Skabelon:Citation

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The Citation template generates a citation for a book, periodical, contribution in a collective work, patent, or a web page. It determines the citation type by examining which parameters are used. As with other citation templates, this template can be used in a footnote (between <ref>...</ref> tags) or in a section that lists sources.

If the correct parameters are used, this template produces output identical to that of the Cite templates, such as {{Cite book}} and {{Cite web}}, with one important exception: By default, this Citation template uses commas in places where the Cite templates use periods (full stops) by default; either type of template can use periods (full stops) or commas by using an optional parameter. Also, this template by default generates anchors for Harvard references whereas the Cite templates do not (although they can be made to do so). Regardless of which or whether citation templates are used, citation form should be consistent throughout an article.

All parameter names must be lowercase.

Simple citation[redigér wikikode]

This section covers the most commonly used attributes. You can copy the horizontal form or vertical form below and then add in extra attributes from the full list. Spacing and ordering is irrelevant.

{{Citation |last= |first= |year= |title= |publisher= |publication-place= |page= |url= |accessdate= }}

{{Citation
| last       =
| first      =
| year       =
| title      =
| publisher  =
| publication-place =
| page       =
| url        =
| accessdate =
}}
  • last: The author's surname or last name. Don't use with the author parameter.
  • first: The author's first or given name(s).
  • year: Year of authorship or publication. Mandatory for use with links from Template:Harvard citation, unless |date= specifies both month and year.
  • title: Title of the work. Mandatory for web references.
  • publisher: The name of the publisher. Omit terms such as Publishers, Co., Inc., Ltd., etc., but retain the words Books or Press. Not normally included where the publication is a periodical which has its own Wikipedia article (e.g. Newsweek, Billboard).
    • publication-place (or place or location): The city of publication. If more than one town/city is listed on the title page, give the first one or the location of the publisher's head office. Omit when the publication is a periodical whose name specifies the location (e.g. The New York Times, The Times of India)
  • page: For use when one page is cited. Adds "p." before the page number. Do not use with pages.
  • url: A url of an online location where the item can be found. If the url includes double quotes, these must be encoded as "%22".
    • accessdate: Date[n 1] when the url was accessed.

Example[redigér wikikode]

{{Citation
| last      = Turner
| first     = Orsamus
| title     = History of the pioneer settlement of
Phelps and Gorham's purchase, and Morris' reserve
| publisher = William Alling
| place     = Rochester, New York
| year      = 1851
| ol        = 7120924W
}}
Turner, Orsamus (1851), History of the pioneer settlement of Phelps and Gorham's purchase, and Morris' reserve, Rochester, New York: William Alling, OL 7120924W 

Full citation parameters[redigér wikikode]

These can be used for all types of publication except patents. All are optional and indentation is used simply to group related items — these may be mutually exclusive where indicated. Some hyphenated names can also be placed without hyphens.

{{Citation
| author  =
| last    =
| first   =
| author2 =
| last2   =
| first2  =
| author-link  =
| author2-link =
| author-separator =
| author-name-separator =
| author-mask =
| display-authors =
| editor        =
| editor-last   =
| editor-first  =
| editor2       =
| editor2-last  =
| editor2-first =
| editor-link   =
| editor2-link  =
| others   =
| publication-date =
| date     =
| year     =
| origyear =
| title    =
| chapter  =
| chapter-url  =
| chapter-format  =
| contribution =
| contribution-url =
| type    =
| journal =
| periodical =
| newspaper  =
| magazine   =
| work =
| edition =
| series  =
| volume  =
| issue   =
| publisher =
| publication-place =
| place    =
| language =
| page  =
| pages =
| nopp  =
| at   =
| id   =
| isbn =
| issn =
| oclc =
| pmid =
| pmc  =
| bibcode =
| doi =
| doi_inactivedate =
| zbl =
| url =
| accessdate  =
| format      =
| archiveurl  =
| archivedate =
| quote      =
| layurl =
| laysource  =
| laydate    =
| separator  = ,
| postscript =
| ref =
}}

Parameters[redigér wikikode]

Syntax[redigér wikikode]

Nested parameters rely on their parent parameters:

  • parent
  • OR: parent2—may be used instead of parent
    • child—may be used with parent (and is ignored if parent is not used)
    • OR: child2—may be used instead of child (and is ignored if parent2 is not used)
Where aliases are listed, only one of the parameters may be defined; if multiple aliased parameters are defined, then only one will show.

