Bruger:Weblars/Sandkasse5

Fra Wikipedia, den frie encyklopædi
Spring til navigation Spring til søgning
Mandatområdet i Palæstina
Mandatory Palestine[a][1]
Mandatområde under Storbritannien

1920–1948
 

Mandatområdet i Palæstinas flag
Mandatområdet i Palæstinas geografiske placering
Mandatområdet i Palæstina i 1946
Hovedstad Jerusalem
Sprog Arabisk, Engelsk, Hebraisk
Politisk struktur Mandatområde
Guvernør
- 1920 — 1925
Sir Herbert Louis Samuel
- 1925 — 1928
Herbert Plumer, 1. viscount Plumer
- 1928 — 1931
John Robert Chancellor
- 1945 — 1948
Sir Alan G. Cunningham
Historisk periode Mellemkrigstiden
- Tildelt Mandatet
25. april 1920
Storbritannien påtager sig officielt kontrollen
29. september 1923
Transjordan selvstændig
25. maj 1946
Israel erklærede sig selvstændig
14. maj 1948
Valuta Egyptiske pund (indtil 1927)
Palæstinensiske pund (fra 1927)
Efterfulgte
Efterfulgt af
Osmannisk Syrien
Transjordan
Israel
Cisjordanien og Transjordanien blev indlemmet (under forskellige juridiske og administrative forhold) i det britiske mandatområde i Palæstina udstedt af Folkeforbundet til Storbritannien den 29. september 1923 (Engelsk illustration).

Mandatområdet i Palæstina, også kaldet Palæstinamandatet, Mandatet for Palæstina eller Det britiske mandatområde i Palæstina, var det nuværende Jordan og Israel med Vestbredden og Gazastriben. Det tilhørte tidligere det Osmanniske Rige og blev i dønningerne efter 1. verdenskrig betroet Storbritannien som et mandatområde. Det eksisterede mellem 1920 og 1948. I tiden mellem det Osmanniske Riges fald i 1917-18 og mandatområdets oprettelse var det en del af det såkaldte Occupied Enemy Territory Administration, kontrolleret af det britiske militær.[2]

Under 1. verdenskrig (1914-18) blev tyrkerne (osmannerne) drevet ud af Levanten af Araberopstanden og det Britiske Imperiums hær under Felttoget i Sinai og Palæstina.[3] Storbritannien havde givet araberne tilsagn om uafhængighed, hvis de gjorde oprør mod osmannerne, men de to sider havde forskellig fortolkning af denne aftale, og i sidste ende blev området delt mellem Frankrig og Storbritannien i Sykes-Picot-aftalen – et forræderi i arabernes øjne. En yderligere komplikation var Balfour-deklarationen fra 1917, hvor briterne lovede jøderne støtte til et "nationalt hjem" i Palæstina. Ved krigens afslutning etablerede briterne og franskmændene kondominatet Occupied Enemy Territory Administration i det der hed Osmannisk Syrien. Briterne opnåede legitimitet i forhold til deres fortsatte kontrol i juni 1922 gennem et mandat fra Folkeforbundet. Det formelle formål for Folkeforbundets mandatsystem var at administrere dele af det tidligere osmanniske rige, der havde kontrolleret området siden 1500-tallet, "indtil de kunne stå på egne ben".[4]

I løbet af mandatområdets tid opstod der to nationalistbevægelser, en blandt jøderne og en anden blandt de palæstinensiske arabere. De to befolkningsgruppers konkurrerende nationale interesser dels i forhold til hinanden og dels i forhold til de regerende britiske myndigheder udviklede sig til arabiske og jødiske opstande i henholdsvis 1936-1939 og 1944-1948, inden det kulminerede i den arabisk-israelske krig fra 1947–1949. Dette førte til etableringen af en våbenhvileaftale i 1949 med deling af det tidligere mandatområde mellem den nye stat Israel med et jødisk befolkningsflertal, den arabiske Vestbred, annekteret af Kongeriget Jordan samt det arabiske protektorat i Gazastriben under Egypten.


During the First World War (1914–18), an Arab uprising and the British Empire's Egyptian Expeditionary Force under General Edmund Allenby drove the Turks out of the Levant during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign.[5] The United Kingdom had agreed in the McMahon–Hussein Correspondence that it would honour Arab independence if they revolted against the Ottomans, but the two sides had different interpretations of this agreement, and in the end, the UK and France divided up the area under the Sykes–Picot Agreement—an act of betrayal in the eyes of the Arabs. Further complicating the issue was the Balfour Declaration of 1917, promising British support for a Jewish "national home" in Palestine. At the war's end the British and French set up a joint "Occupied Enemy Territory Administration" in what had been Ottoman Syria. The British achieved legitimacy for their continued control by obtaining a mandate from the League of Nations in June 1922. The formal objective of the League of Nations mandate system was to administer parts of the defunct Ottoman Empire, which had been in control of the Middle East since the 16th century, "until such time as they are able to stand alone."[6]

During the British Mandate period the area experienced the ascent of two major nationalist movements, one among the Jews and the other among the Palestinian Arabs. The competing national interests of the two populations against each other and against the governing British authorities matured into the Arab Revolt of 1936–1939 and the Jewish insurgency in Mandatory Palestine, before culminating in the 1947–1949 Palestine war. This led to the establishment of the 1949 cease-fire agreement, with partition of the former Mandatory Palestine between the newborn state of Israel with a Jewish majority, the Arab West Bank annexed by the Jordanian Kingdom and the Arab All-Palestine Protectorate in the Gaza Strip under Egypt.


Historie[redigér | redigér wikikode]

1920'erne[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Flaget for "the High Commissioner of Palestine", den højeste myndighed repræsenterende Storbritannien i mandatområderne Palæstina og Transjordanien.

I juli 1920 blev militæradministrationen erstattet af en civil administration, da den første Højkommissær (High Commissioner), Herbert Samuel ankom fra Storbritannien.[7] Han var tidligere minister med jødiske rødder.

En af de første handlinger fra den nye civiladministration var at give Pinhas Rutenberg, en jødisk entreprenør, tilladelse til produktion og distribution af elektricitet. Rutenberg oprettede et selskab, hvis aktionærer var zionistiske organisationer, investorer og velgørere. Palæstinensiske arabere anså dette som et bevis for, at briterne ønskede at favorisere zionismen. Den britiske administration hævdede, at elektrificering ville øge den økonomiske udvikling for hele landet, mens den på samme tid ville opfylde løftet om at muliggøre et jødisk nationalt hjem ved hjælp af økonomiske snarere end politiske virkemidler.[8]

Den 1. maj 1921 var der i byen Jaffa et opgør mellem to rivaliserende jødiske venstreorienterede grupper. Det blev efterfulgt af angreb på jøder af arabere. Urolighederne spredte sig til andre dele af landet og næsten 100 døde.[9]

Following the arrival of the British, the inhabitants established Muslim-Christian Associations in all the major towns.[10] In 1919 they joined to hold the first Palestine Arab Congress in Jerusalem.[11] It was aimed primarily at representative government and opposition to the Balfour Declaration.[12]

The Zionist Commission formed in March 1918 and became active in promoting Zionist objectives in Palestine. On 19 April 1920, elections took place for the Assembly of Representatives of the Palestinian Jewish community.[13]

In July 1920 a civilian administration headed by a High Commissioner replaced the military administration.[14] The first High Commissioner, Herbert Samuel, a Zionist and a recent British cabinet minister, arrived in Palestine on 20 June 1920 to take up his appointment from 1 July.

The formal transfer of Jerusalem to British rule, with a "native priest" reading the proclamation from the steps of the Tower of David
The arrival of Sir Herbert Samuel. From left to right: T. E. Lawrence, Emir Abdullah, Air Marshal Sir Geoffrey Salmond, Sir Herbert Samuel, Sir Wyndham Deedes and others
An Arab "protest gathering" in session, in the Rawdat el Maaref hall, 1929. From left to right : unknown – Amin al-HusayniMusa al-HusayniRaghib al-Nashashibi – unknown

One of the first actions of the newly installed civil administration in 1921 had been to grant Pinhas Rutenberg—a Jewish entrepreneur—concessions for the production and distribution of electrical power. Rutenberg soon established an electric company whose shareholders were Zionist organisations, investors, and philanthropists. Palestinian-Arabs saw it as proof that the British intended to favour Zionism. The British administration claimed that electrification would enhance the economic development of the country as a whole, while at the same time securing their commitment to facilitate a Jewish National Home through economic—rather than political—means.[15]

In March 1920, there was an attack by Arabs on the Jewish village of en:Tel Hai. In April, there was another attack on Jews, this time in Jerusalem. In May 1921, almost 100 died in rioting in Jaffa after a disturbance between rival Jewish left wing protestors was followed by murderous attacks by Arabs on Jews.

Samuel tried to establish self-governing institutions in Palestine, as required by the mandate, but the Arab leadership refused to co-operate with any institution which included Jewish participation.[16] When en:Grand Mufti of Jerusalem en:Kamil al-Husayni died in March 1921, High Commissioner Samuel appointed his half-brother en:Mohammad Amin al-Husseini to the position. Amin al-Husseini, a member of the en:al-Husayni clan of Jerusalem, was an en:Arab nationalist and Muslim leader. As Grand Mufti, as well as in the other influential positions that he held during this period, al-Husseini played a key role in violent opposition to en:Zionism. In 1922, al-Husseini was elected President of the en:Supreme Muslim Council which had been established by Samuel in December 1921.[17][18] The Council controlled the en:Waqf funds, worth annually tens of thousands of pounds[19] and the orphan funds, worth annually about £50,000, as compared to the £600,000 in the en:Jewish Agency's annual budget.[20] In addition, he controlled the Islamic courts in Palestine. Among other functions, these courts had the power to appoint teachers and preachers.

The 1922 Palestine en:Order in Council[21] established a Legislative Council, which was to consist of 23 members: 12 elected, 10 appointed, and the High Commissioner.[22] Of the 12 elected members, eight were to be Muslim Arabs, two Christian Arabs, and two Jews.[23] Arabs protested against the distribution of the seats, arguing that as they constituted 88% of the population, having only 43% of the seats was unfair.[23] Elections took place in February and March 1923, but due to an Arab en:boycott, the results were annulled and a 12-member Advisory Council was established.[22]

At the en:First World Congress of Jewish Women which was held in en:Vienna, Austria, 1923, it was decided that: "It appears, therefore, to be the duty of all Jews to co-operate in the social-economic reconstruction of Palestine and to assist in the settlement of Jews in that country."[24]

In October 1923, Britain provided the League of Nations with a report on the administration of Palestine for the period 1920–1922, which covered the period before the mandate.[25]

In August 1929, there were riots in which 250 people died.

1930s: Arab armed insurgency[redigér | redigér wikikode]

In 1930, Sheikh Izz ad-Din al-Qassam arrived in Palestine from Syria and organised and established the Black Hand, an anti-Zionist and anti-British militant organisation. He recruited and arranged military training for peasants and by 1935 he had enlisted between 200 and 800 men. The cells were equipped with bombs and firearms, which they used to kill Zionist settlers in the area, as well as engaging in a campaign of vandalism of the settlers-planted trees and British constructed rail-lines.[26] In November 1935, two of his men engaged in a firefight with a Palestine police patrol hunting fruit thieves and a policeman was killed. Following the incident, British police launched a manhunt and surrounded al-Qassam in a cave near Ya'bad. In the ensuing battle, al-Qassam was killed.[26]

The Arab revolt[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Arab revolt against the British

The death of al-Qassam on 20 November 1935 generated widespread outrage in the Arab community. Huge crowds accompanied Qassam's body to his grave in Haifa. A few months later, in April 1936, the Arab national general strike broke out. The strike lasted until October 1936, instigated by the Arab Higher Committee, headed by Amin al-Husseini. During the summer of that year, thousands of Jewish-farmed acres and orchards were destroyed, Jewish civilians were attacked and killed, and some Jewish communities, such as those in Beisan (Beit She'an) and Acre, fled to safer areas. (Gilbert 1998, s. 80) The violence abated for about a year while the British sent the Peel Commission to investigate. (Khalidi 2006, s. 87–90)

During the first stages of the Arab Revolt, due to rivalry between the clans of al-Husseini and Nashashibi among the Palestinian Arabs, Raghib Nashashibi was forced to flee to Egypt after several assassination attempts ordered by Amin al-Husseini.[27]

Following the Arab rejection of the Peel Commission recommendation, the revolt resumed in autumn of 1937. Over the next 18 months, the British lost control of Nablus and Hebron. British forces, supported by 6,000 armed Jewish auxiliary police,[28] suppressed the widespread riots with overwhelming force. The British officer Charles Orde Wingate (who supported a Zionist revival for religious reasons[29]) organised Special Night Squads composed of British soldiers and Jewish volunteers such as Yigal Alon, which “scored significant successes against the Arab rebels in the lower Galilee and in the Jezreel valley”(Black 1991, s. 14) by conducting raids on Arab villages. (Shapira 1992, s. 247, 249, 350) The Jewish militia Irgun used violence also against Arab civilians as "retaliatory acts,"[30] attacking marketplaces and buses.

