine-arts |archivedate=3. Julyjuli 2011 |df= }}</ref> og byen har en levende og indflydelsesrig græsrodsbevægelse inden for kunst, musik, litteratur og gastronomi.<ref>{{cite web|last=Price|first=Matt|year=2008|title=A Hitchhiker' s Guide to the Gallery – Where to see art in Birmingham and the West Midlands|location=London|publisher=Arts Co|url=http://www.arts-co.com/assets/pdfs/MattPrice.pdf|accessdate=11. Novembernovember 2013}}; {{cite news|first=Alison|last=King|title=Forget Madchester, it's all about the B-Town scene|url=https://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/music/features/forget-madchester-its-all-about-the-btown-scene-8207631.html|work=The Independent|publisher=Independent News and Media|date=13. Octoberoktober 2012|accessdate=11. Novembernovember 2013|location=London}}; {{Cite news|last=Segal|first=Francesca|title=Why Birmingham rules the literary roost|newspaper=The Observer|publication-place=London|publisher=Guardian News and Media|publicationdate=3 August 2008|url=https://www.theguardian.com/books/2008/aug/03/bookerprize.history|accessdate=11. Novembernovember 2013}}; {{cite news|first=Lobrano|last=Alexander|title=Birmingham, England – Could England's second city be first in food?|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/08/travel/45-places-to-go-in-2012.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0|newspaper=New York Times|publisher=The New York Times Company|date=6. Januaryjanuar 2012|accessdate=31. Decemberdecember 2013}}</ref> Birmingham er den fjerde mest besøgte by blandt udenlandske gæster.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/ott/travel-trends/2014/rpt-travel-trends--2014.html#tab-Overseas-residents--visits-to-the-UK|title=Travel Trends, 2014|publisher=}}</ref>
 
Birminghams to professionelle fodboldklubber er [[Birmingham City F.C.|Birmingham City]] og [[Aston Villa F.C.|Aston Villa]], hvoraf den sidste har haft størst sycces med syv ligatitler og én [[UEFA Champions League|europæisk]]. Birmingham er blevet udvalgt til [[2022 Commonwealth Games]].<ref name="bbc.co.uk">{{cite web|url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-birmingham-40334223|title=Stadium expansion at heart of 2022 bid|date=20. Junejuni 2017|publisher=|via=www.bbc.co.uk}}</ref>
 
Personer fra Birmingham kaldes [[Brummie]]s, hvilket er et term, der er afledt af byens kælenavn "Brum", der stammer fra byens gamle navn, [[Brummagem]]. Dette navn menes at være afledt fra "Bromwich-ham".<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.worldwidewords.org/weirdwords/ww-bru2.htm |title= Brummagem |publisher=Worldwidewords.com |date=13. Decemberdecember 2003 |accessdate=7. Junejuni 2008}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |first=William|last=Hutton |title=An History of Birmingham |year=1783 }}</ref>
 
== Historie ==
 
== Uddannelse ==
Birmingham er hjem for fem universiteter: [[Aston University]], [[University of Birmingham]], [[Birmingham City University]], [[University College Birmingham]] and [[Newman University, Birmingham|Newman University]].<ref>{{cite web|title=Universities in Birmingham|url=http://www.birmingham.gov.uk/cs/Satellite?c=Page&childpagename=SystemAdmin%2FCFPageLayout&cid=1223092631015&packedargs=website%3D4&pagename=BCC%2FCommon%2FWrapper%2FCFWrapper&rendermode=live|website=birmingham.gov.uk|publisher=Birmingham City Council|accessdate=20. Decemberdecember 2014}}</ref> Byen rummer [[campus]]er for [[University of Law]] og [[BPP University]], samt [[Open University]]s West Midlands baserede uddannelse.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www3.open.ac.uk/contact/details.aspx?contactid=4|title=The Open University in the West Midlands|accessdate=24. Februaryfebruar 2013|publisher=The Open University|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20121210010021/http://www3.open.ac.uk/contact/details.aspx?contactid=4|archivedate=10. Decemberdecember 2012}}</ref> I 2011 var der 78.259 fuldtidsstuderende i alderen 18-74 år, som boede i byen, hvilket var mere end nogen anden by i Storbritannien uden for London.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/census/2011-census/key-statistics-and-quick-statistics-for-local-authorities-in-the-united-kingdom---part-2/rft-ks501uk.xls|title=2011 Census: KS501UK Qualifications and students, local authorities in the United Kingdom (Excel sheet 293Kb)|accessdate=29. Marchmarts 2014|date=4. Decemberdecember 2013|work=2011 Census, Key Statistics and Quick Statistics for local authorities in the United Kingdom – Part 2|publisher=Office for National Statistics }}</ref> Birmingham har 32.690 [[forskning]]sstuderende ([[ph.d.]], [[postdoc]] mv.), hvilket ligeledes er det største for noget sted i landen uden for London.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.centreforcities.org/assets/files/09-12-17%20Birmingham%20University%20Challenge.pdf |title=University Challenge: Growing the Knowledge Economy in Birmingham |accessdate=20. Aprilapril 2014 |last=Aldred |first=Tom |year=2009 |format=PDF |location=London |publisher=Centre for Cities |page=12 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20131111215357/http://www.centreforcities.org/assets/files/09-12-17%20Birmingham%20University%20Challenge.pdf |archivedate=11. Novembernovember 2013 |df= }}</ref>
 
[[File:Astonmainbuilding.jpg|thumb|left|[[Aston University]].]]
 