By default, sets of fields are terminated with a comma (,).

COinS[redigér wikikode]

This template embeds COinS metadata in the HTML output, allowing reference management software to retrieve bibliographic metadata. See Wikipedia:COinS. As a general rule, only one data item per parameter. Do not include explanatory or alternate text:

  • Use |date=27 September 2007 not |date=27 September 2007 (print version 25 September)

Use of templates within the citation template, is discouraged because many of these templates will add extraneous HTML or CSS that will be rendered in the metadata. Also, HTML entities, for example &nbsp;, &ndash;, etc, should not be used in parameters that contribute to the metadata. Do not include Wiki markup '' (italic font) or ''' (bold font) because these markup characters will contaminate the metadata.

COinS metadata is created for these parameters
  • |periodical=, |journal=, |newspaper=, |magazine=, |work=, |website=, |encyclopedia=, |encyclopaedia=, |dictionary=
  • |chapter=, |contribution=, |entry=, |article=, |section=
  • |title=
  • |publication-place=, |publicationplace=, |place=, |location=
  • |date=, |year=, |publication-date=, |publicationdate=
  • |series=, |version=
  • |volume=
  • |issue=, |number=
  • |page=, |pages=, |at=
  • |edition=
  • |publisher=, |distributor=, |institution=
  • |url=
  • |chapter-url=, |chapterurl=, |contribution-url=, |contributionurl=, |section-url=, |sectionurl=
  • |author#=, |author-last#=, |author#-last=, |last#=, |surname#=
  • |author-first#=, |author#-first=, |first#=, |given#=
  • any of the named identifiers (|isbn=, |issn=, |doi=, |pmc=, etc)

Deprecated[redigér wikikode]

The following parameters are deprecated. Their use will place the page into Category:Pages containing cite templates with deprecated parameters:

  • coauthor · coauthors: Use last# / first# or author or authors
  • Ref: Use ref

Description[redigér wikikode]

Authors[redigér wikikode]

  • last: Surname of author. Do not wikilink—use author-link instead. For corporate authors or authors for whom only one name is listed by the source, use last or one of its aliases (e.g. |author=Bono). Aliases: last1, surname, surname1, author, author1.
    • first: Given or first names of author, including title(s); for example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Dr. Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use author-link instead. Aliases: first1, given, given1. Requires last; first name will not display if last is empty.
    • OR: for multiple authors, use last1, first1 through lastn, firstn where n is any consecutive number for an unlimited number of authors (each firstn requires a corresponding lastn). See the display parameters to change how many authors are displayed. Aliases: surname1, given1 through surnamen, givenn, or author1 through authorn. For an individual author plus an institutional author, you can use |first1=...|last1=...|author2=....
    • author-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author—not the author's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: author-link1, authorlink, authorlink1, author1-link, author1link.
    • OR: for multiple authors, use author-link1 through author-linkn. Aliases: authorlink1 through authorlinkn, or author1-link through authorn-link, or author1link through authornlink.
    • name-list-format: displays authors and editors in Vancouver style when set to vanc and when the list uses last/first parameters for the name list(s)
  • vauthors: comma separated list of author names in Vancouver style; enclose corporate or institutional author names in doubled parentheses:
    |vauthors=Smythe JB, ((Megabux Corporation))
    • author-link and author-mask may be used for the individual names in |vauthors= as described above
  • authors: Free-form list of author names; not an alias of last
  • coauthors: (deprecated) Names of coauthors. Requires author, authors, or lastn Include coauthors in author or authors or use separate authorn or lastn/firstn to list coauthors.
  • translator-last: Surname of translator. Do not wikilink—use translator-link instead. Aliases: translator1, translator1-last, translator-last1.
    • translator-first: Given or first names of translator. Do not wikilink—use translator-link instead. Aliases: translator-first, translator1-first, translator-first1.
    • OR: for multiple translators, use translator-last1, translator-first1 through translator-lastn, translator-firstn where n is any consecutive number for an unlimited number of translators (each translator-firstn requires a corresponding translator-lastn). Aliases: translator1-last, translator1-first through translatorn-last, translatorn-first, or translator1 through translatorn.
    • translator-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the translator—not the translator's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: translator-link1, translator1-link.
    • OR: for multiple translators, use translator-link1 through translator-linkn. Aliases: translator1-link through translatorn-link.
  • others: To record other contributors to the work, including illustrators. For the parameter value, write Illustrated by John Smith.
When using shortened footnotes or Skabelon:Paren styles with templates, do not use multiple names in one field or else the anchor will not match the inline link.