By the time the revolt concluded in March 1939, more than 5.000 Arabs, 400 Jews, and 200 British had been killed and at least 15.000 Arabs were wounded.[31] The Revolt resulted in the deaths of 5.000 Palestinian Arabs and the wounding of 10.000. In total, 10% of the adult Arab male population was killed, wounded, imprisoned, or exiled. (Khalidi 2001, s. 26) From 1936 to 1945, while establishing collaborative security arrangements with the Jewish Agency, the British confiscated 13.200 firearms from Arabs and 521 weapons from Jews.[32]

The attacks on the Jewish population by Arabs had three lasting effects: firstly, they led to the formation and development of Jewish underground militias, primarily the Haganah, which were to prove decisive in 1948. Secondly, it became clear that the two communities could not be reconciled, and the idea of partition was born. Thirdly, the British responded to Arab opposition with the White Paper of 1939, which severely restricted Jewish land purchase and immigration. However, with the advent of World War II, even this reduced immigration quota was not reached. The White Paper policy itself radicalised segments of the Jewish population, who after the war would no longer cooperate with the British.

The revolt had also a negative effect on Palestinian Arab leadership, social cohesion, and military capabilities and contributed to the outcome of the 1948 War because "when the Palestinians faced their most fateful challenge in 1947–49, they were still suffering from the British repression of 1936–39, and were in effect without a unified leadership. Indeed, it might be argued that they were virtually without any leadership at all."[33]

Partition proposals[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Jewish demonstration against White Paper in Jerusalem in 1939

In 1937, the Peel Commission proposed a partition between a small Jewish state, whose Arab population would have to be transferred, and an Arab state to be attached to Jordan. The proposal was rejected outright by the Arabs. The two main Jewish leaders, Chaim Weizmann and David Ben-Gurion, had convinced the Zionist Congress to approve equivocally the Peel recommendations as a basis for more negotiation.[34][35][36][37][38] In a letter to his son in October 1937, Ben-Gurion explained that partition would be a first step to "possession of the land as a whole."[39][40][41] The same sentiment was recorded by Ben-Gurion on other occasions, such as at a meeting of the Jewish Agency executive in June 1938,[42] as well as by Chaim Weizmann.[41][43]

Following the London Conference (1939) the British Government published a White Paper which proposed a limit to Jewish immigration from Europe, restrictions on Jewish land purchases, and a program for creating an independent state to replace the Mandate within ten years. This was seen by the Yishuv as betrayal of the mandatory terms, especially in light of the increasing persecution of Jews in Europe. In response, Zionists organised Aliyah Bet, a program of illegal immigration into Palestine. Lehi, a small group of extremist Zionists, staged armed attacks on British authorities in Palestine. However, the Jewish Agency, which represented the mainstream Zionist leadership and most of the Jewish population, still hoped to persuade Britain to allow resumed Jewish immigration, and cooperated with Britain in World War II.

World War II[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Allied and Axis activity[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Australian soldiers in Tel Aviv in 1942

On 10 June 1940, Italy declared war on the British Commonwealth and sided with Germany. Within a month, the Italians attacked Palestine from the air, bombing Tel Aviv and Haifa,[44] inflicting multiple casualties.

In 1942, there was a period of great concern for the Yishuv, when the forces of German General Erwin Rommel advanced east across North Africa towards the Suez Canal and there was fear that they would conquer Palestine. This period was referred to as the "200 days of dread." This event was the direct cause for the founding, with British support, of the Palmach[45] – a highly trained regular unit belonging to Haganah (a paramilitary group which was mostly made up of reserve troops).

As in most of the Arab world, there was no unanimity amongst the Palestinian Arabs as to their position regarding the belligerents in World War II. A number of leaders and public figures saw an Axis victory as the likely outcome and a way of securing Palestine back from the Zionists and the British. Even though Arabs were not highly regarded by Nazi racial theory, the Nazis encouraged Arab support as a counter to British hegemony.[46] On the anniversary of the Balfour Declaration in 1943, SS-Reichsfuehrer Heinrich Himmler and Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop sent telegrams of support for the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Mohammad Amin al-Husseini to read out for a radio broadcast to a rally of supporters in Berlin.[b][47] [48]

Mobilisation[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Fil:JB HQ.jpg
Jewish Brigade headquarters under the Union Flag and Jewish flag

On 3 July 1944, the British government consented to the establishment of a Jewish Brigade, with hand-picked Jewish and also non-Jewish senior officers. On 20 September 1944, an official communiqué by the War Office announced the formation of the Jewish Brigade Group of the British Army. The Jewish brigade then was stationed in Tarvisio, near the border triangle of Italy, Yugoslavia, and Austria, where it played a key role in the Berihah's efforts to help Jews escape Europe for Palestine, a role many of its members would continue after the brigade was disbanded. Among its projects was the education and care of the Selvino children. Later, veterans of the Jewish Brigade became key participants of the new State of Israel's Israel Defense Forces.

From the Palestine Regiment, two platoons, one Jewish, under the command of Brigadier Ernest Benjamin, and another Arab were sent to join allied forces on the Italian Front, having taken part of final offensive there.

Besides Jews and Arabs from Palestine, in total by mid-1944 the British had assembled a multiethnic force consisting of volunteer European Jewish refugees (from German-occupied countries), Yemenite Jews and Abyssinian Jews.[49]

The Holocaust and immigration quotas[redigér | redigér wikikode]

In 1939, as a consequence of the White Paper of 1939, the British reduced the number of immigrants allowed into Palestine. World War II and the Holocaust started shortly thereafter and once the 15,000 annual quota was exceeded, Jews fleeing Nazi persecution were interned in detention camps or deported to places such as Mauritius.[50]

Starting in 1939, a clandestine immigration effort called Aliya Bet was spearheaded by an organisation called Mossad LeAliyah Bet. Tens of thousands of European Jews escaped the Nazis in boats and small ships headed for Palestine. The Royal Navy intercepted many of the vessels; others were unseaworthy and were wrecked; a Haganah bomb sunk the Symbol delete vote.svg Slet, killing 267 people; two other ships were sunk by Soviet submarines: the motor schooner Skabelon:MV was torpedoed and sunk in the Black Sea by a Soviet submarine in February 1942 with the loss of nearly 800 lives.[51] The last refugee boats to try to reach Palestine during the war were the Bulbul, Skabelon:MV and Morina in August 1944. A Soviet submarine sank the motor schooner Mefküre by torpedo and shellfire and machine-gunned survivors in the water,[52] killing between 300 and 400 refugees.[53] Illegal immigration resumed after World War II.

After the war 250,000 Jewish refugees were stranded in displaced persons (DP) camps in Europe. Despite the pressure of world opinion, in particular the repeated requests of US President Harry S. Truman and the recommendations of the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry that 100,000 Jews be immediately granted entry to Palestine, the British maintained the ban on immigration.

Beginning of Zionist insurgency[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Jerusalem on VE Day, 8 May 1945

The Jewish Lehi (Fighters for the Freedom of Israel) and Irgun (National Military Organisation) movements initiated violent uprisings against the British Mandate in the 1940s. On 6 November 1944, Eliyahu Hakim and Eliyahu Bet Zuri (members of Lehi) assassinated Lord Moyne in Cairo. Moyne was the British Minister of State for the Middle East and the assassination is said by some to have turned British Prime Minister Winston Churchill against the Zionist cause. After the assassination of Lord Moyne, the Haganah kidnapped, interrogated, and turned over to the British many members of the Irgun ("The Hunting Season"), and the Jewish Agency Executive decided on a series of measures against "terrorist organisations" in Palestine.[54] Irgun ordered its members not to resist or retaliate with violence, so as to prevent a civil war.

After World War II: Insurgency and the Partition Plan[redigér | redigér wikikode]

The UN Partition Plan

The three main Jewish underground forces later united to form the Jewish Resistance Movement and carry out several attacks and bombings against the British administration. In 1946, the Irgun blew up the King David Hotel in Jerusalem, the headquarters of the British administration, killing 92 people. Following the bombing, the British Government began interning illegal Jewish immigrants in Cyprus. In 1948 the Lehi assassinated the UN mediator Count Bernadotte in Jerusalem. Yitzak Shamir, future prime minister of Israel was one of the conspirators.

The negative publicity resulting from the situation in Palestine caused the Mandate to become widely unpopular in Britain, and caused the United States Congress to delay granting the British vital loans for reconstruction. The British Labour party had promised before its election in 1945 to allow mass Jewish migration into Palestine but reneged on this promise once in office. Anti-British Jewish militancy increased and the situation required the presence of over 100,000 British troops in the country. Following the Acre Prison Break and the retaliatory hanging of British Sergeants by the Irgun, the British announced their desire to terminate the mandate and to withdraw by no later than the beginning of August 1948.[55]

The Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry in 1946 was a joint attempt by Britain and the United States to agree on a policy regarding the admission of Jews to Palestine. In April, the Committee reported that its members had arrived at a unanimous decision. The Committee approved the American recommendation of the immediate acceptance of 100,000 Jewish refugees from Europe into Palestine. It also recommended that there be no Arab, and no Jewish State. The Committee stated that "in order to dispose, once and for all, of the exclusive claims of Jews and Arabs to Palestine, we regard it as essential that a clear statement of principle should be made that Jew shall not dominate Arab and Arab shall not dominate Jew in Palestine." U.S. President Harry S Truman angered the British Government by issuing a statement supporting the 100,000 refugees but refusing to acknowledge the rest of the committee's findings. Britain had asked for U.S assistance in implementing the recommendations. The U.S. War Department had said earlier that to assist Britain in maintaining order against an Arab revolt, an open-ended U.S. commitment of 300,000 troops would be necessary. The immediate admission of 100,000 new Jewish immigrants would almost certainly have provoked an Arab uprising.[56]

These events were the decisive factors that forced Britain to announce their desire to terminate the Palestine Mandate and place the Question of Palestine before the United Nations, the successor to the League of Nations. The UN created UNSCOP (the UN Special Committee on Palestine) on 15 May 1947, with representatives from 11 countries. UNSCOP conducted hearings and made a general survey of the situation in Palestine, and issued its report on 31 August. Seven members (Canada, Czechoslovakia, Guatemala, Netherlands, Peru, Sweden, and Uruguay) recommended the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states, with Jerusalem to be placed under international administration. Three members (India, Iran, and Yugoslavia) supported the creation of a single federal state containing both Jewish and Arab constituent states. Australia abstained.[57]

On 29 November 1947, the UN General Assembly, voting 33 to 13, with 10 abstentions, adopted a resolution recommending the adoption and implementation of the Plan of Partition with Economic Union as Resolution 181 (II).,[58][59] while making some adjustments to the boundaries between the two states proposed by it. The division was to take effect on the date of British withdrawal. The partition plan required that the proposed states grant full civil rights to all people within their borders, regardless of race, religion or gender. The UN General Assembly is only granted the power to make recommendations, therefore, UNGAR 181 was not legally binding.[60] Both the U.S. and the Soviet Union supported the resolution. Haiti, Liberia, and the Philippines changed their votes at the last moment after concerted pressure from the U.S. and from Zionist organisations.[61][62][63] The five members of the Arab League, who were voting members at the time, voted against the Plan.

The Jewish Agency, which was the Jewish state-in-formation, accepted the plan, and nearly all the Jews in Palestine rejoiced at the news.

The partition plan was rejected out of hand by Palestinian Arab leadership and by most of the Arab population.[c][d] Meeting in Cairo on November and December 1947, the Arab League then adopted a series of resolutions endorsing a military solution to the conflict.

Britain announced that it would accept the partition plan, but refused to enforce it, arguing it was not accepted by the Arabs. Britain also refused to share the administration of Palestine with the UN Palestine Commission during the transitional period. In September 1947, the British government announced that the Mandate for Palestine would end at midnight on 14 May 1948.[66][67][68]

Some Jewish organisations also opposed the proposal. Irgun leader Menachem Begin announced, "The partition of the Homeland is illegal. It will never be recognised. The signature by institutions and individuals of the partition agreement is invalid. It will not bind the Jewish people. Jerusalem was and will forever be our capital. Eretz Israel will be restored to the people of Israel. All of it. And for ever."[69]

Termination of the Mandate[redigér | redigér wikikode]

British troops leaving Haifa in 1948

When the UK announced the independence of Transjordan in 1946, the final Assembly of the League of Nations and the General Assembly both adopted resolutions welcoming the news.[70] The Jewish Agency objected, claiming that Transjordan was an integral part of Palestine, and that according to Article 80 of the UN Charter, the Jewish people had a secured interest in its territory.[71]

During the General Assembly deliberations on Palestine, there were suggestions that it would be desirable to incorporate part of Transjordan's territory into the proposed Jewish state. A few days before the adoption of Resolution 181 (II) on 29 November 1947, U.S. Secretary of State Marshall noted frequent references had been made by the Ad Hoc Committee regarding the desirability of the Jewish State having both the Negev and an "outlet to the Red Sea and the Port of Aqaba."[72] According to John Snetsinger, Chaim Weizmann visited President Truman on 19 November 1947 and said it was imperative that the Negev and Port of Aqaba be under Jewish control and that they be included in the Jewish state.[73] Truman telephoned the US delegation to the UN and told them he supported Weizmann's position.[74] However, the Trans-Jordan memorandum excluded territories of the Emirate of Transjordan from any Jewish settlement.[75]

Immediately after the UN resolution, the 1947-1948 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine broke out between the Arab and Jewish communities, and British authority began to break down. On 16 December 1947, the Palestine Police Force withdrew from the Tel Aviv area, home to more than half the Jewish population, and turned over responsibility for the maintenance of law and order to Jewish police.[76] As the civil war raged on, British military forces gradually withdrew from Palestine, although they occasionally intervened in favour of either side. As they withdrew, they handed over control to local authorities and locally raised police forces were charged with maintaining law and order. The areas they withdrew from often quickly became war zones. The British maintained strong presences in Jerusalem and Haifa, even as Jerusalem came under siege by Arab forces and became the scene of fierce fighting, though the British occasionally intervened in the fighting, largely to secure their evacuation routes, including by proclaiming martial law and enforcing truces. The Palestine Police Force was largely inoperative, and government services such as social welfare, control of water supplies, and postal services were withdrawn. In March 1948, all British judges in Palestine were sent back to Britain.[77] In April 1948, the British withdrew from most of Haifa but retained an enclave in the port area to be used in the evacuation of British forces, and temporarily retained RAF Ramat David airbase to cover their retreat, leaving behind a volunteer police force to maintain order. The city was quickly captured by the Haganah in the Battle of Haifa. Following the victory, British forces in Jerusalem announced that they had no intention of assuming control of any local administrations, but would not permit any actions that would hamper the safe and orderly withdrawal of British forces from Palestine, and would set up military courts to try persons who interfered.[78][79][80] Although by this time British authority in most of Palestine had broken down, with most of the country in control of the Jews and Arabs, the British air and sea blockade of Palestine remained firmly in place. Although Arab volunteers were able to cross the borders between Palestine and the surrounding Arab states to join the fighting, the British did not allow the regular armies of the surrounding Arab states to cross into Palestine.

