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SE HER[redigér | redigér wikikode]

UNDER UDARBEJDELSE Bruger:Drlectin/sandkasse1

Portal:Current_events [[1]]

Sci-hub [[2]]


Tree of Life [[4]]

Origins of the Eukarya [[5]]

Virtual Fossil Museum [[6]]

W[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Bruger:Drlectin/væsentligebidrag =

Uddybende Uddybende artikel: SN 1572

blockquote[redigér | redigér wikikode]

“Verdens 8. superkontinent af plastic...”

HENVIS TIL AFSNIT #[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Skabelon:See also

HENVIS TIL ANDET SPROG[redigér | redigér wikikode]


|==== Table ==== Se Danskere smittet med svine-MRSA

År Verdens sukkersyge (anslået)
1980 108 mil
2003 194 mil
2015 422
2040 642

SAMME REF[redigér | redigér wikikode]

[1] [1] [1] [1]

Billeder[redigér | redigér wikikode]

ESA/Hubble billeder licensering [7]

Se også[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Eksterne henvisninger[redigér | redigér wikikode]

  1. ^ a b c d [Reference....]

Eksterne links og henvisninger[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Eksterne links og henvisninger[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Medwiki[redigér | redigér wikikode]

er en dansk wiki oprettet for studerende inden for medicin, farmaci og naturvidenskab. Den kan bruges som et opslagsværk inden for medicinske og andre naturvidenskabelige emner. Medwiki indeholder 5.500 opslagsord (pr. maj 2016).[1] Derudover er der også "Lægelinks", der indeholder en oversigt over forskellige opslagsværker,[2] og link til "Lægeregler", der er en oversigt over love, vejledninger, bekendtgørelser og regler på sundhedsområdet.[3]

MADVARER[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Toxiske madvarer[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Nogle dyr indeholder toxiner

Planter indeholder alkaloider, lectiner og andre toxiske stoffer. Igennem mange år har det været diskuteret om lectiner i fødemidlerne ud over deres direkte toxiske virkning også er sygdomsfremkaldende faktorer.[1][2]


Kulinarisk Japansk fisk!

Genmodificerede organismer

Forurenede madvarer[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Både dyr og planter kan være forurenet med toxiske eller sygdomsfremkaldende mikrober, med pesticider og andre kemikalier, plastik nanopartikler.

Salmonella, MRSA,

Eksempler på Muslinger og hindbær, bønnespirer

FYSIK[redigér | redigér wikikode]


KLIMA[redigér | redigér wikikode]

CCS = CO2 Capture and Storage

Vandstandsstigning ... Havspejsstigning[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Sea level rise

CANCER[redigér | redigér wikikode]


Only in recent years has science determined that developmental regulation proceeds through a sequential activation of series of regulatory switches that, in turn, activate networks of other genes. These regulatory genes produce proteins that bind to and affect the activity of other genes. The protein products of these genes then activate still other genes, and the cascade continues building an animal cell type by cell type in a distinct order. The best studied regulatory genes are the Hox genes that are so highly conserved as to predate the appearance of animals. [8]

PRC2 [9]

CANCER VAR2CSA[redigér | redigér wikikode] Targeting Human Cancer by a Glycosaminoglycan Binding Malaria Protein • The placenta and cancer express a similar type of oncofetal chondroitin sulfate • Oncofetal chondroitin sulfate is displayed on proteoglycans in cancer • Recombinant VAR2CSA proteins detect oncofetal chondroitin modifications • Human cancer can be broadly targeted by malarial VAR2CSA drug conjugates in vivo Summary Plasmodium falciparum engineer infected erythrocytes to present the malarial protein, VAR2CSA, which binds a distinct type chondroitin sulfate (CS) exclusively expressed in the placenta. Here, we show that the same CS modification is present on a high proportion of malignant cells and that it can be specifically targeted by recombinant VAR2CSA (rVAR2). In tumors, placental-like CS chains are linked to a limited repertoire of cancer-associated proteoglycans including CD44 and CSPG4. The rVAR2 protein localizes to tumors in vivo and rVAR2 fused to diphtheria toxin or conjugated to hemiasterlin compounds strongly inhibits in vivo tumor cell growth and metastasis. Our data demonstrate how an evolutionarily refined parasite-derived protein can be exploited to target a common, but complex, malignancy-associated glycosaminoglycan modification.