Editors[redigér wikikode]

Skabelon:Citation Style documentation/editor

Title[redigér wikikode]

  • title: Title of source. Can be wikilinked to an existing Wikipedia article or url may be used to add an external link, but not both. Displays in italics. If script-title is defined, title holds romanized transliteration of title in script-title.
    • script-title: Original title for languages that do not use a Latin-based alphabet (Arabic, Chinese, Hebrew, Japanese, etc); not italicized, follows italicized transliteration defined in title. May be prefixed with an ISO 639-1 two-character code to help browsers properly display the script:
      ... |title=Tōkyō tawā |script-title=ja:東京タワー |trans-title=Tokyo Tower ...
    • trans-title: English translation of the title if the source cited is in a foreign language. Displays in square brackets after title; if url is defined, then trans-title is included in the link. Use of the language parameter is recommended.
Titles containing certain characters will display and link incorrectly unless those characters are encoded.
newline [ ] |
space &#91; &#93; &#124;
{{bracket|text}} {{pipe}}see also Help:Table § Rendering pipe itself
  • title-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the source named in title – do not use a web address; do not wikilink. Alias: titlelink.

Skabelon:Citation Style documentation/chapter Skabelon:Citation Style documentation/type Skabelon:Citation Style documentation/language

Date[redigér wikikode]

  • date: Date of source being referenced. Can be full date (day, month, and year) or partial date (month and year, season and year, or year). Use same format as other publication dates in the citations.[date 1] Required when year is used to disambiguate {{sfn}} links to multiple-work citations by the same author in the same year.[more] Do not wikilink. Displays after the authors and is enclosed in parentheses. If there is no author, then displays after publisher. For acceptable date formats, see Help:Citation Style 1 § Dates.
For approximate year, precede with "c. ", like this: |date=c. 1900.

For no date, or "undated", add as |date=n.d.
  • year: Year of source being referenced. Use of |date= is recommended unless all of the following conditions are met:
  1. The template uses |ref=harv, or the template is {{citation}}, or |mode=cs2
  2. The |date= format is YYYY-MM-DD.
  3. The citation requires a CITEREF disambiguator.
  • orig-year: Original publication year; displays after the date or year. For clarity, please supply specifics. For example: |orig-year=First published 1859 or |orig-year=Composed 1904.
  1. ^ Publication dates in references within an article should all have the same format. This may be a different format from that used for archive and access dates. See MOS:DATEUNIFY.

Periodical[redigér wikikode]

Skabelon:Citation Style documentation/journal

Publisher[redigér wikikode]

Skabelon:Citation Style documentation/publisher

Edition, series, volume[redigér wikikode]

Skabelon:Citation Style documentation/edition Skabelon:Citation Style documentation/series Skabelon:Citation Style documentation/volume

In-source locations[redigér wikikode]

Skabelon:Citation Style documentation/pages

URL[redigér wikikode]

Skabelon:Citation Style documentation/url

Chapter URL[redigér wikikode]

Skabelon:Citation Style documentation/chapterurl

Anchor[redigér wikikode]

Skabelon:Citation Style documentation/ref2

Identifiers[redigér wikikode]

Skabelon:Citation Style documentation/id1 Skabelon:Citation Style documentation/id2

Quote[redigér wikikode]

Skabelon:Citation Style documentation/quote

Laysummary[redigér wikikode]

Skabelon:Citation Style documentation/lay

Display options[redigér wikikode]

Skabelon:Citation Style documentation/display

Subscription or registration required[redigér wikikode]

Skabelon:Citation Style documentation/registration

Examples[redigér wikikode]

Books[redigér wikikode]

Three authors, a volume, and an edition. Ampersand (&) forced before final author's name.
{{Citation
| last1  = Lincoln
| first1 = A.
| last2  = Washington
| first2 = G.
| last3  = Adams
| first3 = J.
| lastauthoramp = yes
| title     = All the Presidents' Names
| publisher = The Pentagon
| place     = Home Base, New York
| volume  = XII
| edition = 2nd
| year    = 2007
}}
Lincoln, A.; Washington, G. & Adams, J. (2007), All the Presidents' Names, XII (2nd ed.), Home Base, New York: The Pentagon 