The British had notified the U.N. of their intent to terminate the mandate not later than 1 August 1948.[81][82] However, early in 1948, the United Kingdom announced its firm intention to end its mandate in Palestine on 15 May. In response, President Harry S Truman made a statement on 25 March proposing UN trusteeship rather than partition, stating that "unfortunately, it has become clear that the partition plan cannot be carried out at this time by peaceful means... unless emergency action is taken, there will be no public authority in Palestine on that date capable of preserving law and order. Violence and bloodshed will descend upon the Holy Land. Large-scale fighting among the people of that country will be the inevitable result."[83]

Hoisting of the Yishuv flag in Tel Aviv, 1 January 1948

By 14 May 1948, the only British forces remaining in Palestine were in the Haifa area and in Jerusalem. On that same day, the British garrison in Jerusalem withdrew, and High Commissioner Alan Cunningham left the city for Haifa, where he was to leave the country by sea. The Jewish Leadership, led by future Prime Minister, David Ben-Gurion, declared the establishment of a Jewish State in Eretz-Israel, to be known as the State of Israel,[84] on the afternoon of 14 May 1948 (5 Iyar 5708 in the Hebrew calendar), to come into force at midnight of that day.[85][86][87] On the same day, the Provisional Government of Israel asked the US Government for recognition, on the frontiers specified in the UN Plan for Partition.[88] The United States immediately replied, recognizing "the provisional government as the de facto authority."[89]

At midnight on 14/15 May 1948, the Mandate for Palestine expired and the State of Israel came into being. The Palestine Government formally ceased to exist, the status of British forces still in the process of withdrawal from Haifa changed to occupiers of foreign territory, the Palestine Police Force formally stood down and was disbanded, with the remaining personnel evacuated alongside British military forces, the British blockade of Palestine was lifted, and all those who had been Palestinian citizens ceased to be British protected persons, with Mandatory Palestine passports no longer giving British protection.[79][90] The 1948 Palestinian exodus occurred in the period leading up to the end of the Mandate and subsequently.[91][92][93]

Over the next few days, approximately 700 Lebanese, 1,876 Syrian, 4,000 Iraqi, 2,800 Egyptian troops crossed over the borders and into Palestine, starting the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.[94] Around 4,500 Transjordanian troops, commanded partly by 38 British officers who had resigned their commissions in the British army only weeks earlier, including overall commander, General John Bagot Glubb, entered the Corpus separatum region encompassing Jerusalem and its environs (in response to the Haganah's Operation Kilshon)[95] and moved into areas designated as part of the Arab state by the UN partition plan. The war, which was to last until 1949, would see Israel expand to encompass about 78% of the territory of the former British Mandate, with Jordan seizing and subsequently annexing the West Bank and Egypt seizing the Gaza Strip. With the end of the Mandate, the remaining British troops in Israel were concentrated in an enclave in the Haifa port area through which they were being withdrawn and RAF Ramat David, which was maintained to cover the withdrawal. The British handed over RAF Ramat David to the Israelis on 26 May, and the last British forces were evacuated from Haifa on 30 June.

Land ownership[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Map of Palestinian land ownership by sub-district (1945) originally published in the Village Statistics, 1945
Palestinian index of villages and settlements, showing land in Jewish possession as of December 31, 1944

After transition to the British rule, much of the agricultural land in Palestine (about one third of the whole territory) was still owned by the same landowners as under Ottoman rule, mostly powerful Arab clans and local Muslim sheikhs. Other lands had been held by foreign Christian organisations (most notably the Greek Orthodox Church), as well as Jewish private and Zionist organisations, and to lesser degree by small minorities of Bahai's, Samaritans and Circassians.

As of 1931, the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine was 26.625.600 dunams (26.625,6 km2), of which 8.252.900 dunams (8.252,9 km2) or 33% were arable.[96] Official statistics show that Jews privately and collectively owned 1.393.531 dunams (1.393,53 km2), or 5.23% of Palestine's total in 1945.[97][98] The Jewish owned agricultural land was largely located in the Galilee and along the coastal plain. Estimates of the total volume of land that Jews had purchased by 15 May 1948 are complicated by illegal and unregistered land transfers, as well as by the lack of data on land concessions from the Palestine administration after 31 March 1936. According to Avneri, Jews held 1.850.000 dunams (1.850 km2) of land in 1947, or 6.94% of the total.[99] Stein gives the estimate of 2.000.000 dunams (2.000 km2) as of May 1948, or 7.51% of the total.[100] According to Fischbach, By 1948, Jews and Jewish companies owned 20% percent of all cultivable land in the country.[101]

Nevertheless, the amount of land owned by Jews is easier to calculate than that owned by Arabs. It is difficult to reckon the total amount of land owned by Arabs (Muslim, Christian and Druze) in Mandatory Palestine.[kilde mangler] The 1945 UN estimate shows that Arab ownership of arable land was on average 68% of a district, ranging from 15% ownership in the Beer-Sheba district to 99% ownership in the Ramallah district. These data cannot be fully understood without comparing them to those of neighbouring countries: in Iraq, for instance, still in 1951 only 0.3 per cent of registered land (or 50 per cent of the total amount) was categorised as ‘private property’.[102]

Demographics[redigér | redigér wikikode]

British censuses and estimations[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Population distribution near the end of the Mandate

In 1920, the majority of the approximately 750.000 people in this multi-ethnic region were Arabic-speaking Muslims, including a Bedouin population (estimated at 103.331 at the time of the 1922 census[103] and concentrated in the Beersheba area and the region south and east of it), as well as Jews (who comprised some 11% of the total) and smaller groups of Druze, Syrians, Sudanese, Somalis, Circassians, Egyptians, Copts, Greeks, and Hejazi Arabs.

  • The first census of 1922 showed a population of 757.182, of whom 78% were Muslim, 11% Jewish and 10% Christian.
  • The second census, of 1931, gave a total population of 1.035.154 of whom 73.4% were Muslim, 16.9% Jewish and 8.6% Christian.

A discrepancy between the two censuses and records of births, deaths and immigration, led the authors of the second census to postulate the illegal immigration of about 9,000 Jews and 4,000 Arabs during the intervening years.[104]

Christian Arab boys at the Jerusalem YMCA, 1938

There were no further censuses but statistics were maintained by counting births, deaths and migration. By the end of 1936 the total population was approximately 1,300,000, the Jews being estimated at 384,000. The Arabs had also increased their numbers rapidly, mainly as a result of the cessation of the military conscription imposed on the country by the Ottoman Empire, the campaign against malaria and a general improvement in health services. In absolute figures their increase exceeded that of the Jewish population, but proportionally, the latter had risen from 13 per cent of the total population at the census of 1922 to nearly 30 per cent at the end of 1936.[105]

Some components such as illegal immigration could only be estimated approximately. The White Paper of 1939, which placed immigration restrictions on Jews, stated that the Jewish population "has risen to some 450.000" and was "approaching a third of the entire population of the country." In 1945, a demographic study showed that the population had grown to 1.764.520, comprising 1.061.270 Muslims, 553.600 Jews, 135.550 Christians and 14.100 people of other groups.

Year Total Muslim Jewish Christian Other
1922 752.048 589.177
(78%)
83.790
(11%)
71.464
(10%)
7.617
(1%)
1931 1.036.339 761.922
(74%)
175.138
(17%)
89.134
(9%)
10.145
(1%)
1945 1.764.520 1.061.270
(60%)
553.600
(31%)
135.550
(8%)
14.100
(1%)
Average compounded population
growth
rate per annum, 1922–1945
3.8% 2.6% 8.6% 2.8% 2.7%

By district[redigér | redigér wikikode]

The following table gives the religious demography of each of the 16 districts of the Mandate in 1945.

Demography of Palestine in 1945 by district[106]
District Sub-District Muslim Percentage Jewish Percentage Christian Percentage Total
Haifa Haifa 95.970 38% 119.020 47% 33.710 13% 253.450
Galilee Acre 51.130 69% 3.030 4% 11.800 16% 73.600
Beisan 16.660 67% 7.590 30% 680 3% 24.950
Nazareth 30.160 60% 7.980 16% 11.770 24% 49.910
Safad 47.310 83% 7.170 13% 1.630 3% 56.970
Tiberias 23.940 58% 13.640 33% 2.470 6% 41.470
Lydda Jaffa 95.980 24% 295.160 72% 17.790 4% 409.290
Ramle 95.590 71% 31.590 24% 5.840 4% 134.030
Samaria Jenin 60.000 98% negligible <1% 1.210 2% 61.210
Nablus 92.810 98% negligible <1% 1.560 2% 94.600
Tulkarm 76.460 82% 16.180 17% 380 1% 93.220
Jerusalem Hebron 92.640 99% 300 <1% 170 <1% 93.120
Jerusalem 104.460 41% 102.520 40% 46.130 18% 253.270
Ramallah 40.520 83% negligible <1% 8.410 17% 48.930
Gaza Beersheba 6.270 90% 510 7% 210 3% 7.000
Gaza 145.700 97% 3.540 2% 1.300 1% 150.540
Total 1.076.780 58% 608.230 33% 145.060 9% 1.845.560

Government and institutions[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Under the terms of the August 1922 Palestine Order in Council, the Mandate territory was divided into administrative regions known as districts and administer by the office of the British High Commissioner for Palestine.[107]

Britain continued the millet system of the Ottoman Empire whereby all matters of a religious nature and personal status were within the jurisdiction of Muslim courts and the courts of other recognised religions, called confessional communities. The High Commissioner established the Orthodox Rabbinate and retained a modified millet system which only recognised eleven religious communities: Muslims, Jews and nine Christian denominations (none of which were Christian Protestant churches). All those who were not members of these recognised communities were excluded from the millet arrangement. As a result, there was no possibility, for example, of marriages between confessional communities, and there were no civil marriages. Personal contacts between communities were nominal.

Apart from the Religious Courts, the judicial system was modelled on the British one, having a High Court with appellate jurisdiction and the power of review over the Central Court and the Central Criminal Court. The five consecutive Chief Justices were:

Economy[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Between 1922 and 1947, the annual growth rate of the Jewish sector of the economy was 13.2%, mainly due to immigration and foreign capital, while that of the Arab was 6.5%. Per capita, these figures were 4.8% and 3.6% respectively. By 1936, Jews earned 2.6 times as much as Arabs.[112] Compared to Arabs in other countries, Palestinian Arabs earned slightly more.[113]

The Jaffa Electric Company was founded in 1923 by Pinhas Rutenberg, and was later absorbed into a newly created Palestine Electric Company. Palestine Airways was founded in 1934, Angel Bakeries in 1927, and the Tnuva dairy in 1926. Electric current mainly flowed to Jewish industry, following it to its nestled locations in Tel Aviv and Haifa. Although Tel Aviv had by far more workshops and factories, the demand for electric power for industry was roughly the same for both cities by the early 1930s.[114]

The country's largest industrial zone was in Haifa, where many housing projects were built for employees.[115]

On the scale of the UN Human Development Index determined for around 1939, of 36 countries, Palestinian Jews were placed 15th, Palestinian Arabs 30th, Egypt 33rd and Turkey 35th.[116] The Jews in Palestine were mainly urban, 76.2% in 1942, while the Arabs were mainly rural, 68.3% in 1942.[117] Overall, Khalidi concludes that Palestinian Arab society, while overmatched by the Yishuv, was as advanced as any other Arab society in the region and considerably more than several.[118]

Education[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Under the British Mandate, the country developed economically and culturally. In 1919 the Jewish community founded a centralised Hebrew school system, and the following year established the Assembly of Representatives, the Jewish National Council and the Histadrut labour federation. The Technion university was founded in 1924, and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in 1925.[119]

Literacy rates in 1932 were 86% for the Jews compared to 22% for the Palestinian Arabs, but Arab literacy rates steadily increased thereafter. Palestinian Arabs compared favourably in this respect to residents of Egypt and Turkey, but unfavourably to the Lebanese.[120]



Under opdelingen af Det Osmanniske Rige ved fredskonferencen i Versailles blev det, der siden kendes som Jordan, Israel og de besatte palæstinensiske områder udlagt som mandatområde under Folkeforbundet med Storbritannien som mandatar.

