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The logo of Internet Archive

The Internet Archive (IA) is a non-profit organization dedicated to maintaining an archive of Web and multimedia resources. Located at the Presidio in San Francisco, California, this archive includes "snapshots of the World Wide Web" (archived copies of pages, taken at various points in time), software, movies, books, and audio recordings (including recordings of live concerts from bands that allow it). The Archive makes the collections available at no cost to researchers, historians, and scholars.

Internet Archive er en organisation som har sat sig for at vedligeholde et arkiv af World Wide Web og andre multimedie kilder. Organisationen har til huse i det tidligere spanske fort The Presidio of San Francisco i Californien, USA. Arkivet indeholder kopier af websider taget med intervaller og ligeledes kopier af programmer, film, bøger og musikoptagelser, musikoptagelserne indeholder bl.a. koncertoptagelser fra artister som har giver tilladelse til det. Organisationen stiller sine samlinger gratis til rådighed for researchere, historikere og studerende.

History[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Internet Archive headquarters

The Archive was founded by Brewster Kahle in 1996.

According to its website:

Most societies place importance on preserving artifacts of their culture and heritage. Without such artifacts, civilization has no memory and no mechanism to learn from its successes and failures. Our culture now produces more and more artifacts in digital form. The Archive's mission is to help preserve those artifacts and create an Internet library for researchers, historians, and scholars. The Archive collaborates with institutions including the Library of Congress and the Smithsonian.

Because of its goal of preserving human knowledge and artifacts, and making its collection available to all, proponents of the archive have likened it to the Library of Alexandria.

Historien[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Arkivet er grundlagt af Brewster Kahle i 1996.

Følgende citat er oversat fra deres hjemmeside:

De fleste samfund finder det vigtigt at sikre arkivalier fra deres kultur og arv. Uden sådanne arkivalier har civilisationer ingen fælles hukommelse og ingen mulighed for at lærer af sine successer og fiaskoer. Vores kultur producere flere elektroniske arkivalier end nogensinde. Arkivets mission er at hjælpe til at opbevare disse arkivalier og skabe et Internet arkiv for researchere, historikere og studerende. Organisationen samarbejder med andre instutioner som det amerikanske Library of Congress and the Smithsonian Institution.

Grundet arkivets mål om at opbevare menneskehedens viden or arkivalier, samt at gøre samlingerne tilgængelige for alle, tilhængere af arkivet har samenlignet det med biblioteket i Alexandria.

Wayback Machine[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Examples from the Wayback Machine's archives:

The archive also maintains the "Wayback Machine", with content from Alexa Internet. This service allows users to see archived versions of web pages, what the Archive calls a "three dimensional index".

The Wayback Machine's archive is gradually made available. It can take from six to twelve months for an archived snapshot to appear. As an alternative, librarians and scholars who want to permanently archive material and immediately cite an archived version can use the Archive-It system instead. As of 2006 the Wayback Machine contained almost two petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 20 terabytes per month, increasing by two thirds the 12 terabytes/month growth rate reported in 2003. Its growth rate eclipses the amount of text contained in the world's largest libraries, including the Library of Congress.

A copy of the data is also maintained at Bibliotheca Alexandrina.

The name "Wayback Machine" is a reference to a segment from The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show in which Mr. Peabody, a bow tie-wearing dog with a professorial air, and his human assistant, Sherman, use a time machine called the "WABAC machine" to witness famous events in history.

Wayback Machine[redigér | redigér wikikode]

En del af arkivets funktionalitet er Wayback Machine, som baserer sig på indhold fra Alexa Internet som er en kommerciel webcrawler der i dag ejes af Amazon. Maskinen giver mulighed for at se arkiverede versioner af hjemmesider i det arkivet kalder et tredimensionelt index.

The Wayback Machine's archive is gradually made available. It can take from six to twelve months for an archived snapshot to appear. As an alternative, librarians and scholars who want to permanently archive material and immediately cite an archived version can use the Archive-It system instead. As of 2006 the Wayback Machine contained almost two petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 20 terabytes per month, increasing by two thirds the 12 terabytes/month growth rate reported in 2003. Its growth rate eclipses the amount of text contained in the world's largest libraries, including the Library of Congress.

A copy of the data is also maintained at Bibliotheca Alexandrina.

The name "Wayback Machine" is a reference to a segment from The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show in which Mr. Peabody, a bow tie-wearing dog with a professorial air, and his human assistant, Sherman, use a time machine called the "WABAC machine" to witness famous events in history.