Web[redigér wikikode]

Web page
{{Citation
| url   = http://nrhp.focus.nps.gov/
| title = NPS Focus
| work  = National Register of Historic Places
| publisher  = [[National Park Service]]
| accessdate = November 30, 2010
| ref = none
}}
"NPS Focus", National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, hentet November 30, 2010 
Archived page
{{Citation
| url = http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/academy/space/atmosphere.html
| title = Earth's Atmosphere
| accessdate = October 25, 2007
| publisher  = [[National Aeronautics and Space Administration]]
| year   = 1995
| author = NASA
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20071013232332/http://
liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/academy/space/atmosphere.html
| archivedate = October 13, 2007
}}
NASA (1995), Earth's Atmosphere, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, arkiveret fra originalen den October 13, 2007, hentet October 25, 2007 

Journals, newspapers, magazines, or other periodicals[redigér wikikode]

Journal article
{{Citation
| last  = Hill
| first = Marvin S.
| title = Joseph Smith and the 1826
Trial: New Evidence and New
Difficulties
| journal = BYU Studies
| volume  = 12
| issue   = 2
| year    = 1976
| pages   = 1–8
| url     = https://byustudies.byu.edu/shop/PDFSRC/12.2Hill.pdf
}}
Hill, Marvin S. (1976), "Joseph Smith and the 1826 Trial: New Evidence and New Difficulties" (PDF), BYU Studies, 12 (2): 1–8 
Journal article with multiple authors and identifier
{{Citation
| last1  = Mandelkern
| first1 = M,
| last2  = Elias
| first2 = J,
| last3  = Eden
| first3 = D,
| last4  = Crothers
| first4 = D
| display-authors = 2
| title   = The dimensions of DNA in solution
| journal = J Mol Biol
| volume  = 152
| issue   = 1
| pages   = 153–161
| year    = 1981
| pmid    = 7338906
| doi     = 10.1016/0022-2836(81)90099-1
}}
Mandelkern, M,; Elias, J,; et al. (1981), "The dimensions of DNA in solution", J Mol Biol, 152 (1): 153–161, doi:10.1016/0022-2836(81)90099-1, PMID 7338906 
Newspaper article
{{Citation
| last  = Smith
| first = Joseph III
| author-link = Joseph Smith III
| title = Last Testimony of Sister Emma
| newspaper = The Saints' Herald
| publication-place = Plano, IL
| volume = 26
| issue  = 19
| date   = October 1, 1879

| page   = 289
| url    = http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/dbroadhu/
IL/sain1872.htm#100179
}}
Smith, Joseph III (October 1, 1879), "Last Testimony of Sister Emma", The Saints' Herald, Plano, IL, 26 (19), p. 289 
Conference paper
{{Citation
| last   = Sullivan
| first  = D.B.
| contribution = Time and frequency measurement
 at NIST: The first 100 years
| year   = 2001
| title  = 2001 IEEE Int'l Frequency Control Symp.
| publisher = National Institute of Standards and Technology
| contribution-url = http://tf.nist.gov/timefreq/general/pdf/1485.pdf
| chapter-format = PDF
}}
Sullivan, D.B. (2001), "Time and frequency measurement at NIST: The first 100 years" (PDF), 2001 IEEE Int'l Frequency Control Symp., National Institute of Standards and Technology 

Parts of books, including encyclopedia articles[redigér wikikode]

Manuscript published in an edited compilation
{{Citation
| last  = Bidamon
| first = Emma Smith
| author-link = Emma Hale Smith
| chapter = Letter to Emma S. Pilgrim
| date = March 27, 1876

