Approksimant

Fra Wikipedia, den frie encyklopædi
Spring til navigation Spring til søgning

Approksimanter er sproglyde, der involverer at taleorganerne nærmer sig hinanden, men ikke nært nok[1] eller med nok artikulær præcision[2] til at skabe turbulent luftstrøm. Derfor falder approksimanter et sted mellem frikative konsonanter, som producerer turbulent luftstrøm, og vokaler, som ikke producerer turbulens.[3] Denne klasse består af lyde såsom [ɹ] og semivokaler såsom [j] og [w], såvel som laterale approksimanter såsom [l].[3]

Noter[redigér | rediger kildetekst]

Henvisninger[redigér | rediger kildetekst]

  • Blevins, Juliette (2006), "New perspectives on English sound patterns: "natural" and "unnatural" in evolutionary phonology", Journal of English Linguistics, 34: 6-25, doi:10.1177/0075424206287585 (Webside ikke længere tilgængelig)
  • Boersma, Paul (1997), "Sound change in functional phonology", Functional Phonology: Formalizing the Interactions Between Articulatory and Perceptual Drives, The Hague: Holland Academic Graphics
  • Boyce, S.; Espy-Wilson, C. (1997), "Coarticulatory stability in American English /r/", Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 101 (6): 3741-3753, Bibcode:1997ASAJ..101.3741B, CiteSeerX 10.1.1.16.4174, doi:10.1121/1.418333, PMID 9193061
  • Delattre, P.; Freeman, D.C. (1968), "A dialect study of American R's by x-ray motion picture", Linguistics, 44: 29-68
  • Hall, T. A. (2007), "Segmental features", i de Lacy, Paul (red.), The Cambridge Handbook of Phonology, Cambridge University Press, pp. 311-334, ISBN 978-0-521-84879-4
  • Hallé, Pierre A.; Best, Catherine T.; Levitt, Andrea; Andrea (1999), "Phonetic vs. phonological influences on French listeners' perception of American English approximants", Journal of Phonetics, 27 (3): 281-306, doi:10.1006/jpho.1999.0097
  • Hamann, Silke (2003), The Phonetics and Phonology of Retroflexes, Utrecht, ISBN 90-76864-39-X (Webside ikke længere tilgængelig)
  • Kawasaki, Haruko (1982), An acoustical basis for universal constraints on sound sequences (doctoral dissertation), University of California, Berkeley
  • Ladefoged, Peter (1964), A Phonetic Study of West African Languages, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
  • Ladefoged, Peter (1975), A Course in Phonetics, New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4.
  • Maddieson, Ian; Emmorey, Karen (1985), "Relationship between semivowels and vowels: Cross-linguistic investigations of acoustic difference and coarticulation", Phonetica, 42 (4): 163-174, doi:10.1159/000261748, PMID 3842771
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio (2004), "Problems in the classification of approximants", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (2): 201-210, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001732
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255-259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373
  • Montreuil, Jean-Pierre (2004), "From velar codas to high nuclei: phonetic and structural change in OT", Probus, 16: 91-111, doi:10.1515/prbs.2004.005
  • Rubach, Jerzy (2002), "Against subsegmental glides", Linguistic Inquiry, 33 (4): 672-687, doi:10.1162/ling.2002.33.4.672
  • Ohala, John (2005), "Phonetic Explanations for Sound Patterns: Implications for Grammars of Competence" (PDF), UC Berkeley PhonLab Annual Report, 1: 269-288
  • Saporta, Sol (1956), "A Note on Spanish Semivowels", Language, 32 (2): 287-290, doi:10.2307/411006, JSTOR 411006
  • Trask, Robert L. (1996), A Dictionary of Phonetics and Phonology, London: Routledge
  • Zawadski, P.A.; Kuehn, D.P. (1980), "A cineradiographic study of static and dynamic aspects of American English /r/", Phonetica, 37 (4): 253-266, doi:10.1159/000259995, PMID 7443796
SprogSpire
Denne artikel om sprog er en spire som bør udbygges. Du er velkommen til at hjælpe Wikipedia ved at udvide den.