Bruger:Nessumsaram/sandkasse

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Velkommen til min sandkasse. Hvis du har nogen indvendinger mod, hvad jeg skriver eller planlægger at skrive, så behandles disse under diskussion. Hvis nogen af jer agter at enten nominere, oprette eller forbedre nogen af de respektive artikler, så kan dette også behandles under diskussion. Denne liste vil nok senere få sin helt egen side.

Liste over artikler som skal oprettes, forbedres eller nomineres.

OBS. Artikler som på den ene eller anden måde omhandler eller har tilknytning til USA står under "USA" i de respektive artikelkategorier. Computerspil, film, litteratur og YouYube kanaler er ikke under denne kategori.

Må denne liste være en hjælp for andre til at finpudse og oprette artikler, da jeg næppe vil kunne nå at finpudse, oprette og forbedrer alle de artikler lige foreløbig.

Artikler som skal oprettes[redigér | redigér wikikode]

USA[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Andet[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Artikle som skal forbedres[redigér | redigér wikikode]

USA[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Andet[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Ting har tilknytning til J. R. R. Tolkien[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Artikler om filosoffer[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Førsokratikere:

Resten af antikken

Middelalderen

Renæssancen

Oplysningstiden

Moderne tid (1850-1918)

Efterkrigstids filosoffer (1940-nu)

Herunder forbedring af artikler om filosofiske retninger og generelle historiske artikler[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Antikken

Artikler som skal nomineres[redigér | redigér wikikode]

OBS denne liste involverer artikler som ikke nødvendigvis er klar til at blive nomineret. Det kan være at et kapitel er mangelfuldt, eller at tegnsætningen er helt uacceptabel. Så denne er mere en liste over artikler som i den nærmeste fremtid vil blive nomineret til lovende artikler. Hvis du vil bidrage til at forbedre artiklerne, så behandles dette under diskussion, eller du kan vælge at skrive til mig direkte på min profils diskussions side.

Lovende artikler[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Gode artikler[redigér | redigér wikikode]

1. Den industrielle revolution - flere uddybbende artikler

2. Rhinen - flere uddybbende artikler

3. Franklin Delano Roosevelt - flere artikler uddybbende artikler

Fremragende artikler[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Kladder til "Artikler som skal oprettes"[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Hjælp [[1]]

Amerikas navngivning[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Navngivningen af det amerikanske kontinent, eller Amerika, fandt sted kort efter Christopher Columbus' sørejse til Amerika i 1492. Der er bred enighed om at navngivet stammer fra Amerigo Vespucci, den italienske opdagelsesrejsende, der opdagede de nye kontinenter i de følgede år. Dog har nogle fremsat andre forklaringer, hvilket omfatter at det er navngivnet efter en bjergkæde i Nicaragua eller efter Richard Amerika af Bristol.

Brug[redigér | redigér wikikode]

I moderne engelsk, bliver Nord- og Sydamerika generelt opfattet som to adskilte kontinenter, og disse kaldes sammenlagt 'Americas' (på dansk Amerika) i flertal, parallelt med lignende situationer såsom 'the Carolinas' (på dansk Carolina). Når det bliver opfattet som et samlet kontinent er formen generelt 'the continent of America' (på dansk 'Det amerikanske kontinent') i ental. Imidlertid referer entalsformen 'America' på engelsk uden en tydeliggørende kontekst ofte til USA, undertiden kendt som Amerikas Forenede Stater.[1]

På dansk er situation stort set den samme som med moderne engelsk, med den undtagelse af brugen af ordet 'Amerika' til at referere til USA er ikke eksisterende, hvorfor de to andre navne USA, og det lidt ældre og sjældent brugte navn Amerikas Forenede Stater bruges i stedet.

Tidligste brug af navnet[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Verdenskort lavet af Waldseemüller (Tyskland, 1507), der som det første brugte navnet 'America' (i den nedre-venstre sektion, ovenover Sydamerika.[2]

Den tidligst kendte brug af navnet America dateres til 25 april, 1507, hvor det blev anvendt til hvad der nu kaldes Sydamerika.[2] Her optræder det på et lille verdenskort med tolv tidszoner og desuden på det største vægkort lavet til dato, der begge er frembragt af den tyske kartograf Martin Waldseemüller i Saint-Dié-des-Vosges Frankrig.[3] Disse kort var det første der viste Amerika som en adskilt landmasse fra Asien. En medfølgende bog ved navnCosmographiae Introductio, der fremstår som anonym men tilsyneladende er skrevet af Waldseemüller's samarbejdspartner Matthias Ringmann,[4] meddeler følgende:

"..."

"I do not see what right any one would have to object to calling this part [that is, the South American mainland], after Americus who discovered it and who is a man of intelligence, Amerigen, that is, the Land of Americus, or America: since both Europa and Asia got their names from women".