| editor-last  = Vogel
| editor-first = Dan
| title  = Early Mormon Documents
| volume = 1
| publisher = Signature Books
| publication-date = 1996
| isbn = 1-56085-072-8
}}
Bidamon, Emma Smith (March 27, 1876), "Letter to Emma S. Pilgrim", in Vogel, Dan, Early Mormon Documents, 1, Signature Books (udgivet 1996), ISBN 1-56085-072-8 
Work with an editor but no author
{{Citation
| editor-last  = Vogel
| editor-first = Dan
| title  = Early Mormon Documents
| volume = 1
| publisher = Signature Books
| publication-date = 1996
| isbn = 1-56085-072-8
}}
Vogel, Dan, ed. (1996), Early Mormon Documents, 1, Signature Books, ISBN 1-56085-072-8 
Encyclopedia article by a named author
{{Citation
| last  = Kramer
| first = Martin
| author-link  = Martin Kramer
| contribution = Bernard Lewis
| editor-last  = Boyd
| editor-first = Kelley
| title = Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing
| volume = 1
| pages  = 719–720
| publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
| place = London
| publication-date = 1999
| contribution-url = http://www.geocities.com/
martinkramerorg/BernardLewis.htm
}}
Kramer, Martin (1999), "Bernard Lewis", in Boyd, Kelley, Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing, 1, London: Fitzroy Dearborn, pp. 719–720 
Encyclopedia article with no named author
{{Citation
| contribution = Bernard Lewis
| editor-last = Boyd
| editor-first = Kelley
| title = Encyclopedia of Historians
and Historical Writing
| volume = 1
| pages = 719–720
| publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
| place = London
| year = 1999
| contribution-url = http://www.geocities.com/
martinkramerorg/BernardLewis.htm
}}
Boyd, Kelley, ed. (1999), "Bernard Lewis", Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing, 1, London: Fitzroy Dearborn, pp. 719–720 

Republications, or edited quotations in a periodical article[redigér wikikode]

Manuscript edited and published in a journal
{{Citation
| last = Knight
| first = Joseph, Sr.
| year = 1833
| editor-last = Jessee
| editor-first = Dean
| title = Joseph Knight's Recollection
of Early Mormon History
| journal = BYU Studies
| volume = 17
| issue = 1
| publication-date = 1976
| page = 35
| url = https://byustudies.byu.edu/shop/PDFSRC/17.1Jessee.pdf
}}
Knight, Joseph, Sr. (1833), Jessee, Dean, ed., "Joseph Knight's Recollection of Early Mormon History" (PDF), BYU Studies (udgivet 1976), 17 (1): 35 
Manuscript written at one date and place, then published in a periodical at a different date and place with commentary by the editor.
{{Citation
| last = Klingensmith
| first = Philip
| type = Affidavit
| date = September 5, 1872
| place = Lincoln County, Nevada
| title = Mountain Meadows Massacre
| editor-last = Toohy
| editor-first = Dennis J.
| journal = Corinne Daily Reporter
| publication-date = September 24, 1872
| publication-place = Corinne, Utah
| volume = 5
| issue = 252
| page = 1
| url = http://udn.lib.utah.edu/u?/corinne,5359
}}
Klingensmith, Philip (September 5, 1872), skrevet af Lincoln County, Nevada, Toohy, Dennis J., ed., "Mountain Meadows Massacre", Corinne Daily Reporter (Affidavit), Corinne, Utah (udgivet September 24, 1872), 5 (252): 1 

Press release[redigér wikikode]

Press release with quotation
{{Citation
| url = http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/04/05ipad.html
| title = Apple Sells Over 300,000 iPads First Day
| publisher = Apple Inc
| accessdate = April 10, 2010
| quote = in the US as of midnight Saturday, April 3
| ref = none}}
Apple Sells Over 300,000 iPads First Day, Apple Inc, hentet April 10, 2010, in the US as of midnight Saturday, April 3 

Citing patents[redigér wikikode]

Parameters (all are optional)[redigér wikikode]

{{Citation
| inventor-last =
| inventor-first =
| inventorlink =
| inventor2-last =
| inventor2-first =
| inventorlink2 =
| publication-date =
| issue-date =
| title =
| country-code =
| description =
| patent-number =
| ref =
}}
  • inventor-last (or inventor1-last): The inventor's surname or last name.
  • inventor-first (or inventor1-first): The inventor's first or given name(s).
  • inventorlink (or inventorlink1): Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the first inventor.
  • inventor2-last, inventor3-last, inventor4-last: The second, third, and fourth authors' surname or last name, if applicable.
  • inventor2-first, inventor3-first, inventor4-first: The second, third, and fourth inventors' first or given name(s), if applicable.
  • inventorlink2, inventorlink3, inventorlink4: Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the second, third, and fourth inventor, if applicable.
  • publication-date: Date of publication or filing.
  • issue-date (or date): Date patent was issued by patent agency.
  • title: Title of the patent. If the title includes [square brackets], these must be encoded as "&#91;" for "[" and "&#93;" for "]"
  • country-code: Two-letter abbreviation of the country issuing the patent.
  • description: Type of patent; shown between country code and number.
  • patent-number: The number of the patent.
  • ref: Anchor id.