Baggrunden[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Da Det Osmanniske Rige indtrådte i verdenskrigen 29. oktober 1914, fik den militæreleder Djemâl Pasha ansvaret for regionen Storsyrien, som også inkluderede Palæstina. Palæstina blev basis for angreb på Suez-kanalen og forsynedes derfor med nye jernbaner (NabulusTulqarmLudd og Ludd—Birsaba) med Birsaba som centrum. Men angrebene på kanalen i begyndelsen af 1915 og 1916 mislykkedes, og den 9. januar 1917 stod englænderne i Rafah ved indgangen til Palæstina. v. Falkenhayn overtog kommandoen over de tysk-tyrkiske styrker. Efter nogle mislykkede angreb på Gaza 1917 indtog de britiske tropper under general Allenby byen i oktober, og den 11. december 1917 holdt han sit indtog i Jerusalem. Nogle mindre franske og italienske korps deltog i dette felttog, der gik planmæssigt, også efter at Liman v. Sanders tog kommandoen over de tyrkisk-tyske soldater i marts 1918. De blev slået den 19.—20. september syd for Jisreelsletten (Tulqarm, Nabulus); de næste dage fuldendtes erobringen af Palæstina.

Det zionistiske projekt[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Der havde været flere forhandlinger om Palæstinas fremtid. I maj 1916 fastsloges det i forhandling mellem Sykes (engelsk) og Picot (fransk), at Palæstina skulle stå under et internationalt styre efter overenskomst mellem England, Frankrig og Rusland, idet dog England forbeholdt sig havnene Haifa og Akko som adgang til Mesopotamien (Sykes-Picot-aftalen). Men den 2. november 1917 erklærede den britiske udenrigsminister Arthur Balfour i et brev til formanden for den engelske zionistiske forening, lord Walter Lionel Rothschild, at den engelske regering ville yde støtte til grundlæggelsen af "et nationalt hjem" for det jødiske folk i Palæstina (Balfour-deklarationen). Frankrig, der hævdede sin historiske stilling i Orienten ved at overtage Syrien, billigede denne plan i februar 1918. Italien og USA sluttede sig hertil.

England gøres til mandatar[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Ved Sèvres-traktaten af 10. august 1920 erklæredes Palæstina for uafhængig under Englands mandat for Folkeforbundet, som det allerede var afgjort i december 1919. 24. juli 1922 billigedes det af Folkeforbundet. Den 29. september 1923 trådte det formelt i kraft. Sir Herbert Samuel blev udnævnt til High Commissioner, med residens i den tidligere »Kaiserin Viktoria Augusta Stiftung« på Oliebjerget, 7. juli 1920 oplæste han her den engelske konges proklamation. Der tilsagdes befolkningen respekt for dens love; som officielle sprog anerkendtes arabisk, engelsk og hebraisk; de muslimske, kristne og jødiske helligdage skulle respekteres. Der udnævntes et råd af syv muslimer og kristne og tre jøder. I den plan, England forelagde Folkeforbundet, anerkendtes det zionistiske bureau i Jerusalem, som regeringen skulle forhandle med for at virkeliggøre ideen om Palæstina som jødisk nationalhjem. Grænsen mod Syrien fastsattes den 26. december 1920 ved en linje Râs en-NâqûraBanijâs. Palæstina deltes i syv administrative distrikter under (mest engelske) gouvernors. Ordningen af Palæstinas forhold vakte megen modstand. Fra syrisk side protesteredes mod adskillelsen af Syrien og Palæstina, paven protesterede den 23. juni 1921 kraftigt mod katolikkernes stilling i Palæstina, og voldsomme protester kom fra Palæstinas ikke-jødiske befolkning.

Palæstina fra 1917 til 1925[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Oprindeligt omfattede det britiske mandatområde både det egentlige Palæstina og Transjordanien. Ved dekretet 1. september 1922 udskiltes Transjordanien, der dannede et selvstændigt område under emir as-Sayyid Abdullah bin al-Husayn og med delvis uafhængighed allerede i 1923. Militæret, finanserne og udenrigspolitikken forblev dog under britisk kontrol indtil 1946.

Grænser[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Efter denne udskillelse, der omfattede omkring to tredjedele af det britiske mandatområde[121], bestod det egentlige mandatområde Palæstina af et område, der mod vest grænsede til Middelhavet, mod syd til Egypten og Hedjas (grænselinjen gik fra vest for Rafa til øst for Taba ved Akababugten), mod øst til Transjordanien (grænsen fulgte Jordan og Det Døde hav og videre lige sydover) samt mod nord til det franske mandatområde Syrien. Der gik, ifølge konvention af 23. december 1920, grænsen fra havkysten lige syd for Ras-el-Nakura (omtrent midt mellem Tyrus og Acre) først mod øst, så i en bue mod nord til Dan, der efter over Jordan i dennes øvre løb til et punkt vest for Banijas, der efter mod syd til østkysten af Genesaret sø og derfra til El Hamme ved floden Jarmuk, som den der efter fulgte. Transjordaniens østlige grænse var da endnu ikke nærmere fastlagt.[122]

Areal og befolkning[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Det egentliga Palæstinas areal beregnedes til at være omkring 23.000 km2.[122]

Befolkningen opgjordes ved en folketælling i oktober 1922 til 757.182 indbyggere, hvoraf 590.890 var muslimer, 83.794 jøder, 73.024 kristne, 7.028 drusere og 163 samaritanere.[122] Antallet af jøder var imidlertid takket være indvandring stærkt voksende. Muslimerne var overvejende arabere, for en stor andels vedkommende imidlertid af blandet herkomst. De talte alle arabisk ligesom også de fleste kristne.[122]

Begyndende jødisk indvandring[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Indtil 1850 havde der i Palæstina kun været et lille antal jøder, indvandring begyndte i 1850-erne i beskedent omfang og havde taget et opsving i 1880-erne i forbindelse med jødeforfølgelser i Rusland.[123] Under 1. verdenskrig faldt antallet af jøder i Palæstina betydeligt som følge af forvisning eller frivillig emigration (fra 100.000-120.000 i 1914 til 50.000-65.000 år 1919)[124]. Fra den britiske okkupation 1917–18 til slutningen af 1923 skønnedes 35.000 jøder at have indvandret. Mellem oktober 1923 og september 1924 opgjordes de jødiske indvandrere til 13.228 (hvoraf 4.877 fra Polen, 2.406 fra Rusland, 595 fra Litauen, 570 fra Rumænien, 558 fra Bulgarien, 501 fra Grækenland, 499 fra Yemen og 476 fra Mesopotamien (det senere Irak)).[124]

Fra 1919 til oktober 1922 indvandrede ca. 30.000 jøder (41 % fra Polen, 14 % fra Ukraine, 9 % fra Rusland, 12 % fra Rumænien), hvorved jødernes antal blev 83.794, af 757.182 (pr. 3. oktober 1922). De arabisktalende protesterede mod Englands antagelse af zionismens program og mod valget af en jøde til High Commissioner. Der kom flere alvorlige tumulter navnlig i maj 1921. I juli 1921 sendtes en arabisk-palæstinensisk delegation af muslimer og kristne til England. En palæstinensisk-arabisk kongres blev nedsat som fast institution med en eksekutivkomité. Den 11. januar 1923 erklærede det engelske koloniministerium, at tilsagnet til jøderne skulle opretholdes, men at det ikke betød, at Palæstina skulle være jødisk, at den zionistiske komité intet havde med landets regering at gøre, og at indvandringen skulle begrænses til, hvad landet kunne bære.

Næringslivet[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Jordbruget havde fra gammel tid været Palæstinas vigtigste næringsvej, men endnu i 1922 var blot 500.000 hektar, svarende til omkring 1/4 af den dyrkningsbare jord, under dyrkning. De arabiske jordbrugeres dyrkningsmetoder var yderst primitive. Med støtte fra zionistorganisationen og enkelte jødiske mæceneter, især baron Edmond de Rothschild, var jødiske kolonister i stand til at virke for et mere rationelt jordbrug. Der blev udarbejdet planer for at ved dræning at gøre sumpene ved søen Hule og ved kunstvanding at inddrage den tidligere frugtbare Jeriko-slette til dyrkning. Omkring Jaffa udviklede sig blomstrende jødiske nybyggersamfund med appelsin- og vindyrkning; særlig markant var dette ved den i 1909 oprettede by Tel Aviv. I nærheden lå landbrugsskolen Mikveh Israel, der var blevet oprettet i 1870 af Alliance israélite universelle og den af en jødisk studenterforening i 1882 anlagte vindyrkningsmønsterplantage Rishon LeZion. Efter, at Palæstina var blevet frigjort fra det osmanniske tobaksmonopol, gik også tobaksdyrkningen hurtigt frem (600.000 kg 1923–24). Palæstinas produktion i 1923 omfattede blandt andet 88.362 ton hvede, 27.519 ton byg, 16.103 ton durra, 1.116 ton oliven. Appelsindyrkningen voksede så meget, at Palæstina i henseende til appelsineksport fulgte lige efter Amerika, Spanien, Italien og Japan; af hele appelsinhøsten kom 90 % fra egnen omkring Jaffa, og 40 % af appelsindyrkningen var på jødiske hænder.[124]

Skovbrug var fraværende i den osmanniske tid. Efter denne etableredes statsskove, og træplantning skete i stor skala (omkring 3 mio. træer blev plantede i årene 1923–24).[124]

Råstofudvindingen var ubetydelig, men der blev udarbejdet omfattende planer om at udvinde kalium og magnesium fra Det Døde Hav i stor skala.

Industriens som jordbrugets udviklingsmuligheder han sammen med mulighederne for at udnytte Jordan-flodens vandkraft. Længst i udviklingen var endnu mølledriften og sæbefabrikker, men ligeledes fandtes teglværker, cement- og cigarretfabrikker. Fra 1918 til 1925 blev investeret 1.200.000 egyptiske pund, hvoraf 5/6 af jøder.[124]

Handel[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Palæstinas import havde i 1923 en værdi på 4.935.265 egyptiske pund, eksporten 1.555.730 egyptiske pund. Importen udviklede sig næsten ikke efter 1919, eksporten derimod blev efterhånden fordoblet (fra 733.443 egyptiske pund i budgetåret 1919–20). De vigtigste importvarer i 1923 var bomulds-, træ- og jernvarer, sukker, cigarretter, mel, ris, maskiner, olie og benzin, mens de vigtigste eksportvarer var appelsiner, sæbe, meloner, vin og hvede.[124]

Samfærdselsforhold[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Jernbanernes sammenlagte længde udgjorde i 1922 1.061 km. De bestod af strækningen Rafa–Haifa på den militærjernbane, som englænderne under 1. verdenskrig havde bygget fra Kantara i Egypten (den trafikeredes af Palæstina helt til Kantara)[124], desuden linjen Jaffa–Jerusalem, bibanen Haifa– Afule–El Hamme til den gennem Transjordanien gående Hedjas-bane samt nogle mindre lokalbaner (Haifa–Acre, Afule–Nablus–Tulkarem med flere).[125]

På de landeveje, man havde forbedret, drev arabere en livlig trafik med billige amerikanske biler.[125]

Palæstina havde da ingen gode havne. De vigtigste havnebyer var Haifa, hvor man forberedte samtidige havneanlæg, og Jaffa.[125]

Turisme udgjorde en vigtig indkomstkilde for landet og befolkningen. Al persontrafik på Palæstinas havne blev imidlertid drevet af 18 udenlandske dampskibslinjer.[125]

Møntvæsen og mål[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Lovligt betalingsmiddel er siden den britiske okkupation egyptiske pund (£ E.): 1 egyptisk pund (= 1 pund sterling 6 pence) à 100 piaster. Indførelse af ny møntfod, baseret på pund sterling, var under forberedelse. Metersystemet anvendtes af regeringen, men befolkningen benyttede fortsat ældre lokale mål og vægtenheder.[125]

Finanser[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Indkomsterne for budgetsåret 1924–25 beregnedes til 1.656.400, udgifterne til 1.638.050 egyptiske pund. Det strengt fastholdte grundprincip, at forvaltningen skulle bære sig selv, tvang Palæstinas regering til at stærkt begrænse udgifterne for landets materielle og åndelige udvikling. De vigtigste indkomstkilder i budgetsåret 1924–25 var told 540.000, indkomster fra jernbanedrift 290.000, tiende 200.000, hus- og jordskat 150.000, alle i egyptiske pund. Blandt udgiftsposterne var især de til ordningens opretholdelse 525.170, forvaltningsomkostninger 254.047, jernbaner 241.125, offentlige arbejder 127.801 og undervisningsvæsenet 103.080, alle egyptiske pund.[125]