ENZYMHÆMMER[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Triclocarbans antibakterielle virkning beror på at stoffet hæmmer aktiviteten af enzymet ACP reduktase (enoyl-acyl-carrier protein reduktase), der er vidt udbredt i bakterier, svampe og planter. ACP reduktase katalyserer det sidste trin i hver cyklus af fedtsyre-forlængelsen i type II fedtsyre-syntesen, og ved hæmning af dette trin hindres den normale fedtsyre-syntese og fedtsyre-indbygningen i cellemembranen, der medførere hæmning af bakterievæksten.

cyanide ion halts cellular respiration by inhibiting an enzyme in the mitochondria called cytochrome c oxidase.

RESISTENSPROBLEMER[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Hvor mange er smittet? I alt blev 2.965 fundet smittet med MRSA i 2014 – heraf var 1.277 smittet med husdyr-MRSA (43%). I 2013 blev der i alt fundet 2094 smittet med MRSA i 2013 – heraf var 643 smittet med husdyr-MRSA.

Se [10] Se [11]

Colistinresistens [12]

HERBICIDRESISTENS[redigér | redigér wikikode]


Nanoplastic[redigér | redigér wikikode]

VULKANER I TYRKIET[redigér | redigér wikikode]

HORMONER[redigér | redigér wikikode]

GLP-1 = glucagon-like peptide og GIP = gastric inhibitory polypeptide

DRUGS[redigér | redigér wikikode]

MDMA, Ecstasy or Molly

was invented by the pharmaceutical company Merck in 1912. Today, the drug is considered an illegal substance with no medical benefit and a high potential for abuse. It's both a stimulant and a psychedelic, meaning it has both energy-raising and hallucinogenic properties. Once it reaches the brain, MDMA amps up the activity of certain neurotransmitters, or chemical messengers, including serotonin, dopamine, and nor epinephrine, which are involved in mood regulation. The drug also can also have some well-documented side effects, including anxiety, irritability, and a rise in body temperature and blood pressure. [[13]]

CHO[redigér | redigér wikikode]


Den kemiske struktur af 6-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucopyranose, sulfoquinovose

Sulfoquinovose eller 6-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucopyranose er et svovlholdigt monosaccharid som findes som en del af sulfolidpidet sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol (SQDG). Sulfoquinovose er et svovlholdigt derivat af glucose med sulfonsyregruppen indsat af enzymet UDP-sulfoquinovose synthase (SQD1).

See also[redigér | redigér wikikode]

PEPTIDER[redigér | redigér wikikode]


Antimocrobial peptides

PROTEINER[redigér | redigér wikikode]

The seven transmembrane α-helix structure of a G protein-coupled receptor such as LHCGR, luteinizing Hormone/Choriogonadotropin Receptor

"The human protein atlas" beskriver 20 035 humane gener og genprodukter[1] her er nogle eksempler:

Prion, Prionsygdomme obs sammenskrivning

Type membranprotein Antal membranproteiner
>9TM protein 493
9TM protein 133
8TM protein 165
7TM protein 952
6TM protein 16
5TM protein 290
4TM protein 554
3TM protein 558
2TM protein 934
1TM protein 3106

Photoreceptorer[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Poriner[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Porins in prokaryotes and eukaryotes: common themes and variations

AMYLOID BETA[redigér | redigér wikikode]

One of the most common areas of research in the fight against Alzheimer’s disease focuses on amyloid beta, the sticky proteins that clump together in the brain, forming plaques that choke nerve cells and impede regular neural functions. Amyloid beta is produced in the brain by enzymes that divide a larger protein - the amyloid precursor protein (APP) - into smaller sections. In a process called dimerisation, which scientists don’t fully understand, two APP proteins sometimes join together, resulting in the production of amyloid beta [[14]] [[15]]

DNA-bindende proteiner[redigér | redigér wikikode]

bZIP AP-1 transcription factor c-jun c-fos heterodimer
bZIP mafA homodimer


AP-1 transcription factor, Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a transcription factor that regulates gene expression in response to a variety of stimuli, including cytokines, growth factors, stress, and bacterial and viral infections.[1] AP-1 controls a number of cellular processes including differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis.[2] The structure of AP-1 is a heterodimer composed of proteins belonging to the c-Fos, c-Jun, ATF and JDP families.

CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) is a cellular transcription factor. It binds to certain DNA sequences called cAMP response elements (CRE), thereby increasing or decreasing the transcription of the downstream genes. CREB was first described in 1987 as a cAMP-responsive transcription factor regulating the somatostatin gene. Genes whose transcription is regulated by CREB include: c-fos, BDNF, tyrosine hydroxylase, numerous neuropeptides (such as somatostatin, enkephalin, VGF, corticotropin-releasing hormone), and genes involved in the mammalian circadian clock (PER1, PER2).


homeodomain proteins are transcription factors sharing a characteristic protein fold structure that binds DNA

The characteristic homeodomain protein fold consists of a 60-amino acid helix-turn-helix (HTH) structure in which three alpha helices are connected by short loop regions. The N-terminal two helices are antiparallel and the longer C-terminal helix is roughly perpendicular to the axes established by the first two. It is this third helix that interacts directly with DNA via a number of hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions, which occur between specific side chains and the exposed bases and thymine methyl groups within the major groove of the DNA.

