Menneskelig multitasking

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Sidder med både mobil og computer.

Menneskelig multitasking er dét at skifte mellem opgaver, der hver især kræver opmærksomhed - fx beslutninger. Begrebet kommer af computer-multitasking. En almindelig tanke er at man kan nå mere på kortere tid ved at multitaske. Dog viser meget forskning, at det kan resultere i spildt tid og flere fejl på grund af utilstrækkelig opmærksomhed.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]

Ifølge færdselsloven er det forbudt at føre et køretøj og være uopmærksomhed på færdslen. (multitasking).[9][10][11]

Etymologi[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Begrebet "multitasking" stammer fra computer-verdenen. Det beskriver en microprocessors evne til at kunne klare flere opgaver på én gang. Der er dog ikke tale om multitasking når man taler om microprocessorer der kun har en enkelt kerne, eftersom de kun kan klare en opgave af gangen. Computere der har flere kerner kan multitaske eftersom hver kerne kan klare en separat opgave. Begrebet består af det latinske ord "multi" som betyder "flere" eller "mere end én", sammensat med det engelske ord "task" som betyder "opgave". Ordet er blevet indlånt til det danske sprog ligesom mange andre engelske ord, anglisering.

Forskning[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Multitasking fylder en stor del af mange menneskers hverdag, så derfor forekommer det også naturligt at der er blevet foretaget en hel del undersøgelser indenfor emnet. (se kilderne nedenfor)

Kilder/referencer[redigér | redigér wikikode]

