Den kaukaside race

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Den kaukaside race (også kaukasid[1] eller europid[2]) er en gruppering af mennesker, der historisk set betragtes som et biologisk takson, der omfatter nogle eller alle folk i Europa, Nordafrika, Afrikas Horn, Vestasien, Centralasien og Sydasien.[3] Begrebet har været benyttet i biologisk antropologi for mange folk i disse regioner, uden nødvendigvis at henvise til hudfarve.[4] Det blev introduceret i den tidlige racemodel og i antropometri, begrebet udgør en en af tre betegnelser for primære menneskeracer (kaukasid, mongolid og negrid).[5] Flere samfundsvidenskabsfolk har argumenteret for at sådanne analyser er rodfæstet i sociopolitologiske og historiske processer snarere end i empiriske observationer.[6] Til trods for dette så benyttes kaukasoid fortsat som en biologisk klassifikation i retsantropologi.[7]

Begrebets oprindelse[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Det georgiske kranie som Blumenbach opdagede i 1795, som han benyttede til sin hypotese om, at europæerne stammer fra Kaukasus.

Begrebet "den kaukaside race" blev skabt af den tyske filosof Christoph Meiners i hans The Outline of History of Mankind (1785).

Referencer[redigér | redigér wikikode]

  1. ^ Empires of the Silk Road: A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-13589-2. OCLC 800915872.
  2. ^ Pearson, Roger (1985). Anthropological glossary. R.E. Krieger Pub. Co.. s. 79. Hentet 21. juli 2015. 
  3. ^ Coon, Carleton Stevens (1939). The Races of Europe. New York: The Macmillan Company. s. 400–401. "This third racial zone stretches from Spain across the Straits of Gibraltar to Morocco, and thence along the southern Mediterranean shores into Arabia, East Africa, Mesopotamia, and the Persian highlands; and across Afghanistan into India[...] The Mediterranean racial zone stretches unbroken from Spain across the Straits of Gibraltar to Morocco, and thence eastward to India[...] A branch of it extends far southward on both sides of the Red Sea into southern Arabia, the Ethiopian highlands, and the Horn of Africa." 
  4. ^ Grolier Incorporated, Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 6: Cathedrals to Civil War, (Grolier Incorporated, 2001), p.85. OCLC 615043106.
  5. ^ Pickering, Robert (2009). The Use of Forensic Anthropology. CRC Press. s. 82. ISBN 1-4200-6877-6. 
  6. ^ Susanne Berthier-Foglar, Sheila Collingwood-Whittick, Sandrine Tolazzi (2012). Biomapping Indigenous Peoples: Towards an Understanding of the Issues. Rodopi. s. 186. ISBN 9401208662. Hentet 4. juli 2016. "The [American Anthropological Association] statement is representative of the prevailing view in the contemporary social sciences. Many social scientists have questioned the assumption that race is a scientific or objective reality, contending that it is forged from the discourses of politics, society, and history." 
  7. ^ Pickering, Robert (2009). The Use of Forensic Anthropology. CRC Press. s. 82. ISBN 1-4200-6877-6. "Race is both a cultural and a biological term. For more than a century, scientists and philosophers have tried to define race and describe races. Some scientists define only three races: caucasoid, mongoloid, and negroid, while other scientists have defined more than 10. In our climate of multi-cultural sensitivity, some scholars, not forensic anthropologists, suggest that race does not exist, or at least it should not be talked about." 

Litteratur[redigér | redigér wikikode]

  • Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, On the Natural Varieties of Mankind (1775) — the book that introduced the concept
  • Gould, Stephen Jay (1981). The mismeasure of man. New York: Norton. ISBN 0-393-01489-4.  — a history of the pseudoscience of race, skull measurements, and IQ inheritability
  • Piazza, Alberto; Cavalli-Sforza, L. L.; Menozzi, Paolo (1996). The history and geography of human genes. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-02905-9.  — a major reference of modern population genetics
  • Cavalli-Sforza, LL (2000). Genes, peoples and languages. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 0-7139-9486-X. 
  • Augstein, HF (1999). "From the Land of the Bible to the Caucasus and Beyond". Race, science and medicine, 1700–1960. New York: Routledge. s. 58–79. ISBN 0-415-18152-6. 
  • Baum, Bruce (2006). The rise and fall of the Caucasian race: a political history of racial identity. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-9892-6. 
  • Guthrie, Paul (1999). The Making of the Whiteman: From the Original Man to the Whiteman. Chicago, IL: Research Associates School Times. ISBN 0-948390-49-2. 
  • Wolf, Eric R.; Cole, John N. (1999). The Hidden Frontier: Ecology and Ethnicity in an Alpine Valley. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-21681-4.