Uddannelsesvæsen[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Undervisningsvæsenet var under den tyrkiske tid meget forsømt og led endnu under regeringens nødtvungne begrænsninger. Den underholdt 2 lærerseminarier og 314 folkeskoler (46 i byerne og 268 i landdistrikterne) med 19.110 elever i 1924 (deraf 15.868 drenge og 3.242 piger). Videreuddannelsesskoler fandtes ved 8 folkeskoler i byerne. Af statsskolernes elever var 89 % muhammedanere[126] og 10 % kristne, undervisningssproget var arabisk.[125] I Jerusalem oprettedes i 1920 en juridisk aftenskole for uddannelse af arabiske og jødiske sagførere. En statslig landbrugsskole fandtes endnu ikke, kun omkringrejsende konsulenter. Næsten alle jødiske børn (og de fleste kristne) gik i privatskoler. Jødiske stiftelser underholdt 187 skoler med 18.311 elever skoleåret 1923–24, deraf 4 seminarier, 1 landbrugsskole, 17 tekniske og handelsskoler samt det moderne udrustede jødiske lyceum i Tel Aviv (med 32 lærere og 350 elever). Kristne stiftelser underholdt 172 skoler med 13.348 elever (deraf flere mellemskoler, 1 landbrugsskole og 1 højere skole), muhammedanske stiftelser 38 skoler med 2.477 elever (deraf 1 teologisk og 1 landtbrugsskole). Omkring 26 % af børnene i skolealderen besøgte 1923 hverken stats- eller private skoler. I de jødiske skolerne var ikke jiddisch, men derimod hebraisk undervisningssprog. Ved det i 1925 indviede jødiske universitetet i Jerusalem påbegyndtes i december 1924 forelæsninger (med 110 elever).[125]

Styrelsens indretning[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Et dekret af 10. august og 1. september 1922 gav Palæstina en ny forfatning, hvor efter regeringen lededes af en High Commissioner, assisteret af et Executive Council. Til lovgivningen valgtes et Legislative Council på 22 medlemmer foruden the High Commissioner; af dette råd udgjorde administrationens ledende embedsmænd de 10, men dets myndighed var i øvrigt stærkt begrænset.

Retsforhold[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Juridisk deltes Palæstina i distrikter med Magistrate Courts og District Courts, der skulle dømme efter den 1914 gældende lov, hvor den ikke var ændret; endvidere oprettedes særlige domstole for kriminelle forbrydelser og for spørgsmål angående grundejendom. Over disse stod en overret, Supreme Court, og som højesteret His Majesty in Council. Men alt, som angik familielivet og rent personlige spørgsmål, henvistes til de ulige religioners særlige domstole. Allerede den 20. december 1921 var der for islams vedkommende nedsat et højeste sharîa-råd på 5 medlemmer til at organisere og lede administrationen af muslimske domstole og stiftelser (awqâf). Den arabiske kongres erklærede imidlertid, at den ikke anerkendte den ny forfatning, der ikke mentes at sikre den indfødte befolknings indflydelse, og valgene i foråret 1923 blev boykottet.

Forskning[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Kort efter Englands overtagelse af Palæstina indrettedes et departement for oldsager under direktion af John Garstang; der oprettedes et museum og blev givet reglement for udgravninger og behandlingen af antikviteter. Siden blev gravningerne genoptaget i Asqalon (England), i Besan (Amerika), i Gibea (Amerika), i Galilæa, hvor jøderne udgravede en del synagoger, i Kapernaum (franciskanerne) og andre steder. De videnskabeligt interesserede kredse dannede en sammenslutning, The Palestine Oriental Society, der samlede alle religionsbekendere, og som udgav en journal.

Presse[redigér | redigér wikikode]

En del dag- og ugeblade udkom i Palæstina, således det engelsksprogede Palestine Weekly, de jødiske dô’ar hâ-jôm, hâ’âres, de arabiske karmel (i Haifa), filastîn (i Jaffa), mir’ât as-sharq (i Jerusalem) og andre.

Palæstina 1925 - 1933[redigér | redigér wikikode]

I 1925 fratrådte sir Herbert Samuel sin stilling som High Commissioner og efterfulgtes af feltmarskalk Plumer.[127] Ifølge Herbert Samuels redegørelse havde finanserne 1920—1925 udvist en indtægt på 8.400.000 £ (ægyptiske, lidt mere end engelske) og en udgift af 8.391.000 £. Der var bygget eller istandsat 240 km hovedruter, 600 km biruter, oprettet 34 telegrafkontorer og 31 offentlige telefonstationer med over 1.300 abonnenter. Haifa og Jaffa var blevet centrer for industri: olie, sæbe, cement, salt, mursten og andet. Der var 103 aktieselskaber og 66 andelsselskaber, men importen oversteg eksporten. Der var indvandret 46.225 jøder, så at der i marts 1925 var 108.000 jøder i Palæstina. Den eneste helt jødiske by var Tel Aviv ved Jaffa, der havde 30.000 indbyggere mod 2.000 i 1914, idet den grundlagdes i 1908. Der var åbnet 190 grundskoler for araberne, så at der i alt fandtes 314 regeringsskoler, 400 private; til de sidste hørte alle jødiske og de forskellige kristne missionsselskabers. Den 1. april 1925 åbnedes under deltagelse fra hele verden et hebraisk universitet med fakulteter for hebraiske studier, biokemi og elektrobiologi[128]; et fakultet i Tel Aviv for agrikultur sluttede sig dertil. Lord Balfour holdt den egentlige indvielsestale; hans besøg gav anledning til uroligheder hos den arabiske Befolkning. I Palestine Citizenship Order af 24. juli 1925 fastsloges reglerne for palæstinensisk borgerret. Samme år ratificeredes i december en overenskomst mellem England og USA, hvorved sidstnævnte stat sluttede sig til Folkeforbundsstaterne som garant for mandatet.

1926 høstedes 99.023 t hvede, 69.358 t byg, 23.913 t durra, 2.093 t oliven, 4.650 t olivenolie, 3.321 t linser. Samme år holdtes 290.854 får, 841.289 geder, 27.315 kameler og 4.161 bøfler. De vigtigste eksportartikler var appelsiner, sæbe og vandmeloner.

Nye udviklingsvilkår[redigér | redigér wikikode]

I 1927 indførtes en skattereform, idet den fra tyrkisk tid overtagne tiende blev afskaffet. Samme år fik Palæstina, der hidtil havde benyttet ægyptisk mønt, sit eget møntsystem med palæstinensisk £, der deltes i 1.000 Mil. I marts 1926 fik den amerikansk-jødiske ingeniør Rutenberg efter flere års forhandlinger den endelige koncession på udnyttelse af Jordan og Jarmuk til elektrificering af Palæstina og Transjordanien i 70 år. 11. juli 1927 fandt et jordskælv sted, hvorved der i Palæstina dræbtes 200 og såredes over 700, mens 1.000 huse blev ødelagt eller stærkt beskadigede, og i Transjordanien dræbtes 68, såredes 102. Landet gennemgik i 1926 og 1927 en økonomisk krise, arbejdsløsheden steg, og i 1927 viste toldindtægterne en nedgang på 40.000 £. Dette medførte en begrænsning af den jødiske indvandring: i 1925 indvandrede 33.801 og udvandrede 2.145 Jøder, i 1926 var tallene 13.081 og 7.365, i 1927: 2.713 og 5.071. I alt var der 1. juli 1927 147.687 jøder i Palæstina eller hen imod 18% af befolkningen; af dem var 30.500 optaget af landarbejde, fordelt i 104 kolonier. Lord Melchett (forhen Alfred Mond) har virket kraftigt for lettelse af krisen. Et regulativ for det jødiske samfund i Palæstina blev fastslået 1927, men en endelig forfatning under samvirken af de forskellige befolkningsdele kunne ikke opnås. Hvor vanskelige forholdene i den henseende stadig var, fremgik af den ophidselse, som vaktes i efteråret 1928 i anledning af "Klagemuren", der var i muhamedansk eje, men hvor jøderne havde ret til at holde andagter.

Transjordaniens forhold til England som mandatmagt reguleredes ved en overenskomst af 20. februar 1928, hvorefter området udgjorde et emirat af en vis selvstændighed under kontrol af en britisk resident.

I 1928 afløstes feltmarskalk Plumer af sir John Robert Chancellor som High Commissioner[129].

Det arabiske oprør i 1929[redigér | redigér wikikode]

I 1929 kom det til et 4 dage langt arabisk oprør, der strakte sig fra fredag den 23. august til mandag den 26. august. Baggrunden var to demonstrationer, som fandt sted den 15. august, hvor en gruppe zionister fejrede mindet af templets ødelæggelse med en procession til Klagemuren og en sørgegudstjeneste i den da snævre gyde foran muren. Da demonstrationen rummede zionistiske flag, taler og sang, blev den af araberne opfattet som en politisk provokation, og dagen efter - der tilfældigvis er profetens fødselsdag - arrangerede araberne en moddemonstration, hvor besøgende fra moskéen el-Aksa gik langs muren og ødelagde nogle af de bønnepapirer, som i henhold til gammel jødisk skik var indstukkede i murrevner. De to demonstrationer forvoldte en vis nervøsitet, og da om lørdagen en fodbold under en jødisk fodboldkamp havnede på en muslimsk ager, opstod der slagsmål, da bolden blev hentet, og en ung jøde fik svære knivsår og døde på sygehus den 20. august. Den følgende dag blev han begravet, og denne udviklede sig til en national jødisk demonstration. Den næste dag var stilhed før stormen, men arabere fra omegnen begyndte i stort tal at komme til byen, og fredag den 23. efter middagsbønnen samledes et stort antal moskébesøgende bevæbnede med knive, geværer, stokke og lignende. Efter gudstjenestens afslutning drog de i grupper til flere jødekvarterer og overfaldt alle jøder på deres vej. Myndighederne var i begyndelsen magtesløs: politistyrken var beskeden og bestod overvejende af arabere, som ikke ansås ganske pålidelige til indgriben mod trosfæller. Om eftermiddagen havde man imidlertid formået at samle nogle hundrede britiske "ekstra konstabler", blandt andet Oxford-studenter, som var på turistbesøg i den hellige by. Om aftenen ankom panservogne og flyvemaskiner fra en militærlejr ved Ramleh. Det lykkedes her efter at opretholde roen i bymidten, men uroen spredte sig i stedet til Jerusalems omgivelser og i løbet af lørdagen til en række andre byer. Rygter om, at jøderne forsøgte at bemægtige sig eller ødelægge Omars moské spredtes og opildnede den arabiske fanatisme. En omfattende massakre indtrådte om lørdagen i Hebron, grænseuroligheder i Jaffa, et heftigt angreb mod den endnu ret nye jødiske koloni Tel Aviv. Myndighederne fik lørdag eftermiddag forstærkninger i form af 50 mand i flyvemaskiner fra Egypten, og om søndagen kom fra Egypten general Dobbie med 600 mand walesiska tropper, af hvilke mindre styrker sendtes til Jaffa og Tel Aviv. Om mandagen og tisdagen ankom orlogsskibe med marinesoldater fra Malta. Flyvepatruljering blev arrangeret over hele landet, og fredag den 30. august havde general Dobbie fået samlet en så stærk bevogtning, at moskébesøgende forholdt sig i ro. En mindre pogrom i Safed i det nordlige Galilæa betegnede den sidste udløber af urolighederne. Mange enligt beliggende jødiske nybyggergårde var imidlertid blevet plyndrede eller ødelagte. En britisk undersøgelseskommission under ledelse af en pensioneret kolonioverdommer blev sat til at udrede de nærmere omstændigheder omkring urolighedernes opkomst, og i de arabiske lejre ved ørkenranden foretoges massearrestationer og plyndringsbytte blev i stor skala beslaglagt.[130]

Befolkningsudviklingen[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Befolkningsudviklingen frem til 1932 afspejles i to folketællinger gennemførte henholdsvis 1922 og 1931:

År Muslimer % Jøder % Kristne % Andre % I alt
1922 590.890 78,04 83.794 11.07 73.024 9.64 9.474 1.25 752.048
1931 759.712 73.34 174.610 16.86 91.398 8.82 9.680 0.93 1.035.821

Kilde: American Jewish Year Book Vol. 48 (1946-1947), s. 608

Trods fremgang for alle hovedkategorier i absolutte tal, var jøderne ene om relativt at gå frem.

Palæstina fra 1933 til 1948[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Uddybende Uddybende artikler: Ha'avara-planen, Femte aliyah og Aliyah Bet
Dette flag blev ført af skibe registrerede i mandatområdet 1927-1948.

Tiden fra 1933 til 1940 kendetegnedes ved den nazistiske magtovertagelse i Tyskland, der snart fulgtes af en voksende udvandring til Palæstina:

År 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 I alt 1932-40
Indvandring i alt 11.289 31.977 44.143 64.146 31.671 12.475 15.263 18.433 5.611 253.970
Jøder 9.553 30.327 42.359 61.854 29.727 10.536 12.868 16.405 4.547 237.061
Andre 1.736 1.650 1.784 2.292 1.944 1.939 2.395 2.028 1.064 16.909

Kilde: American Jewish Year Book Vol. 43 (1941-1942), s. 698

Medvirkende til den voksende udvandring fra Tyskland til Palæstina var Ha'avara-aftalen mellem den nazistiske regering og zionister i Tyskland, der muliggjorde jødisk udvandring på - efter datidens forhold - yderst fordelagtige vilkår: jøder fra Tyskland fik mulighed for at deponere deres formue i en særlig fond ledet af jøder, som dernæst kunne foretage investeringer i varer nødvendige for Palæstinas udvikling. Når skibe med varer og rejsende var vel ankomne, kunne varerne sælges og pengene på vegne af indskyderen bruges til at købe jord for eller gøre andre investeringer, som så ubeskåret gik til indskyderen.