Examples[redigér wikikode]

United States patent with multiple inventors
{{Citation
| inventor1-last = Degermark
| inventor1-first = Mikael
| inventor2-last = Brodnik
| inventor2-first = Andrej
| inventor3-last = Carlsson
| inventor3-first = Svante
| inventor4-last = Pink
| inventor4-first = Stephen
| title = Fast routing lookup system
using complete prefix tree, bit vector,
and pointers in a routing table for
determining where to route IP datagrams
| issue-date = 2001
| patent-number = 6266706
| country-code = US}}
US 6266706, Degermark, Mikael; Andrej Brodnik & Svante Carlsson et al., "Fast routing lookup system using complete prefix tree, bit vector, and pointers in a routing table for determining where to route IP datagrams", issued 2001 

Anchored citations[redigér wikikode]

This template can generate a citation that can be combined with shortened footnotes or parenthetical referencing. It does this by creating an HTML anchor containing an ID. The special parameter |ref=harv generates an ID suitable for Harvard referencing templates such as {{harv}} as specified in the next section; this is the default for the {{citation}} template. To disable anchor generation, specify |ref=none (in contrast, other Cite templates such as {{cite book}} and {{cite news}} do not create an anchor by default). You can also specify the ID directly, using the |ref=ID parameter. For example, suppose an article's References section contains the markup:

  • {{Citation |author=Sigmund Freud |title=Civilization and Its Discontents |year=1930 |ref=CivDis}}

which generates the citation:

  • Sigmund Freud (1930), Civilization and Its Discontents 

Then, the markup "([[#CivDis|Freud 1930]])" generates a parenthetical reference "(Freud 1930)" containing a wikilink to the citation (try clicking on the wikilink).

Anchors for Harvard referencing templates[redigér wikikode]

IDs compatible with Harvard referencing templates such as {{harv}} are computed from the last names of the authors and the year of the cited source. For example, the markup "{{harv|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}}" generates the Harvard reference "(Wright & Evans 1851, s. ix)", which wikilinks to the citation whose markup and appearance are shown below:

  • {{Citation |last1=Wright |first1=Thomas |last2=Evans |first2=R. H. |title=Historical and Descriptive Account of the Caricatures of James Gillray |location=London |publisher=Henry G. Bohn |year=1851 |oclc=59510372}}
  • Wright, Thomas; Evans, R. H. (1851), Historical and Descriptive Account of the Caricatures of James Gillray, London: Henry G. Bohn, OCLC 59510372 

In this example the {{citation}} template defines, and the {{harv}} template uses, the HTML ID "CITEREFWrightEvans1851", composed by concatenating the string "CITEREF" with the last names of the authors and the year. The {{harvid}} template can be used to generate such IDs, for example, {{harvid|Wright|Evans|1851}} generates "CITEREFWrightEvans1851".

Related methods which leave only a number in the text are to use the {{harvnb}} template enclosed in the <ref></ref> html code, or to use the {{sfn}} template alone. The example above would be <ref>{{harvnb|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}}</ref> or {{sfn|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}} both of which generate a footnote, such as

17. Wright & Evans 1851, s. ix

The names of only the first four authors are used; other author names are not concatenated to the ID. If no author names are given, editor names are used instead. For patents, inventor names are used instead of authors or editors. If these names are not given, this template does not generate an anchor.

Last names are used, as specified by the parameters |last1= (or |last=), |last2=, |last3=, and |last4=, and similarly for |editor1-last= etc. and for |inventor1-last= etc. If a full name is given but no last name is specified, this template falls back on the full name, but this usage is not recommended. For example, in "{{Citation | author = Sigmund Freud | title = The Ego and the Id | year = 1923}}" no last name is given, so this citation cannot be combined with the Harvard reference "{{harv|Freud|1923}}". To make these {{citation}} and {{harv}} invocations compatible, either replace "|author=Sigmund Freud" with "|first=Sigmund |last=Freud", or add "|ref={{harvid|Freud|1923}}" to the {{citation}} invocation, or add the same ref parameter (say, "|ref=EgoId") to both the {{citation}} and the {{harv}} invocations.