[[Birmingham Business School]], der blev etableret af [[William Ashley (økonomihistorikern)|Sir William Ashley]] i 1902, er den ældste [[handelshøjskole]] i Storbritannien.<ref>{{cite news|title=Birmingham Business School|url=https://www.independent.co.uk/student/postgraduate/business-schools/birmingham-business-school-1206244.html|work=The Independent |date=12. Decemberdecember 2010|accessdate=5. Novembernovember 2011|location=London}}</ref> Andre vigtige handelsskoler i byen er [[Aston Business School]], der er én blandt de mindre end 1 % af verdens handelsskoler der har [[triple accreditation]],<ref>{{cite web|url=http://guardian.uk.studylink.com/display/provider/provider-info.html?pid=pid-si-20-ast |title=Aston Business School |accessdate=26. Januaryjanuar 2008 |work=EducationGuardian.co.uk |publisher=StudyLink |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110716160108/http://guardian.uk.studylink.com/display/provider/provider-info.html?pid=pid-si-20-ast |archivedate=16. Julyjuli 2011 |df= }}</ref> og [[Birmingham City Business School]]. [[Birmingham Conservatoire]], [[Birmingham School of Acting]] og [[Birmingham Institute of Art and Design]] er nu alle en del af Birmingham City University, og de tilbyder videregående uddannelser inden for musik, skuespil og kunst.
 
[[King Edward's School]] blev oprindeligt etableret som en drengeskole ved[[Royal Charter]] af [[Edvard 6. af England]] i 1552. Skolen er en del af [[Foundation of the Schools of King Edward VI]], som også driver [[King Edward VI High School for Girls]]. I praksis har de to skoler mange fag sammen og deler flere bygninger og udendørsområder.
[[File:Barber-Institute-in-spring-II.jpg|thumb|[[Barber Institute of Fine Arts]].]]
 
Birmingham har to stor offentlig kunstsamlinger. [[Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery]] er bedst kendt [[Prærafaelitter|prærafaellitiske]] værker, en samling "af enestående betydning".<ref name="fisher-BMAG">{{cite book|last=Fisher|first=Mark|authorlink=Mark Fisher (politician)|title=Britain's Best Museums and Galleries: From the Greatest Collections to the Smallest Curiosities|year=2005|publisher=Penguin Books|location=Harmondsworth|isbn=0-14-101960-3|pages=208–210|chapter=Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery}}</ref> Det har også en vigtig samling af [[gamle mestre]] – inklusive store værker af [[Giovanni Bellini|Bellini]], [[Peter Paul Rubens|Rubens]], [[Canaletto]] og [[Claude Lorrain|Claude]] – og særligt en stor samling af 1600-tals italienske barokmalerier og engelske [[akverel]]ler.<ref name="fisher-BMAG"/> Dets designsamling inkluderer nogle af Europas vigtigste samlinger af [[keramik]] og metalarbejder.<ref name="fisher-BMAG"/> [[Barber Institute of Fine Arts]] i [[Edgbaston]] er et af de fineste små kunstgallerier i verden,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.johansens.com/england/midlands/the-barber-institute-of-fine-arts|title=The Barber Institute of Fine Arts|accessdate=20. Septemberseptember 2010|work=Johansens|publisher=Condé Nast}}{{Dead link|date=April 2011}}</ref> med en samling af vestlig kunst fra 1200-tallet og frem til i dag.<ref>{{cite book|last=Fisher|first=Mark|authorlink=Mark Fisher (politician)|title=Britain's Best Museums and Galleries: From the Greatest Collections to the Smallest Curiosities|year=2005|publisher=Penguin Books|location=Harmondsworth|isbn=0-14-101960-3|pages=205–207|chapter=Barber Institute of Fine Arts}}</ref>
 
[[Birmingham Museums Trust]] driver andre museer i byen inklusive [[Aston Hall]], [[Blakesley Hall]], [[Museum of the Jewellery Quarter]], [[Soho House]] og [[Sarehole Mill]]. [[Birmingham Back to Backs]] er den sidst tilbageværende gård med [[back-to-back]]-huse i byen.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.birmingham.gov.uk/ELibrary?E_LIBRARY_ID=93&a=1157290087529 |title=Back to back in Birmingham |publisher=Birmingham City Council |format=PDF |accessdate=7. Junejuni 2008 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070930222433/http://www.birmingham.gov.uk/ELibrary?E_LIBRARY_ID=93&a=1157290087529 |archivedate=30. Septemberseptember 2007 }}</ref> [[Cadbury World (Birmingham)|Cadbury World]] er et museum, hvor besøgende kan se nærmere på [[chokolade]]produktion, [[chokoladens historie]] og [[Cadbury|firmaet selv]]. [[Ikon Gallery]] har udstillinger af moderne kunst og det samme gælder [[Eastside Projects]].
 
[[Thinktank (Birmingham)|Thinktank]] er Birminghams primære [[Teknisk museum|tekniske museum]] der rummer et stort biograflærred, et [[planetarium]] og en samling der inkluderer ''[[Smethwick Engine]]'', verdens ældste [[dampmaskine]] der stadig fungerer.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.matthewboulton2009.org/index.php/gallery/33-the-smethwick-engine |title=The Smethwick Engine |accessdate=19. Septemberseptember 2010 |publisher=The Boulton 2009 Partnership |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110727072103/http://www.matthewboulton2009.org/index.php/gallery/33-the-smethwick-engine |archivedate=27. Julyjuli 2011 }}</ref> Andre tekniske museer inkluderer [[National Sea Life Centre (Birmingham)|National Sea Life Centre]] i [[Brindleyplace]], [[Lapworth Museum of Geology]] ved [[University of Birmingham]] og [[Centre of the Earth]] i [[Winson Green]].
 
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