År 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941
Tyskland 353 5.392 6.911 7.447 8.180 3.601 6.733 9.490 791 91
Østrig 928 961 581 * * * *
Polen 3.156 13.125 18.028 27.291 11.588 3.636 3.269 1.759 * *
Rumænien 504 1.411 2.031 3.596 1.444 314 519 424 940 783
Tjekkoslovakiet 860 1.397 643 220 414 492 12
Yemen 410 1.287 1.964 1.425 754 337 319 148 19 42
Litauen 241 1.099 1.124 1.967 785 218 160 151 209 707
Letland 170 739 1.042 507 110 129 94 70 6
USA 864 1.169 1.171 1.638 357 172 94 36 8 3
Storbritannien **436 **287 223 83 76 104 177 3
Frankrig 544 89 69 105 44 6
*under Tyskland
**hele det engelske imperium
Kilde: American Jewish Year Book, diverse årgange

Allerede i 1933 ramte Palæstina af den første indvandringsbølge fra Tyskland og især Polen. Den 13. oktober udråbes belejringstilstand i Palæstina, efter at en stor invandring af tyske jøder har fået den allerede tidligere stærke spænding mellem arabere og jøder til yderligere at vokse og ført til blodige sammenstød mellem dem efter, at araberne i protest mod indvandringen har proklameret storstrejke. Tusindvis af arabere forsøgte at trænge ind i en ny bydel i Jerusalem, men forhindredes af militære styrker. Den 27. oktober udbrød nye uroligheder i Jaffa, og disse spredte sig til flere andre steder, der iblandt Jerusalem, Haifa og Nablus. Blodige kampe indtrådte mellem politi og arabiske demonstranter. Også i Transjordanien og i Syrien forekommer uroligheder. Præsidenten for den arabiske eksekutivkomité krævede i protesttelegram til engelske koloniminister, at arabernes rettigheder skulle respekteres og beskyttes. De jødiske emigrantskibe, som var på vej til Palæstina, må i første omgang omdirigeres til neutrale havne. Fra arabisk side udtryktes over for den engelske overkommissær frygt for, at jøderne truede med at få overvægt i Palæstina og fortrænge araberne fra det økonomiske og industrielle område og at den engelske regering derfor for at få fred skal stoppe den jødiske immigration.[131] Den 1. november rettede den syriske liga for menneske- og medborgerrettigheder, en panarabisk organisation, en opfordring til Folkeforbundet om at skride ind mod den jødiske indvandring til Palæstina og mod Englands politik, som man anser går ud på at stifte ufred mellem jøder og arabere. I Transjordanien forekom engelskfjendtlige uroligheder. På den engelske overbefalhavers ordre afspærredes Palæstina helt: Grænserne bevogtedes af engelsk og arabisk militær, og kun personer med officiel tilladelse til at slå sig ned i landet, må passere. Disse tiltag vakte stor bitterhed blandt jøderne, som i Tel Aviv den 9. december afholder et protestmøde, som resulterede i blodige sammenstød med politiet og afsluttedes med, at soldater ryddede torvet.[132]

Konflikten i 1936[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Arabiske oprørere under konflikten i 1936.

I 1936 brød nye konflikter ud: udviklingen begyndte, da arabiske landevejsrøvere angreb og plyndrede en bus, hvor efter de udtog tre jøder, som blev skudt ned. Jøderne hævnede sig et par dage senere ved at stikke et par kendte jødefjendtlige arabere ned.[133] Den 20. april proklameredes en ny arabisk storstrejke for at tvinge englænderne til at opfylde arabiske krav om, at det skulle forbydes jøder at købe jord i Palæstina og yderligere jødisk immigration forbydes. De foregående års store jødiske indvandringsbølger betød, at araberne i stigende grad frygtede, at en jødisk statsdannelse kunne blive virkeliggjort. Tiden kendetegnedes af lovløshed med mord, bombe, attentater mod toge og mordbrande. Forretningslivet lamslås. Jøderne måtte trække sig ud af Jerusalem, og urolighederne bredte sig også til landdistrikterne. Der blev afsat yderligere engelske troppestyrker for at opretholde ro og orden. Sammentræfninger mellem jøder og arabere samt mellem arabere og ordensmagten hørte til dagsordenen såvel i Jerusalem som i andre byer, der i blandt Nazareth, Nablus, Haifa, Gaza, Jaffa og Lydda. Udviklingen førte til regulære kampe. De af myndighederne indførte drabelige straffe var uden virkning. Araberne, som modtog hjælp fra officerere fra Syrien og Irak, blev stadig mere aggressive. I begyndelsen af september ankom 12 bataljoner engelske tropper til Palæstina, hvorved disses antal opgik til 25.000 mand. Araberne opererede entydigt under ledelse af syreren Fauzi ed-Din Kaukji. Efterhånden blev civilbefolkningen imidlertid trætte af strejken, og det højeste arabiske råd udsattes for pres fra fyrsterne i Arabien, Transjordanien og Irak. Den 9. oktober sendte Auni bej, medlem af den arabiske strejkekomité og leder af det storarabiske uavhængighedsparti, en skrivelse til den engelske overkommissær i Palæstina, hvori han erklærede, at araberne afbrød strejken i "adlydelse af sine konger" og håbede, at den jødiske indvandring snarest ville blive indstillet og almindelig amnesti bevilget. Den 12. oktober afblæstes strejken, som da med tilhørende uroligheder havde krævet 313 døde.[134]

Baggrunden for de gentagne strejker måtte søges i interne arabiske modsætninger. Den jødiske indvandring indebar en social omvæltning i Palæstina: helt frem til 1. verdenskrig havde landet på det nærmeste været et feudalt land med forholdsvis få store arabiske jordejere, ofte bosatte i byerne eller udlandet, der udlejede jorden til palæstinensiske bønder, som til gengæld måtte betale en høj jordleje.[135] Da jøderne begyndte at indvandre, opkøbte de jordlodder (ikke sjældent af ringeste kvalitet: af de ca. 150.000 hektar, som jøderne havde erhvervet, havde over 40.000 hektar været moseland eller steppe[136]) med henblik på plantagedyrkning, og plantagedrift især af appelsiner blev sat i gang. Ligeledes var der mange indvandrede jøder, som oprettede fabrikker i byerne. Dermed skabtes nye arbejdspladsmuligheder, hvorved de palæstinensiske fæstebønder var mindre motiverede for at fortsætte deres egen jordbrugsdrift - ikke mindst fordi lønningerne var langt bedre end indtjeningsmulighederne ved fortsat feudal jordbrugsdrift. Resultatet var, at palæstinensiske jordbrugere i stigende grad søgte nyt arbejde enten på de jødiske plantager (af ca. 10.000 arbejdere på jødiske appelsinplantager ved Tel Aviv og Jaffa var ca. 7.500 arabere)[137] eller på de jødisk ejede fabrikker i byerne, og at jordejerne derfor ikke længere med samme held kunne fortsætte den tidligere udplyndring af deres sprog- og trosfæller. Dette fik de arabiske godsejere til aktivt at virke for et stop i den jødiske indvandring og til at true palæstinensere, der søgte arbejde i jødiske foretagender, med mord[138]. Kendetegnende var det, at modstanden mod jødisk indvandring, der alene var betinget af godsejernes fortsatte udbytningstrang og intet havde med arabisk eller islamisk solidaritet at skaffe[139], var fordelt på tre grupper: det "arabiske parti" under ledelse af stormufti Amin el-Husseini og dennes broder Dsjemal el Huseini, det "nationale forsvarsparti" under ledelse af tidligere borgmester i Jerusalem Racheb el Nasjasjibi samt "fremskridtspartiet" under ledelse af Jerusalems daværende borgmester, Khalidi, som alle havde samme program men var splittede på grund af indbyrdes rivalisering.[140]

Delingsplaner 1938[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Jødisk demonstration imod Hvidbogen af 1939 i Jerusalem i 1939.

I 1938 luftede englænderne en plan om at opdele Palæstina i to områder, et jødisk og et arabisk. Planen gav anledning til voldsom modstand blandt den arabiske befolkning: den 11. oktober vedtog en panarabisk kongres i Kairo en resolution om Palæstina, hvori det blandt andet krævedes, at Balfour-deklarationen skulle erklæres ugyldig, at den jødiske immigration skulle stoppes, at et forslaget om deling af landet opgives, en national arabisk regering dannes og politiske fanger frigives. Hvis disse krav ikke blev opfyldte, opfordredes araberne til at betragte englændere og jøder som fjender.[141] Den 1. november udbrød der en arabisk storstrejke over hele Palæstina, arabiske butikker blev lukkede, og araberne undlod at rejse med tog eller bil hverken som chauffør eller passager; strejkebrydere blev truede på livet. I Syrien fandt arabiske sympatidemonstrationer sted. Da en engelsk kommission under ledelse af John Woodhead, som i april var rejst til Palæstina for at undersøge delingsplanens gennemførlighed, tillige i sin rapport meddelte, at der var store politiske, administrative og finansielle vanskeligheder forbundne hermed, meddelte den engelske regering den 9. november, at man havde opgivet delingsplanen og i stedet ville samle repræsentanter for jøder og arabere i London til et møde for at drøfte situationen. Den engelske regering lod tilkendegive, at man ville indkalde repræsentanter for det jødiske agentur, for araberne i Palæstina og for de arabiske nabolande men ikke for de arabiske ledere, som havde været ansvarlige for den da igangværende bølge af mord og vold, hvilket indebar, at muftien af Jerusalem, som opholdt sig i landflygtighed i Damaskus og regnedes som hovedmanden bag den arabiske virksomhed, blev udelukket[142].

I februar 1939 indkaldte briterne til en konference i London, der skulle afgøre Palæstinas udvikling. Konferencen blev imidlertid hurtigt sprængt, da de arabiske krav om fuldstændig kontrol og afvisning af yderligere jødisk immigration på den ene side og jødiske krav om at omdanne Palæstina til et "jødisk hjem" er uforenelige. Englænderne sætter dog grænser på den jødiske indvandring, hvilket afvises af jøderne den 27. februar. Samme dag gennemfører jøder terrorangreb i Palæstina som reaktion på briternes imødekommenhed over for araberne, og dette forsætter de følgende dage. Den værste jødiske terror finder sted i Haifa, hvor 24 personer død af bomber. Den 1. marts blev konferencen udskudt på ubestemt tid.[143] Den 18. maj fremlagde englænderne en "hvidbog", der indeholder beslutningen om, at mandatet skulle ophøre i løbet af ti år og en selvstændig arabisk-jødisk stat oprettes.[144] I overgangsperioden på 5 år skulle den jødiske indvandring begrænses til 75.000, hvilket ville indebære, at jøderne ville udgøre 1/3 af befolkningen. Både jøder og arabere afviste forslaget.[145]

Forbitrelsen blandt jøderne over den engelske beslutning om at forhindre yderligere jødisk indvandring var stor, og i 1939 begyndte zionisterne at organisere illegal indvandring til Palæstina.[144] Den 20. august udstedte briterne et dekret, der bestemmer, at alle illegale immigranter skulle interneres i koncentrationslejre.[146] Jøderne smugledes ind med både. Det sidste skib, som forsøgte at nå Palæstina under krigen, var båden "Struma", som imidlertid blev torpederet i Sortehavet af en sovjetisk ubåd.

I 1942 fremlagdes det zionistiske Biltmore-program, der indebar, at hele Palæstina skulle omdannes til en jødisk stat, fri indvandring og en jødisk hær. De jødiske terroraktioner genoptoges, fortrinsvis rettet mod briterne men også mod arabere og moderate jøder.[147]

Udviklingen efter 2. verdenskrig[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Efter 2. verdenskrig fortsatte den illegale indvandring. På denne tid var omkring 250.000 jødiske flygtninge placerede i lejre rundt om i Europa. På trods af stærke opfordringer fra USAs præsident Harry S. Truman, nægtede de britiske myndigheder at ophæve indvandringsforbuddet og slippe de jødiske flygtninge ind i Palæstina. De jødiske undergrundsgrupper gik derfor sammen om en række angreb mod britiske mål. I 1946 blev King David Hotel i Jerusalem sprængt i luften og 92 mennesker dræbt. Den vedvarende voldelige situation fik englænderne til at meddele, at de ville ophæve deres Palæstina-mandat og trække sig ud i maj 1948.

Afviklingen af mandatet[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Storbritannien annoncerede i februar 1947, at de havde til hensigt at afslutte Palæstinamandatet og henviste samtidig fremtidige spørgsmål vedrørende Palæstina til De Forenede Nationer.[148] Den 29. november 1947 blev delingsplanen (FN's Generalforsamling resolution 181) vedtaget i FN's Generalforsamling med stemmerne 33-10.[148] Denne delingsplan anbefalede at splitte det tidligere Palæstinamandatet i to, hvilket ville resultere i to nye stater: henholdvis en jødisk og arabisk stat. Endvidere anbefalede delingsplanen at skabe et "særligt internationalt regime" – en corpus separatum – for byen Jerusalem, som ville blive administreret af FN for at undgå konflikter om byens status.[148][149] FN's Generalforsamling havde/har ikke juridisk bemyndigelse til at opdele landområder, herunder Palæstinamandatet , hvorfor denne delingsplan snarere skal ses, som en anbefaling til fremtidig opdeling af landområdet.