Similarly, the year is used, as specified by |year=. If no year is given, this template attempts to derive the year from |date= (or, if no date is given, from |publication-date=) by applying the MediaWiki#time function. This heuristic works with many common date formats (American, International and ISO 8601 standard format YYYY-MM-DD as listed in WP:MOS), but may not work as expected with other formats, so when in doubt it may be safer to use |year=. Note that if only a year, say 2005, is known you must use |year=2005 rather than |date=2005.

IDs must be unique[redigér wikikode]

Names, years, and hand-specified IDs must be chosen so that the IDs are unique within a page; otherwise the HTML will not conform to the W3C standards, and any references to the citations will not work reliably. For example, suppose a page contains the following two citations with {{harv}}-compatible IDs:

If these citations were altered to say "2008" rather than "2008a" and "2008b", the resulting page would not work, because the two different citations would both attempt to use the ID "CITEREFMontesHalterman2008". To avoid this problem, distinguish the citations by appending suffixes to the years, e.g. "|year=2008a" and "|year=2008b", as was done above. Any Harvard references to these citations should use years with the same suffixes.

It is good practice to verify that a page does not contain duplicate IDs by using the W3C Markup Validation Service; see External links.

Dates[redigér wikikode]

  1. ^ The format of dates in the references of an article should use consistent and unambiguous styles. Example formats used in Wikipedia citations include:
    • 2009
    • 2009-09-14 (ISO 8601 standard format: YYYY-MM-DD)
    • 14 September 2009
    • September 14, 2009 (with comma)
    • September 2009
    Dates should not be linked in references. Please see Wikipedia:Manual of Style (dates and numbers)#Dates for more guidance about formatting dates.

Tools[redigér wikikode]

See Wikipedia:Citing sources#Citation templates and tools for a list of tools that can help create a reference in the "citation" format.

Template Data[redigér wikikode]

Dette er TemplateData dokumentationen til denne skabelon, som bruges af VisualEditor og andre værktøjer.

Citation

The Citation template generates a citation for a book, periodical, contribution in a collective work, patent, or a web page. It determines the citation type by examining which parameters are used.

Template parameters

Parameter Description Type Status
author surname last

surname of the author of the cited material

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author given name first

given name (first name) of the author of the cited material

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
title of source title

Title of source; displays in italics.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
date of source date

Full date of source being referenced in the same format as other publication dates in the citations.[1] Do not wikilink. Displays after the authors and enclosed in parentheses. If there is no author, then displays after publisher.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
url of source url