Amerigo Vespucci[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Americus Vesputius was the Latinized version of the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci's name, the forename being an old Italianization (compare modern Italian Enrico) of Medieval Latin Emericus (see Saint Emeric of Hungary), from the Old High German name Emmerich, which may have been a merger of several Germanic names – Amalric, Ermanaric and Old High German Haimirich, from Proto-Germanic *amala- ('vigor, bravery'), *ermuna- ('great; whole') or *haima- ('home') + *rīk- ('ruler') (compare *Haimarīks).[5]

Amerigo Vespucci (March 9, 1454 – February 22, 1512) was an Italian explorer, financier, navigator and cartographer who first postulated[kilde mangler] that Brazil and the West Indies did not represent Asia's eastern outskirts as initially conjectured from Columbus' voyages, but instead constituted an entirely separate landmass hitherto unknown to the Europeans.[6]

Vespucci was apparently unaware of the use of his name to refer to the new landmass, as Waldseemüller's maps did not reach Spain until a few years after his death.[4] Ringmann may have been misled into crediting Vespucci by the widely published Soderini Letter, a sensationalized version of one of Vespucci's actual letters reporting on the mapping of the South American coast, which glamorized his discoveries and implied that he had recognized that South America was a continent separate from Asia.[7] Spain officially refused to accept the name America for two centuries, saying that Columbus should get credit, and Waldseemüller's later maps, after Ringmann's death, did not include it; however, usage was established when Gerardus Mercator applied the name to the entire New World in his 1538 world map. Acceptance may have been aided by the "natural poetic counterpart" that the name America made with Asia, Africa, and Europa.[4]

Opkaldt efter en Nicaraguansk bjergkæde[redigér | redigér wikikode]

In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed that the name derives from the Amerrique mountains of present-day Nicaragua. In 1875, Jules Marcou suggested a derivation from indigenous American languages where "Amerrique" originally named the prominent mountain range.[8] Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and ... the [suffixes] can mean ... a spirit that breathes, life itself."[9]

In this view, native speakers shared this indigenous word with Columbus and members of his crew, and Columbus made landfall in the vicinity of these mountains on his fourth voyage.[8][9] The name America then spread via oral means throughout Europe relatively quickly even reaching the cartographer Waldseemüller who was  preparing a map of newly reported lands for publication in 1507.[9] Waldseemüller's work in the area of denomination takes on a different aspect in this view:

Citat The baptismal passage in the Cosmographiae Introductio has commonly been read as argument, in which the author said that he was naming the newly discovered continent in honor of Vespucci and saw no reason for objections. But, as etymologist Joy Rea has suggested, it could also be read as an explanation, in which he indicates that he has heard the New World was called America, and the only explanation lay in Vespucci's name. Citat

Among the reasons which proponents give in adopting this theory include the recognition of “the simple fact that place names usually originate informally in the spoken word and first circulate that way, not in the printed word.”[9][10] In addition, Waldseemüller not only is exonerated from the charge of having arrogated to himself the privilege of naming lands, which privilege was reserved to monarchs and actual explorers, but also is freed from the charge of violating the long-established and virtually inviolable ancient European tradition of using only the first name of royal individuals as opposed to the last name of commoners (such as Vespucci) in bestowing names to lands.[8]

Richard Amerike[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Bristol antiquarian Alfred Hudd suggested in 1908 that the name was derived from the surname "Amerike" or "ap Meryk" and was used on early British maps that have since been lost. Richard ap Meryk, anglicised to Richard Amerike (or Ameryk) (Skabelon:Circa 1445–1503) was a wealthy English merchant, royal customs officer and sheriff of Bristol.[11] According to some historians, he was the principal owner of the Matthew, the ship sailed by John Cabot during his voyage of exploration to North America in 1497.[11] The idea that Richard Amerike was a 'principal supporter' of Cabot has gained popular currency in the 21st century.[11] There is no known evidence to support this. Similarly, and contrary to a recent tradition that names Amerike as principal owner and main funder of the Matthew, Cabot's ship of 1497,[11] academic enquiry does not connect Amerike with the ship. Her ownership at that date remains uncertain.[12] Macdonald asserts that the caravel was specifically built for the Atlantic crossing.[13]

Hudd proposed his theory in a paper which was read at the 21 May 1908 meeting of the Clifton Antiquarian Club, and which appeared in Volume 7 of the club's Proceedings. In "Richard Ameryk and the name America," Hudd discussed the 1497 discovery of North America by John Cabot, an Italian who had sailed on behalf of England. Upon his return to England after his first (1497) and second (1498–1499) voyages, Cabot received two pension payments from King Henry VII. Of the two customs officials at the Port of Bristol who were responsible for delivering the money to Cabot, the more senior was Richard Ameryk (High Sheriff of Bristol in 1503).[9][14] Hudd postulated that Cabot named the land that he had discovered after Ameryk, from whom he received the pension conferred by the king.[15] He stated that Cabot had a reputation for being free with gifts to his friends, such that his expression of gratitude to the official would not be unexpected. Hudd used a quote from a late 15th-century manuscript (a calendar of Bristol events), the original of which had been lost in an 1860 Bristol fire, that indicated the name America was already known in Bristol in 1497.[9][16]

Citat This year (1497), on St. John the Baptist's day (June 24th), the land of America was found by the merchants of Bristow, in a ship of Bristowe called the 'Mathew,' the which said ship departed from the port of Bristowe the 2nd of May and came home again the 6th August following. Citat

Hudd reasoned that the scholars of the 1507 Cosmographiae Introductio, unfamiliar with Richard Ameryk, assumed that the name America, which he claimed had been in use for ten years, was based on Amerigo Vespucci and, therefore, mistakenly transferred the honour from Ameryk to Vespucci.[9][16] While Hudd's speculation has found support from some authors, there is no strong evidence to substantiate his theory that Cabot named America after Richard Ameryk.[9][11][17]

Moreover, because Amerike's coat of arms was similar to the flag later adopted by the independent United States, a legend grew that the North American continent had been named for him rather than for Amerigo Vespucci.[11] It is not widely accepted.