Planen blev pure afvist af den arabiske befolkning i Palæstina[150], mens den jødiske befolkning accepterede planen.[151]. Storbritannien annoncerede umiddelbart efter vedtagelsen af FN's delingsplan, at de ville afslutte Palæstinamandatet den 15. maj 1948.[151] På Palæstinamandatet sidste dag (den 14. maj 1948) blev oprettelsen af staten Israel proklameret. Den israelske uafhængighedserklæring indeholdte ikke nogen specifikke henvisninger til statens grænse, omend paragraf 14 indeholder et løfte om, at Israel "er parat til at samarbejde med agenturerne og repræsentanterne for De Forenede Nationer med henblik på at implementere" resolution 181.[152] Indledningsvis var det på tale at specificere Israels grænser i forening med resolution 181 i landets uafhængighedserklæringen, men dette blev bl.a. afvist af David Ben-Gurion. Han mente ikke, at Israel skulle forpligte sig til nogle grænser, som araberne alligevel ikke ville acceptere og angiveligt var villige til at gå i krig på baggrund af.[153]

Proklameringen af staten Israel ført omgående til væbnet konflikt, den såkaldte arabisk-israelske krig 1948.[150] Denne konflikt endte med, at parterne indgik en våbenhvile i 1949. Den såkaldte "Grønne Linje" angiver i denne forbindelse de forskellige frontlinjer ved våbenhvilens indtræden. Denne linje fungerede i perioden 1949 og frem til seksdageskrigen i 1967, som de facto grænser mellem Israel og dets arabiske nabolande. Sammenlignet med Palæstinamandatet ved konflikten start i 1948, havde Egypten taget kontrol over Gazastriben, mens Jordan yderligere havde taget kontrol over Vestbredden. Israel havde kontrol over de resterende landområder, der var inkluderet i det tidligere Palæstinamandat.

Noter[redigér | redigér wikikode]

  1. ^ Mens det eksisterede var området kendt som blot Palestine, men senere er andre navne og beskrivelser levet anvendt, heriblandt Mandatory eller Mandate Palestine, the British Mandate of Palestine og British Palestine.
  2. ^ From Himmler:

    The National Socialist movement of Greater Germany has, since its inception, inscribed upon its flag the fight against the world Jewry. It has therefore followed with particular sympathy the struggle of freedom-loving Arabs, especially in Palestine, against Jewish interlopers. In the recognition of this enemy and of the common struggle against it lies the firm foundation of the natural alliance that exists between the National Socialist Greater Germany and the freedom-loving Muslims of the whole world. In this spirit I am sending you on the anniversary of the infamous Balfour declaration my hearty greetings and wishes for the successful pursuit of your struggle until the final victory.

    From Ribbentrop:

    I am sending my greetings to your eminence and to the participants of the meeting held today in the Reich capital under your chairmanship. Germany is linked to the Arab nation by old ties of friendship, and today we are united more than ever before. The elimination of the socalled Jewish national home and the liberation of all Arab countries from the oppression and exploitation of the Western powers is an unchangeable part of the Great German Reich policy. Let the hour not be far off when the Arab nation will be able to build its future and find unity in full independence.

  3. ^ p. 50, at 1947 "Haj Amin al-Husseini went one better: he denounced also the minority report, which, in his view, legitimised the Jewish foothold in Palestine, a "partition in disguise," as he put it."; p. 66, at 1946 "The League demanded independence for Palestine as a "unitary" state, with an Arab majority and minority rights for the Jews. The AHC went one better and insisted that the proportion of Jews to Arabs in the unitary state should stand at one to six, meaning that only Jews who lived in Palestine before the British Mandate be eligible for citizenship"; p. 67, at 1947 "The League’s Political Committee met in Sofar, Lebanon, on 16–19 September, and urged the Palestine Arabs to fight partition, which it called "aggression," "without mercy." The League promised them, in line with Bludan, assistance "in manpower, money and equipment" should the United Nations endorse partition."; p. 72, at Dec 1947 "The League vowed, in very general language, "to try to stymie the partition plan and prevent the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine,"[64]
  4. ^ "The Arabs rejected the United Nations Partition Plan so that any comment of theirs did not specifically concern the status of the Arab section of Palestine under partition but rather rejected the scheme in its entirety."[65]

Referencer[redigér | redigér wikikode]