URL of an online location where the text of the publication can be found.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
1 1
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
2 2
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
3 3
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor-surname inventor-surname
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor1-surname inventor1-surname
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor-last inventor-last
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor1-last inventor1-last
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor inventor
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
invent1 invent1
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
invent-1 invent-1
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
country-code country-code
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor2-surname inventor2-surname
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor2-last inventor2-last
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor2 inventor2
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
invent2 invent2
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor3-surname inventor3-surname
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor3-last inventor3-last
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor3 inventor3
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
invent3 invent3
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor4-surname inventor4-surname
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor4-last inventor4-last
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor4 inventor4
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
invent4 invent4
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor-given inventor-given
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor1-given inventor1-given
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor-first inventor-first
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor1-first inventor1-first
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor2-given inventor2-given
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor2-first inventor2-first
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor3-given inventor3-given
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor3-first inventor3-first
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor4-given inventor4-given
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor4-first inventor4-first
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventorlink1 inventorlink1
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventorlink inventorlink
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventorlink2 inventorlink2
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventorlink3 inventorlink3
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventorlink4 inventorlink4
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
country country
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
publication-number publication-number
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
patent-number patent-number
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
number number
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
description description
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
status status
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
publication-date publication-date
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
pubdate pubdate
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
issue-date issue-date
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
gdate gdate
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
year year
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
fdate fdate
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
pridate pridate
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
assign1 assign1
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
assign2 assign2
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
ref ref
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
separator separator
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
quote quote
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
postscript postscript
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author-separator author-separator
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author-mask author-mask
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
authormask authormask
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
surname surname
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
last1 last1
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
surname1 surname1
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author1 author1
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author author
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
authors authors
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
last2 last2
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
surname2 surname2
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author2 author2
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
last3 last3
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
surname3 surname3
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author3 author3
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
last4 last4
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
surname4 surname4
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author4 author4
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
last5 last5
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
surname5 surname5
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author5 author5
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
last6 last6
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
surname6 surname6
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author6 author6
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
last7 last7
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
surname7 surname7
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author7 author7
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
last8 last8
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
surname8 surname8
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author8 author8
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
last9 last9
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
surname9 surname9
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author9 author9
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
first1 first1
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
given1 given1
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
given given
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
first2 first2
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
given2 given2
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
first3 first3
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
given3 given3
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
first4 first4
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
given4 given4
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
first5 first5
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
given5 given5
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
first6 first6
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
given6 given6
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
first7 first7
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
given7 given7
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
first8 first8
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
given8 given8
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
first9 first9
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
given9 given9
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author-link author-link
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author1-link author1-link
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
authorlink authorlink
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
authorlink1 authorlink1
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author2-link author2-link
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
authorlink2 authorlink2
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author3-link author3-link
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
authorlink3 authorlink3
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author4-link author4-link
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
authorlink4 authorlink4
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author5-link author5-link
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
authorlink5 authorlink5
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author6-link author6-link
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
authorlink6 authorlink6
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author7-link author7-link
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
authorlink7 authorlink7
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author8-link author8-link
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
authorlink8 authorlink8
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author9-link author9-link
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
authorlink9 authorlink9
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
coauthor coauthor
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
coauthors coauthors
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
origyear origyear
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
month month
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
trans_chapter trans_chapter
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
trans_title trans_title
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
type type
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
archiveurl archiveurl
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
deadurl deadurl
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
series series
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
version version
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
journal journal
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
periodical periodical
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
newspaper newspaper
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
magazine magazine
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
work work
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
volume volume
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
issue issue
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
pages pages
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
page page
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
at at
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
nopp nopp
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
chapter chapter
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
contribution contribution
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
chapter-url chapter-url
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
chapterurl chapterurl
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
contribution-url contribution-url
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
chapter-format chapter-format
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
others others
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
edition edition
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
place place
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
location location
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
publication-place publication-place
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
publisher publisher
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor-last editor-last
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor-surname editor-surname
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor1-last editor1-last
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor1-surname editor1-surname
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor1 editor1
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor editor
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editors editors
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor2-last editor2-last
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor2-surname editor2-surname
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor2 editor2
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor3-last editor3-last
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor3-surname editor3-surname
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor3 editor3
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor4-last editor4-last
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor4-surname editor4-surname
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor4 editor4
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor-first editor-first
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor-given editor-given
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor1-first editor1-first
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor1-given editor1-given
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor2-first editor2-first
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor2-given editor2-given
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor3-first editor3-first
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor3-given editor3-given
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor4-first editor4-first
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor4-given editor4-given
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor-link editor-link
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor1-link editor1-link
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor2-link editor2-link
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor3-link editor3-link
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor4-link editor4-link
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
language language
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
in in
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
format format
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
arxiv arxiv
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
asin asin
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
ASIN ASIN
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
asin-tld asin-tld
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
bibcode bibcode
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
doi doi
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
DOI DOI
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
doi_inactivedate doi_inactivedate
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
doi_brokendate doi_brokendate
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
isbn isbn
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
ISBN ISBN
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
issn issn
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
ISSN ISSN
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
jfm jfm
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
JFM JFM
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
jstor jstor
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
JSTOR JSTOR
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
lccn lccn
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
LCCN LCCN
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
mr mr
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
MR MR
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
oclc oclc
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
OCLC OCLC
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
ol ol
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
OL OL
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
osti osti
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
OSTI OSTI
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
pmc pmc
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
PMC PMC
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
pmid pmid
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
PMID PMID
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
rfc rfc
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
RFC RFC
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
ssrn ssrn
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
SSRN SSRN
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
zbl zbl
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
id id
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
ID ID
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
access-date access-date
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
accessdate accessdate
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
laysummary laysummary
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
laysource laysource
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
laydate laydate
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author-name-separator author-name-separator
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
lastauthoramp lastauthoramp
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
display-authors display-authors
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
archivedate archivedate
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional

Skabelon:UF-COinS