Mirrors[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Media collections[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Most of their movies, books, and recordings are public domain or licensed under a Creative Commons License. The audio section largely includes music from independent artists, as well as more established artists and musical ensembles with permissive rules in regards to the recording of their concerts (e.g. The Grateful Dead, String Cheese Incident, Toad the Wet Sprocket, 311, Fugazi, etc.).

Open Library[redigér | redigér wikikode]

The Internet Archive operates the Open Library where a small number of scanned public domain books are made available in an easily browsable and printable format.

Moving image collection[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Aside from feature films, their Moving Image collection includes: newsreels; classic cartoons; pro- and anti- war propaganda; Skip Elsheimer's "A.V. Geeks" collection; and ephemeral material from Prelinger Archives, such as advertising, educational and industrial films and amateur and home movie collections.

Their Brick Films collection contains stop-motion animation filmed with LEGO bricks, some of which are 'remakes' of feature films. The Election 2004 collection is a non-partisan public resource for sharing video materials related to the 2004 United States Presidential Election. The Independent News collection includes sub-collections such as the Internet Archive's World At War competition from 2001, in which contestants created short films demonstrating "why access to history matters." Among their most-downloaded video files are eyewitness recordings of the devastating 2004 tsunami.

Some of the films available on the Internet Archive are:


Controversies[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Scientology sites[redigér | redigér wikikode]

In late 2002, the Internet Archive removed various sites critical of Scientology from the Wayback Machine. The error message stated that this was in response to a "request by the site owner". However, it was later clarified that lawyers from the Church of Scientology had demanded the removal, on unknown legal grounds, and that the actual site owners did not want their material removed.

Archived web pages as evidence[redigér | redigér wikikode]

In an October 2004 case called "Telewizja Polska SA v. Echostar Satellite", a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, perhaps for the first time. Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia, and EchoStar operates the Dish Network. Prior to the trial proceedings, EchoStar indicated that it intended to offer Wayback Machine snapshots as proof of the past content of Telewizja Polska’s website. Telewizja Polska brought a motion in limine to suppress the snapshots on the grounds of hearsay and unauthenticated source, but Magistrate Judge Arlander Keys rejected Telewizja Polska’s assertion of hearsay and denied TVP's motion in limine to exclude the evidence at trial. However, at the actual trial, district Court Judge Ronald Guzman, the trial judge, overruled Magistrate Keys' findings, and held that neither the affidavit of the Internet Archive employee nor the underlying pages (i.e the Telewizja Polska website) were admissible as evidence. Judge Guzman reasoned that the employee's affidavit contained both hearsay and inconclusive supporting statements, and the purported webpage printouts themselves were not self-authenticating.

Grateful Dead[redigér | redigér wikikode]

In November 2005, free downloads of Grateful Dead concerts were removed from the site. John Perry Barlow identified Bob Weir, Mickey Hart, and Bill Kreutzmann as the instigators of the change, according to a New York Times article. Phil Lesh commented on the change in a November 30, 2005 posting to his personal website:

It was brought to my attention that all of the Grateful Dead shows were taken down from Archive.org right before Thanksgiving. I was not part of this decision making process and was not notified that the shows were to be pulled. I do feel that the music is the Grateful Dead's legacy and I hope that one way or another all of it is available for those who want it.

A November 30 forum post from Brewster Kahle summarized what appeared to be the compromise reached among the band members. Audience recordings could be downloaded or streamed, but soundboard recordings were to be available for streaming only. Concerts have been since re-added.

Current status[redigér | redigér wikikode]

At least by 2006-08-13, users of the Wayback Machine noticed that no archives had been made available with dates later than early 2005.

Discussion of the issue in the Internet Archive forums included the following information posted in this thread:

We are working on some background changes to the Wayback Machine and the Archive in general. The updates have been put on hold for the Wayback Machine until these are done. We are hoping to have the updates starting next month (Sep 06) or so, but that is not a firm timeline. I'm sorry for the delay. We are not defunct, and the Wayback Machine is still being worked on, but these changes are important to do now. Please be patient with us while we work these out. Also, you are welcome to email us with more questions.

See also[redigér | redigér wikikode]

References[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Scientology controversy[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Wayback Machine archives as legally admissible evidence[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Grateful Dead controversy[redigér | redigér wikikode]

External links[redigér | redigér wikikode]