Beskrivelse English: Crystal structure of RecA-DNA complex. This protein from E. coli is essential for homologous recombination, which is an important mechanism of DNA repair. While many crystal structures of RecA had been previous solved, this structure was the first of RecA in complex with DNA.

RecA is a 38 kilodalton protein essential for the repair and maintenance of DNA.[2] A RecA structural and functional homolog has been found in every species in which one has been seriously sought and serves as an archetype for this class of homologous DNA repair proteins. The homologous protein is called RAD51 in eukaryotes and RadA in archaea.

RAD51 is a eukaryote gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the RAD51 protein family which assist in repair of DNA double strand breaks. RAD51 family members are homologous to the bacterial RecA, Archaeal RadA and yeast Rad51.[2] The protein is highly conserved in most eukaryotes, from yeast to humans.[3]

LIV[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Laboratory experiments confirm that trace amounts of molecular building blocks that make up proteins and information-storing molecules can indeed be created under these conditions. Deep-sea hydrothermal vents represent the only known environment that could have created complex organic molecules with the same kind of energy-harnessing machinery as modern cells We need to rethink the origins of life on Earth, study suggests

Astrobiologists Find Ancient Fossils in Fireball Fragments. Cometary panspermia first proposed over thirty years ago by Fred Hoyle

Oldest living[redigér | redigér wikikode]

UNIVERSET[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Biggest Ring Around Saturn Just Got Supersized Biggest Ring Around Saturn Just Got Supersized. Livescience

CME = coronal mass ejection[redigér | redigér wikikode]

The worst CME event in recent history struck in 1989, frying a transformer in New Jersey and leaving 6 million people in Quebec province in Canada without power. The largest one on record—the Carrington Event of 1859.

meteoritnedslag[redigér | redigér wikikode] Scientists gear up to drill into ‘ground zero’ of the impact that killed the dinosaurs. Science 2016

EXOPLANETER[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Tabby's star. Not Aliens, But "Megastructure Star" Keeps Getting Stranger. KIC

LIV I UNIVERSET[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Vand som opløsningsmiddel

Laboratory experiments confirm that trace amounts of molecular building blocks that make up proteins and information-storing molecules can indeed be created under these conditions. Deep-sea hydrothermal vents represent the only known environment that could have created complex organic molecules with the same kind of energy-harnessing machinery as modern cells We need to rethink the origins of life on Earth, study suggests

Astrobiologists Find Ancient Fossils in Fireball Fragments. Cometary panspermia first proposed over thirty years ago by Fred Hoyle

Favorable environments for prebiotic chemistry.

IR SPECTROMETER. Dawn’s Visible and InfraRed Mapping Spectrometer show a clear detection of an organic absorption feature at 3.4 micrometers on dwarf planet Ceres.


Dværgplaneter[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Månen[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Organic matter on the Earth’s Moon - se Citing articles:

Meteoritter[redigér | redigér wikikode]

OBS Murchison-meteoritten

Kometer[redigér | redigér wikikode]

16 organic compounds were identified, divided into six classes of organic molecules (alcohols, carbonyls, amines, nitriles, amides and isocyanates). Of these, four organic compounds were detected for the first time on a comet (methyl isocyanate, acetone, propionaldehyde and acetamide).

Life ingredients in Rosetta’s comet GLYCIN OG PRECURSORS


Asteroider[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Asteroid impacts may have formed life’s building blocks: Complex Organic Molecules Discovered in Infant Star System. Hints that the building blocks of the chemistry of life are universal, ESO 2015

Exoplaneter[redigér | redigér wikikode]

HD 209458b, a hot, gaseous giant planet bigger than Jupiter that orbits a sun-like star about 150 light years away in the constellation Pegasus. water, methane and carbon dioxide. HD 189733b hot, Jupiter-size planet, CO2.

Galaktiske stjerner-stjernetåger- interstellar dust[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Ethanol, dimethyl ether and methyl formate, ethyl formate, carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, and ammonia, methanol i G34.3 afstand 10.000 ly


COMs = Complex organic molecules... form on the surfaces of interstellar dust grains and in icy grain mantles; COMPLEX ORGANIC MOLECULES DURING LOW-MASS STAR FORMATION: PILOT SURVEY RESULTS. CH3CN, HCOOCH3, CH3OCH3, and CH3CHO.