  1. ^ 23. jan 2010, ing.dk: Multitasking er svært, tidrøvende og usundt Citat: "...især dem, som gør stærk brug af mange medieformer samtidigt, lider overlast. De er dårligere til at koncentrere sig. De er dårligere til at skelne mellem relevant og ikke-relevant information. De er dårligere til at huske ting. De er endda dårligere til det, som man skulle tro de var bedre til, nemlig at skifte mellem opgaverne. Og nej, kvinder er ikke bedre til at multitaske end mænd...Videnskaben siger, at mennesker ikke kan multitaske. Vi kan måske godt pille bussemænd, mens vi venter for rødt, men det er ikke ægte multitasking. Det er en automatiseret adfærd, som ikke kræver kognitivt arbejde. Så snart det gælder om at tage beslutninger, kan der ikke være plads til andet i hjernen end netop en enkel af slagsen. Ægte opmærksomhed kan ikke være delt...", backup
  2. ^ Aalto University. (2017, April 25). Movie research results: Multitasking overloads the brain: The brain works most efficiently when it can focus on a single task for a longer period of time. ScienceDaily Citat: "...Previous research shows that multitasking, which means performing several tasks at the same time, reduces productivity by as much as 40%. Now a group of researchers specializing in brain imaging has found that changing tasks too frequently interferes with brain activity. This may explain why the end result is worse than when a person focuses on one task at a time...'It's easy to fall into the trap of multitasking. In that case, it seems like there is little real progress and this leads to a feeling of inadequacy. Concentration decreases, which causes stress. Prolonged stress hinders thinking and memory,' says Jääskeläinen...'Social media is really nothing but multitasking, with several parallel plots and issues. You might end up reading the news or playing a game recommended by a friend. From the brain's perspective, social media only increases the load.'...", backup
  3. ^ 25. august 2009, computerworld.dk: Myten om den produktive multitasker. ALT + Tab = tabt koncentration Citat: "...De var egentlig på jagt efter de egenskaber, som kendetegner en god multitasker, men de kom frem til et helt andet resultat. »Den typiske multitasker er faktisk virkelig dårlig til at multitaske. Jo flere ting de kaster sig over, jo dårligere bliver resultatet,« forklarer den deltagende professor Clifford Nass....", backup, PNAS September 15, 2009 106 (37) 15583-15587: Eyal Ophir, Clifford Nass, and Anthony D. Wagner: Cognitive control in media multitaskers, backup
  4. ^ scitechdaily.com: By University of Utah January 25, 2013: Research Shows Frequent Multitaskers Overrate Their Ability Citat: "...Most people believe they can multitask effectively, but a University of Utah study indicates that people who multitask the most – including talking on a cell phone while driving – are least capable of doing so...The researchers conclude, “The negative relation between cellular communication while driving and multitasking ability appears to further bolster arguments for legislation limiting the use of cell phones while operating a motor vehicle.”...", backup
  5. ^ 20 maj 2016, videnskab.dk: Børn, der SMS’er og ser TV samtidig, klarer sig dårligere i skolen Citat: "...Men multitasker teenagere mellem forskellige tekniske apparater såsom mobiltelefoner, computerspil og TV, klarer de sig dårligere i engelsk og matematik, viser et nyt nordamerikansk studie...Når teenagere bruger flere forskellige tekniske apparater samtidig, associereres det også med større impulsivitet og dårligere hukommelse, viser det nye studie...Vi fandt en sammenhæng mellem medie-multitasking og dårlige akademiske resultater hos teenagere...»Medie-multitasking kan muligvis også være en konsekvens af underlæggende lav hjernefunktion og ikke den anden vej rundt,« siger Amy S. Finn til PsyPost.org...", backup, May 18, 2016, psypost.org: Kids who text and watch TV simultaneously more likely to underperform at school Citat: "...The more time teenagers spend splitting their attention between various devices such as their phones, video games or TV, the lower their test scores in math and English tend to be. More time spent multitasking between different types of media is also associated with greater impulsivity and a poorer working memory in adolescents, says Amy S. Finn of the University of Toronto. Finn was one of the leaders of a study on the topic published in Springer’s journal Psychonomic Bulletin & Review...", backup
  6. ^ Michigan State University. (2012, July 30). When rules change, brain falters. ScienceDaily Citat: "..."These findings and our past research suggest that when you have multiple things to juggle in your mind -- essentially, when you are multitasking -- you are more likely to mess up," Moser said. "It takes effort and practice for you to be more aware of the mistakes you are missing and stay focused."...", backup
  7. ^ March 30, 2011, psychologytoday.com: Technology: Myth of Multitasking. Is multitasking really more efficient? Citat: "...There's one problem with this scenario: there is no such thing as multitasking -- at least not the way you may think of it. The fact is that multitasking, as most people understand it, is a myth that has been promulgated by the "technological-industrial complex" to make overly scheduled and stressed-out people feel productive and efficient...Multitasking involves engaging in two tasks simultaneously. But here's the catch. It's only possible if two conditions are met: 1) at least one of the tasks is so well learned as to be automatic, meaning no focus or thought is necessary to engage in the task (e.g., walking or eating) and 2) they involve different types of brain processing. For example, you can read effectively while listening to classical music because reading comprehension and processing instrumental music engage different parts of the brain. However, your ability to retain information while reading and listening to music with lyrics declines significantly because both tasks activate the language center of the brain..."
  8. ^ PLOS. (2019, August 14). Sequential, concurrent multitasking is equally hard for men, women: Women perform no better than men in study investigating types of multitasking. ScienceDaily: Citat: "...The researchers measured reaction time and accuracy for the multitasking experiments and for single task controls. They found that multitasking imposed a substantial cost on both speed and accuracy for both men and women, and there was no difference between the two groups in the magnitude of the cost. The set of potential tasks and the cognitive operations underlying them is vast, and no single experiment can encompass all of them, the authors note. Discrepancies in the literature on gender differences in multi-tasking may reflect differences in the specific types of tasks assessed. However, the large sample size and lack of gender difference seen in this study indicate that at least for the underlying cognitive processes tested here -- working memory updating, the engagement and disengagement of task sets, and inhibition -- men and women do just as well, or just as poorly, when trying to multitask...", backup, August 14, 2019, journals.plos.org: Putting a stereotype to the test: The case of gender differences in multitasking costs in task-switching and dual-task situations, backup
  9. ^ sikkertrafik.dk: Hvad siger loven om uopmærksomhed? Citat: "...Ser politiet, at du bruger håndholdt mobiltelefon eller sender en sms, mens du kører bil, får du en bøde...Der er mange ting, der kan forårsage uopmærksomhed, og det er umuligt at lovgive om dem alle. Politiet vurderer i hvert enkelt tilfælde, om denne paragraf er overtrådt. Det kan fx være, hvis de ser en bilist køre bil og læse avis samtidigt...", backup
  10. ^ danskelove.dk: Færdselsloven § 55 a, backup
  11. ^ danskelove.dk: Færdselsloven § 3, backup