Indfødtes navngivning af kontinentet[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Naming the continent after a European colonizer has been seen by some civil society groups as problematic. In 1977, the World Council of Indigenous Peoples (Consejo Mundial de Pueblos Indígenas) proposed using the term Abya Yala instead of "America" when referring to the continent. There are also names in other indigenous languages such as Ixachilan and Runa Pacha. Some scholars have picked up the term with a reference to the illegitimacy of colonialism.[18]

Referencer[redigér | redigér wikikode]

  1. ^ "America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language (ISBN 0-19-214183-X). McArthur, Tom, ed., 1992. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 33: "[16c: from the feminine of Americus, the Latinized first name of the explorer Amerigo Vespucci (1454–1512). The name America first appeared on a map in 1507 by the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller, referring to the area now called Brazil]. Since the 16c, a name of the western hemisphere, often in the plural Americas and more or less synonymous with the New World. Since the 18c, a name of the United States of America. The second sense is now primary in English: ... However, the term is open to uncertainties: ..."
  2. ^ a b "Universalis cosmographia secundum Ptholomaei traditionem et Americi Vespucii alioru[m]que lustrationes.". Arkiveret fra originalen January 9, 2009. Hentet September 8, 2014. 
  3. ^ Martin Waldseemüller. "Universalis cosmographia secundum Ptholomaei traditionem et Americi Vespucii alioru[m]que lustrationes". Washington, DC: Library of Congress. LCCN 2003626426. Hentet April 18, 2014. 
  4. ^ a b c Toby Lester, December (2009). "Putting America on the Map". Smithsonian. 40: 9. 
  5. ^ Harrison, Henry (8 February 2017). Surnames of the United Kingdom: A Concise Etymological Dictionary (engelsk). Genealogical Publishing Com. ISBN 9780806301716. 
  6. ^ Szalay, Jessie. Amerigo Vespuggi: Facts, Biography & Naming of America (citing Erika Cosme of Mariners Museum & Park, Newport News VA). 20 September 2017 (accessed 23 June 2019)
  7. ^ "UK | Magazine | The map that changed the world". BBC News. October 28, 2009. Hentet 23 June 2019. 
  8. ^ a b c ""Origin of the Name America" by Jules Marcou, The Atlantic Monthly, March 1875". UNZ.org. Hentet 19 March 2017. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Jonathan Cohen. "The Naming of America: Fragments We've Shored Against Ourselves". Stony Brook University. Hentet 3 February 2014. 
  10. ^ Rea, Joy (1 January 1964). "On the Naming of America". American Speech. 39 (1): 42–50. JSTOR 453925. doi:10.2307/453925. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f Macdonald, Peter (17 February 2011). "BBC History in Depth; The Naming of America; Richard Amerike". BBC History website. BBC. Hentet 24 February 2011. 
  12. ^ Evan T. Jones, "The Matthew of Bristol and the financiers of John Cabot's 1497 voyage to North America", English Historical Review (2006)
  13. ^ Macdonald, Peter (1997), Cabot & the Naming of America, Bristol: Petmac Publications, s. 29, ISBN 0-9527009-2-1. 
  14. ^ Macdonald 1997, s. 46
  15. ^ Macdonald 1997, s. 33
  16. ^ a b Alfred E. Hudd, F.S.A., Hon. Secretary. "Richard Ameryk and the name America" (PDF). Proceedings of the Clifton Antiquarian Club. VII: 8–24. Hentet 11 July 2012. 
  17. ^ Quinn, David B. (1990). Explorers and Colonies: America, 1500-1625. A&C Black. s. 398. ISBN 9781852850241. Hentet 12 February 2016. 
  18. ^ Julia Roth. Latein/Amerika, in: Susan Arndt and Nadja Ofuatey-Alazard: Wie Rassismus aus Wörtern spricht. Unrast-Verlag. 

Bibliografi[redigér | redigér wikikode]

  • The Columbus Myth: Did Men of Bristol Reach America before Columbus? Ian Wilson (1974; reprint 1991: ISBN 0-671-71167-9)
  • Terra Incognita: The True Story of How America Got Its Name, Rodney Broome (US 2001: ISBN 0-944638-22-8)
  • Amerike: The Briton America Is Named After, Rodney Broome (UK 2002: ISBN 0-7509-2909-X)

Eksterne henvisninger[redigér | redigér wikikode]


Signering af indlæg note[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Mvh. Nessumsaram (diskussion), 34. august 2031, 27:40 (CEST)