  1. ^ "League of Nations decision confirming the Principal Allied Powers' agreement on the territory of Palestine". Arkiveret fra originalen 2013-11-25. 
  2. ^ Macmunn & Falls 1930, s. 606-607.
  3. ^ Hughes, Matthew, (red.) (2004). Allenby in Palestine: The Middle East Correspondence of Field Marshal Viscount Allenby June 1917 – October 1919. Army Records Society. 22. Phoenix Mill, Thrupp, Stroud, Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing Ltd. s. 128. ISBN 978-0-7509-3841-9. 
  4. ^ Article 22, The Covenant of the League of Nations and "Mandate for Palestine," Encyclopaedia Judaica, Vol. 11, p. 862, Keter Publishing House, Jerusalem, 1972
  5. ^ Hughes, Matthew, (red.) (2004). Allenby in Palestine: The Middle East Correspondence of Field Marshal Viscount Allenby June 1917 – October 1919. Army Records Society. 22. Phoenix Mill, Thrupp, Stroud, Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7509-3841-9.  Allenby to Robertson 25 January 1918 in Hughes 2004, p. 128
  6. ^ Article 22, The Covenant of the League of Nations and "Mandate for Palestine," Encyclopaedia Judaica, Vol. 11, p. 862, Keter Publishing House, Jerusalem, 1972
  7. ^ Official Records of the Second Session of the General Assembly, Supplement No. 11, United Nations Special Committee on Palestine, Report to the General Assembly, Volume 1. Lake Success, NY, 1947. A/364, 3 September 1947, Chapter II.C.68. Arkiveret 3 June 2014 hos Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ Shamir, Ronen (2013) Current Flow: The Electrification of Palestine Stanford: Stanford University Press
  9. ^ Segev, Tom (1999). One Palestine, Complete. Metropolitan Books. s. 173-190. ISBN 0-8050-4848-0. 
  10. ^ Ira M. Lapidus, A History of Islamic Societies, 2002: "The first were the nationalists, who in 1918 formed the first Muslim-Christian associations to protest against the Jewish national home" p.558
  11. ^ Tessler, A History of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, Second Edition, 2009: "An All-Palestine Congress, known also as the First Congress of the Muslim-Christian Societies, was organised by the MCA and convened in Jerusalem in February 1919." p.220-221
  12. ^ "First Arab Congress 1919 Paris Resolution (in Arabic)" (PDF). ecf.org.il. 
  13. ^ "Palestine Through History: A Chronology (I)". Arkiveret fra originalen den June 17, 2011. Hentet 2016-02-14.  The Palestine Chronicle
  14. ^ Official Records of the Second Session of the General Assembly, Supplement No. 11, United Nations Special Committee on Palestine, Report to the General Assembly, Volume 1. Lake Success, NY, 1947. A/364, 3 September 1947, Chapter II.C.68. Arkiveret 3 June 2014 hos Wayback Machine.
  15. ^ Shamir, Ronen (2013) Current Flow: The Electrification of Palestine Stanford: Stanford University Press
  16. ^ Caplan, Neil. Palestine Jewry and the Arab Question, 1917 – 1925. London and Totowa, NJ: F. Cass, 1978. ISBN 0-7146-3110-8. pp. 148–161.
  17. ^ Skabelon:Cite encyclopaedia
  18. ^ "It was not scholarly religious credentials that made Hajj Amin an attractive candidate for president of the SMC in the eyes of colonial officials. Rather, it was the combination of his being an effective nationalist activist and a member of one of Jerusalem's most respected notable families that made it advantageous to align his interests with those of the British administration and thereby keep him on a short tether." Weldon C. Matthews, Confronting an Empire, Constructing a Nation: Arab Nationalists and Popular Politics in Mandate Palestine, I.B.Tauris, 2006 pp. 31–32
  19. ^ For details see Yitzhak Reiter, Islamic Endowments in Jerusalem under British Mandate, Frank Cass, London Portland, Oregon, 1996
  20. ^ Excluding funds for land purchases. Sahar Huneidi, A Broken Trust: Herbert Samuel, Zionism and the Palestinians 1920–1925, I.B. Tauris, London and New York, 2001 p. 38. The 'Jewish Agency', mentioned in article 4 of the Mandate only became the official term in 1928. At the time the organisation was called the Palestine Zionist Executive.
  21. ^ 1922 Palestine Order in Council Arkiveret 2014-09-16 hos Wayback Machine.
  22. ^ a b "Palestine. The Constitution Suspended. Arab Boycott Of Elections. Back To British Rule" The Times, 30 May 1923, p. 14, Issue 43354
  23. ^ a b Legislative Council (Palestine) Answers.com
  24. ^ Las, Nelly. "International Council of Jewish Women". International Council of Jewish Women. Hentet 20 November 2018. 
  25. ^ League of Nations, Official Journal, October 1923, p. 1217.
  26. ^ a b Segev, Tom (1999). One Palestine, Complete. Metropolitan Books. s. 360–362. ISBN 978-0-8050-4848-3. 
  27. ^ Smith, Charles D. (2007). Palestine and the Arab–Israeli Conflict: A History with Documents (Sixth udgave). s. 111-225. 
  28. ^ Gilbert 1998, s. 85: The Jewish Settlement Police were created and equipped with trucks and armoured cars by the British working with the Jewish Agency.
  29. ^ "The Zionism of Orde", Covenant, 3 (1), IDC. 
  30. ^ Reuven Firestone (2012). Holy War in Judaism: The Fall and Rise of a Controversial Idea. Oxford University Press. s. 192. ISBN 978-0-19-986030-2. 
  31. ^ "Aljazeera: The history of Palestinian revolts". Arkiveret fra originalen December 15, 2005. Hentet 2005-12-15. 
  32. ^ (Khalidi 1987, s. 845)
  33. ^ (Khalidi 2001)
  34. ^ William Roger Louis, Ends of British Imperialism: The Scramble for Empire, Suez, and Decolonization, 2006, p. 391
  35. ^ Benny Morris, One State, Two States: Resolving the Israel/Palestine Conflict, 2009, p. 66
  36. ^ Benny Morris, The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited, p. 48; p. 11 "while the Zionist movement, after much agonising, accepted the principle of partition and the proposals as a basis for negotiation"; p. 49 "In the end, after bitter debate, the Congress equivocally approved—by a vote of 299 to 160—the Peel recommendations as a basis for further negotiation."
  37. ^ 'Zionists Ready To Negotiate British Plan As Basis', The Times Thursday, 12 August 1937; p. 10; Issue 47761; col B.
  38. ^ Eran, Oded. "Arab-Israel Peacemaking." The Continuum Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East. Ed. Avraham Sela. New York: Continuum, 2002, p. 122.
  39. ^ Letter from David Ben-Gurion to his son Amos, written 5 October 1937, Obtained from the Ben-Gurion Archives in Hebrew, and translated into English by the Institute of Palestine Studies, Beirut
  40. ^ Morris, Benny (2011), Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881-1998, Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, s. 138, ISBN 9780307788054.  Quote: "No Zionist can forgo the smallest portion of the Land Of Israel. [A] Jewish state in part [of Palestine] is not an end, but a beginning ….. Our possession is important not only for itself … through this we increase our power, and every increase in power facilitates getting hold of the country in its entirety. Establishing a [small] state …. will serve as a very potent lever in our historical effort to redeem the whole country"
  41. ^ a b Finkelstein, Norman (2005), Beyond Chutzpah: On the Misuse of Anti-semitism and the Abuse of History, University of California Press, s. 280, ISBN 9780520245983. 
  42. ^ Quote from a meeting of the Jewish Agency executive in June 1938: “[I am] satisfied with part of the country, but on the basis of the assumption that after we build up a strong force following the establishment of the state, we will abolish the partition of the country and we will expand to the whole Land of Israel.” in
    Masalha, Nur (1992), Expulsion of the Palestinians: The Concept of "Transfer" in Zionist Political Thought, 1882–1948, Inst for Palestine Studies, s. 107, ISBN 9780887282355. ; and
    Segev, Tom (2000), One Palestine, Complete: Jews and Arabs Under the British Mandate, Henry Holt and Company, s. 403, ISBN 9780805048483. 
  43. ^ From a letter from Chaim Weizmann to Arthur Grenfell Wauchope, High Commissioner for Palestine, while the Peel Commission was convening in 1937: “We shall spread in the whole country in the course of time ….. this is only an arrangement for the next 25 to 30 years.” Masalha, Nur (1992), Expulsion of the Palestinians: The Concept of "Transfer" in Zionist Political Thought, 1882-1948, Inst for Palestine Studies, s. 62, ISBN 9780887282355. 
  44. ^ Why Italian Planes Bombed Tel-Aviv? Arkiveret 2011-09-21 hos Wayback Machine.
  45. ^ How the Palmach was formed (History Central)
  46. ^ Secret World War II documents released by the UK in July 2001, include documents on Operation ATLAS (See References: KV 2/400–402. A German task force led by Kurt Wieland parachuted into Palestine in September 1944. This was one of the last German efforts in the region to attack the Jewish community in Palestine and undermine British rule by supplying local Arabs with cash, arms and sabotage equipment. The team was captured shortly after landing.
  47. ^ Moshe Pearlman (1947). Mufti of Jerusalem; the story of Haj Amin el Husseini. V. Gollancz. s. 50. 
  48. ^ Rolf Steininger (17 December 2018). Germany and the Middle East: From Kaiser Wilhelm II to Angela Merkel. Berghahn Books. s. 55-. ISBN 978-1-78920-039-3. 
  49. ^ Corrigan, Gordon. The Second World War Thomas Dunne Books, 2011 ISBN 9780312577094 p. 523, last paragraph
  50. ^ Lenk, RS (1994). The Mauritius Affair, The Boat People of 1940–41. London: R Lenk. ISBN 978-0951880524. 
  51. ^ Aroni, Samuel (2002-2007). "Who Perished On The Struma And How Many?". JewishGen.org. 
  52. ^ Подводная лодка "Щ-215". Черноморский Флот информационный ресурс (Russian). 2000-2013. Hentet 27 March 2013. 
  53. ^ "מפקורה SS Mefküre Mafkura Mefkura". Haapalah / Aliyah Bet. 27 September 2011. Hentet 26 March 2013. 
  54. ^ The "Hunting Season" (1945) by Yehuda Lapidot (Jewish Virtual Library)
  55. ^ UN Doc A/364 Add. 1 of 3 September 1947 Arkiveret 3 June 2014 hos Wayback Machine.
  56. ^ Kenneth Harris, Attlee (1982) pp 388–400.
  57. ^ Howard Adelman, "UNSCOP and the Partition Recommendation." (Centre for Refugee Studies, York University, 2009) online.
  58. ^ "A/RES/181(II) of 29 November 1947". United Nations. 1947. Arkiveret fra originalen 24 May 2012. Hentet 11 January 2012. 
  59. ^ Cathy Hartley; Paul Cossali (2004). Survey of Arab-Israeli Relations. s. 52-53. ISBN 9781135355272. 
  60. ^ Article 11 of the United Nations Charter
  61. ^ Roosevelt, Kermit (1948). "The Partition of Palestine: A lesson in pressure politics". Middle East Journal. 2 (1): 1-16. JSTOR 4321940. 
  62. ^ Snetsinger, John (1974). Truman, the Jewish vote, and the creation of Israel. Hoover Institution. s. 66–67. 
  63. ^ Sarsar, Saliba (2004). "The question of Palestine and United States behavior at the United Nations". International Journal of Politics, Culture and Society. 17 (3): 457-470. doi:10.1023/B:IJPS.0000019613.01593.5e. 
  64. ^ Benny Morris (2008). 1948: a history of the first Arab-Israeli war. Yale University Press. Hentet 24 July 2013. 
  65. ^ UNITED NATIONS CONCILIATION COMMISSION FOR PALESTINE A/AC.25/W/19 30 July 1949: (Working paper prepared by the Secretariat) hos Wayback Machine (archived 2 October 2013)
  66. ^ "Palestine". Encyclopædia Britannica Online School Edition, 2006. 15 May 2006.
  67. ^ Skabelon:Cite encyclopaedia
  68. ^ A. J. Sherman (2001). Mandate Days: British Lives in Palestine, 1918–1948. The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-6620-3. 
  69. ^ Menachem Begin (1977). "The Revolt". 
  70. ^ See Mandates, Dependencies and Trusteeship, by H. Duncan Hall, Carnegie Endowment, 1948, pp. 266–267.
  71. ^ "The Mandate is Indivisble". Historical Jewish Press, Tel Aviv University, Palestine Post. 9 April 1946. s. 3. Arkiveret fra originalen 29 September 2010. 
  72. ^ "The Near East and Africa". Foreign relations of the United States. 1947. s. 1255. 
  73. ^ Snetsinger, John (1974). Truman, the Jewish vote, and the creation of Israel. Hoover Press. s. 60-61. ISBN 978-0-8179-3391-3. 
  74. ^ "The Near East and Africa, Volume V (1947)". United States Department of State, Foreign relations of the United States. s. 1271. 
  75. ^ The British Empire in the Middle East, 1945–1951, p. 348. William Roger Louis, Clarendon Press, 1984
  76. ^ "Violence Ebbs; British Police Withdrawn from Tel Aviv and Its Environs - Jewish Telegraphic Agency". www.jta.org. 
  77. ^ Michael J Cohen (24 February 2014). Britain's Moment in Palestine: Retrospect and Perspectives, 1917-1948. Routledge. s. 481-. ISBN 978-1-317-91364-1. 
  78. ^ "British Forces in Jerusalem Alerter Following Haifa Victory; Fear Haganah Raid on City - Jewish Telegraphic Agency". www.jta.org. 
  79. ^ a b "PALESTINE BILL (Hansard, 10 March 1948)". hansard.millbanksystems.com. 
  80. ^ Herzog, Chaim and Gazit, Shlomo: The Arab-Israeli Wars: War and Peace in the Middle East from the 1948 War of Independence to the Present, p. 46
  81. ^ "'U.N. Resolution 181 (II). Future Government of Palestine, Part 1-A, Termination of Mandate, Partition and Independence". Arkiveret fra originalen den February 7, 2009. Hentet 2017-05-20. 
  82. ^ U.N. Resolution 181 (II). Future Government of Palestine, Part 1-A, Termination of Mandate, Partition and Independence Arkiveret 2006-10-29 hos Wayback Machine..
  83. ^ "President Truman's Trusteeship Statement - 1948". www.mideastweb.org. 
  84. ^ Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Declaration of Establishment of State of Israel: 14 May 1948: Retrieved 10 April 2012
  85. ^ Bier, Aharon, & Slae, Bracha,For the sake of Jerusalem, Mazo Publishers, 2006, p. 49
  86. ^ Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel, 14 May 1948.
  87. ^ J. Sussmann (1950). "Law and Judicial Practice in Israel". Journal of Comparative Legislation and International Law. 32: 29-31. 
  88. ^ "Copy of telegram from Epstein to Shertok" (PDF). Government of Israel. Arkiveret fra originalen (PDF) 13 November 2013. Hentet 3 May 2013. 
  89. ^ "Our Documents - Press Release Announcing U.S. Recognition of Israel (1948)". www.ourdocuments.gov. 
  90. ^ "Palestine Passports Cease to Give British Protection After May Govt. Announces - Jewish Telegraphic Agency". www.jta.org. 
  91. ^ Masalha, Nur (1992). "Expulsion of the Palestinians." Institute for Palestine Studies, this edition 2001, p. 175.
  92. ^ Rashid Khalidi (September 1998). Palestinian identity: the construction of modern national consciousness. Columbia University Press. s. 21-. ISBN 978-0-231-10515-6. Hentet 22 January 2011.  "In 1948 half of Palestine's… Arabs were uprooted from their homes and became refugees"
  93. ^ Khalidi, Edward Said Professor of Arab Studies Rashid; Khalidi, Rashid. Palestinian Identity: The Construction of Modern National Consciousness. ISBN 9780231527163. 
  94. ^ Appendix IX-B, 'The Arab Expeditionary Forces to Palestine, 15/5/48, Khalidi, 1971, p. 867.
  95. ^ Bayliss, 1999, p. 84.
  96. ^ Stein 1984, s. 4
  97. ^ "Land Ownership in Palestine," CZA, KKL5/1878. The statistics were prepared by the Palestine Lands Department for the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry, 1945, ISA, Box 3874/file 1. See (Khalaf 1991, s. 27)
  98. ^ Stein 1984, s. 226
  99. ^ Avneri 1984, s. 224
  100. ^ Stein 1984, s. 3–4, 247
  101. ^ Michael R. Fischbach (13 August 2013). Jewish Property Claims Against Arab Countries. Columbia University Press. s. 24. ISBN 978-0-231-51781-2. By 1948, after several decades of Jewish immigration, the Jewish population of Palestine had risen to about one third of the total, and Jews and Jewish companies owned 20 percent of all cultivable land in the country 
  102. ^ Lorenzo Kamel (2014), "Whose Land? Land Tenure in Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Palestine", British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, pp. 230–242. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/13530194.2013.878518
  103. ^ ""Hope Simpson report, Chapter III". Zionism-israel.com. October 1930. 
  104. ^ Mills, E. Census of Palestine, 1931 (UK government, 1932), Vol I, pp. 61–65.
  105. ^ The Political History of Palestine under British Administration, Memorandum to the United Nations Special Committee
  106. ^ prepared in December 1945 and January 1946 for the information of the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry. (1991). A Survey of Palestine: Prepared in December, 1945 and January, 1946 for the Information of the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry. 1. Institute for Palestine Studies. s. 12-13. ISBN 978-0-88728-211-9. 
  107. ^ The Palestine Order in Council, 10 August 1922, article 11 Arkiveret 16 September 2014 hos Wayback Machine.: "The High Commissioner may, with the approval of a Secretary of State, by Proclamation divide Palestine into administrative divisions or districts in such manner and with such subdivisions as may be convenient for purposes of administration describing the boundaries thereof and assigning names thereto."
  108. ^ a b Likhovski, Assaf. Law and Identity in Mandate Palestine. s. 64. 
  109. ^ "H.h. Trusted Named Chief Justice of Palestine". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Hentet 18 November 2015. 
  110. ^ LikHovski, Assaf. Law and Identity in Mandate Palestine. s. 74. 
  111. ^ LikHovski, Assaf. Law and Identity in Mandate Palestine. s. 75. 
  112. ^ (Khalidi 2006, s. 13–14)
  113. ^ (Khalidi 2006, s. 27)
  114. ^ Shamir, Ronen (2013). Current Flow: The Electrification of Palestine. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  115. ^ Noam Dvir (5 April 2012). "Haifa's glass house transparent, but still an Israeli mystery". Haaretz. 
  116. ^ (Khalidi 2006, s. 16)
  117. ^ (Khalidi 2006, s. 17)
  118. ^ (Khalidi 2006, s. 29–30)
  119. ^ "The Jewish Community Under the Palestine Mandate". www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org. 
  120. ^ (Khalidi 2006, s. 14, 24)
  121. ^ Transjordans areal udgjorde ca. 42.000 km2 og Palæstinas areal udgjorde ca. 23.000 km2
  122. ^ a b c d Nordisk Familjebok, sp. 961
  123. ^ Nordisk Familjebok, sp. 961f
  124. ^ a b c d e f g Nordisk Familjebok, sp. 962
  125. ^ a b c d e f g h Nordisk Familjebok, sp. 963
  126. ^ der var ikke skelnet mellem forskellige islamiske retninger
  127. ^ Svenska Dagbladets Årsbok 1925, s. 278
  128. ^ Svenska Dagbladets Årsbok 1925, s. 271f
  129. ^ Svenska Dagbladets Årsbok 1928, s. 361
  130. ^ Svensk Tidskrift 1929, s. 461-4
  131. ^ Svenska Dagbladets Årsbok 1933, s. 291
  132. ^ Svenska Dagbladets Årsbok 1933, s. 294
  133. ^ l, s. 522
  134. ^ Svenska Dagbladets Årsbok 1936, s. 288f
  135. ^ Langlet (1936), s. 410f
  136. ^ Langlet (1936), s. 413
  137. ^ Langlet (1936), s. 412; l, s. 523
  138. ^ Langlet (1936), s. 415
  139. ^ Langlet (1936), s. 411
  140. ^ Langlet (1936), s. 414
  141. ^ Nordisk familjeboks månadskrönika 1938, s. 771
  142. ^ Svenska Dagbladets Årsbok 1938, s. 292
  143. ^ Nordisk Familjeboks Månadskrönika 1939, s. 276
  144. ^ a b Nordisk Familjeboks Månadskrönika 1939, s. 279, 284
  145. ^ Nordisk Familjeboks Månadskrönika 1939, s. 280
  146. ^ Nordisk Familjeboks Månadskrönika 1939, s. 286
  147. ^ Laval, s.569
  148. ^ a b c Laval, s. 570
  149. ^ Best 2003 s. 118–9
  150. ^ a b Laval, s. 572
  151. ^ a b Laval, s. 571
  152. ^ Declaration of establishment of state of israel.aspx
  153. ^ shelley kleiman - the state of israel declares ind.aspx

Litteratur[redigér | redigér wikikode]

  • Ahron Bregman: A History of Israel; Palgrave Macmillan 2002; ISBN 0333676319
  • Kenneth Cragg: Palestine. The Prize and Price of Zion. Cassel, 1997. ISBN 978-0-304-70075-2
  • Erik de Laval: "Palestinakriget. En krönika om stormakstsintressen och fanatisk nationalism" (Svensk Tidskrift, (1948), s. 567-577)] (svensk)

Eksterne henvisninger[redigér | redigér wikikode]


Kategori:Folkeforbundet Kategori:Forhenværende statssamfund i mellemkrigstiden Kategori:Etableret i 1920 Kategori:Ophørt i 1948