Hawkingstråling

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Et sort hul - såsom M87* - udsender angiveligt hawkingstråling.

Hawkingstråling er stråling udtænkt af fysikeren Stephen Hawking i 1974 og består af partikler og antipartikler, der strømmer fra sorte huller som følge af kvantemekanikkens tunneleffekt. Strålingen forekommer, da der vindes energi ved, at det sorte hul lidt efter lidt henfalder til et par af en partikel og en antipartikel. Her udsendes den ene. Denne proces forløber hurtigere, jo mindre massen er, og indebærer, at sorte huller under 1 mia. ton ikke kan eksistere. Dem skabt ved Big Bang henfalder hurtigt.[1]

Kilder/referencer[redigér | rediger kildetekst]

  1. ^ Nielsen, Niels Kjær. Den Store Danske: "Hawkingstråling". Udgivet af Gyldendal. Sidst opdateret: 7.1.2009. Besøgt d. 20.8.2010 (Internet)

Yderligere læsning[redigér | rediger kildetekst]

  • Hawking, S. W. (1974). "Black hole explosions?". Nature. 248 (5443): 30. doi:10.1038/248030a0. → Hawking's first article on the topic
  • Page, Don N. (1976). "Particle emission rates from a black hole: Massless particles from an uncharged, nonrotating hole". Physical Review D. 13 (2): 198-206. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.13.198. → first detailed studies of the evaporation mechanism
  • Carr, B. J.; Hawking, S. W. (1974). "Black holes in the early universe". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 168 (2): 399-415. Bibcode:1974MNRAS.168..399C. → links between primordial black holes and the early universe
  • Barrau, A.; et al. (2002). "Antiprotons from primordial black holes". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 388: 676-687. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20020313. arXiv:astro-ph/0112486. {{cite journal}}: Eksplicit brug af et al. i: |author= (hjælp)
  • Barrau, A.; et al. (2003). "Antideuterons as a probe of primordial black holes". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 398: 403-410. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20021588. arXiv:astro-ph/0207395. {{cite journal}}: Eksplicit brug af et al. i: |author= (hjælp)
  • Barrau, A.; Féron, C.; Grain, J. (2005). "Astrophysical Production of Microscopic Black Holes in a Low–Planck-Scale World". American Astronomical Society. 630: 1015-1019. doi:10.1086/432033. arXiv:astro-ph/0505436.{{cite journal}}: CS1-vedligeholdelse: Flere navne: authors list (link) → experimental searches for primordial black holes thanks to the emitted antimatter
  • Barrau, A.; Boudoul, G. "Some aspects of primordial black hole physics". Proceedings of the International Conference on Theoretical Physics (TH2002). arXiv:astro-ph/0212225. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal kræver |journal= (hjælp) → cosmology with primordial black holes
  • Barrau, A.; Grain, J.; Alexeyev, S. O. (2004). "Gauss–Bonnet black holes at the LHC: beyond the dimensionality of space". Physics Letters B. 584 (1-2): 114-122. doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2004.01.019. arXiv:hep-ph/0311238.{{cite journal}}: CS1-vedligeholdelse: Flere navne: authors list (link) → searches for new physics (quantum gravity) with primordial black holes
  • Kanti, Panagiota (2004). "Black Holes in Theories with Large Extra Dimensions: a Review". International Journal of Modern Physics A. 19 (29): 4899-4951. doi:10.1142/S0217751X04018324. arXiv:hep-ph/0402168. → evaporating black holes and extra-dimensions
  • D. Ida, K.-y. Oda & S.C.Park, Phys. Rev. D67 (2003) 064025,Phys. Rev. D71 (2005) 124039,determination of black hole's life and extra-dimensions
  • N. Nicolaevici, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 36 (2003) 7667-7677 consistent derivation of the Hawking radiation in the Fulling-Davies mirror model (Webside ikke længere tilgængelig).
  • L. Smolin, Quantum gravity faces reality Arkiveret 10. september 2008 hos Wayback Machine, consists of the recent developments and predictions of loop quantum gravity about gravity in small scales including the deviation from Hawking radiation effect by Ansari Spectroscopy of a canonically quantized horizon.
  • M. Ansari, Area, ladder symmetry, degeneracy and fluctuations of a horizon studies the deviation of a loop quantized black hole from Hawking radiation. A novel observable quantum effect of black hole quantization is introduced.
  • Stuart L. Shapiro, Saul A. Teukolsky (1983), Black holes, white dwarfs, and neutron stars: The physics of compact objects. p. 366 Wiley-Interscience, Hawking radiation evaporation formula derivation.

Eksterne henvisninger[redigér | rediger kildetekst]