Chiral Propylenoxid

Circulating nearby star, key ingredients in the chemical precursors for life: hydrogen cyanide (HCN), methyl cyanide (CH3CN), and cyanoacetylene (HC3N)

VAND i UNIVERSET[redigér | redigér wikikode]

  • Vand på vores solsystems planter:

Merkur - Permanently shadowed craters near Mercury’s poles have temperatures less than -280F (-173C), and water ice is stable on their dark inner surfaces. Some of the polar ice is covered by a mysterious dark organic material that researchers still do not understand.

Mars -Gammel Mars-meteorit NWA 4034 indeholder 10% mere vand Masser af vand på Mars

  • Vand på vores solsystems dværgplaneter og asteroider:



Vand i meteoritter fra asteroider ligner vand på Jorden

  • Vand på vores solsystems måner:

Europa Månen




  • Vand på Kometer


JOSEBA ESKUBI[redigér | redigér wikikode]

TOXINER[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Colony collapse neonicotinoider Toksiner er betegnelsen for giftstoffer af biologisk oprindelse, f.eks. fra slanger, planter eller bakterier. Toksiner forekommer vidt udbredt i naturen. Det anslås at der findes 20 millioner forskellige toksiner i naturen.[2]

Graden af farlighed udtrykkes i form af hvor stor en dosis, der udløser enten død (LD50) eller giftvirkning TD50.

Den mest giftige slangegift har en LD50 på 25 μg per kg legemsvægt. For tetrodotoksin er den tilsvarende mængde 8 μg. For batrachotoksin, giftstoffet fra pilegiftfrøens hud, er tallet 2-7 μg. For palytoksin er det 300 ng.[3]

Det stærkest virkende toksin er Botulinumtoksinet, der har en skønnet dødelig dosis for mennesker på 1,3-2,1 ng per kg legemsvægt intravenøst eller intramuskulært og 10-13 ng per kg indåndet.[4]

Bakterielle toxiner[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Blandt kendte toksiner er botulinumtoksin (botox), som dannes af bakterien Clostridium botulinum og kan føre til den dødelige sygdom botulisme, bedre kendt som pølseforgiftning.

Toxiner fra andre mikroorganismer[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Mykotoksin er en gruppe af giftstoffer, som produceres af forskellige svampearter, hvis toksiditet varierer kraftigt. Hos gærsvampen drejer det sig om ethanol (alkohol), men blandt de mere frygtede mykotoksiner kan nævnes aflatoksin,

Plantetoxiner[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Lectiner i bønner og løg er naturligt forekommende toksiner som f.eks. ricin.[5] Endvidere findes curare, der er en samlet betegnelse for meget toksiske plantegifte brugt på pile af Sydamerikanske indianere.

Giftige svampe[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Uddybende Uddybende artikel: Giftige svampe

Amatoxiner[redigér | redigér wikikode]

[[Image:Amatoxins generic strucuture.png|thumb|right|300px|Den fælles kemiske struktur af amatoxinerne er otte aminosyrer i to ringe, hvor R er H eller OH, R3 kan dog være endten OH eller NH2]] The backbone structure (black) is the same in all the amatoxins and five variable groups (red) determine the specific compound.]]

I Danmark er der omkring 100 giftige svampe, deribland tde meget farlige Snehvid Fluesvamp, Grøn fluesvamp, Rød Fluesvamp, [[|Hjelmhat|Randbæltet Hjelmhat]], Puklet Giftslørhat, Sandmorkel, Panter Fluesvamp og Spids Nøgenhat.

Toxiner fra dyr[redigér | redigér wikikode] America’s Most Lethal Animal


Neurotoxiner[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Evolution af neurohormoner til neurotoxiner [16]

Teixobactin[redigér | redigér wikikode]


Alpha laterotoxin[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Black widow

Giftige svampe. Patienthåndbogen</ref>

TARMFLORA[redigér | redigér wikikode]

The right gut microbes help infants grow

FÆKAL TRANSPLANTATION[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Tarmfloraens typiske eksempler[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Tarmfloraen består af mange forskellige arter, og ved analyser er der identificeret ca. 2000 arter, hvoraf et menneske har ca. 500 forskellige arter. Nogle af tarmfloraens typiske eksempler er


Hos småbørn:

I maven:


Enterotyper[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Menneskets tarmflora kan stort set inddeles i tre enterotyper[7][8]

Type 1 er udpræget hos vesterlændinge der spiser meget protein og dyrisk fedt, hvorimod Type 3 er udpræget hos mennesker der spiser fiberrig kost med kulhydrater.[9]

Enterotyper kan have betydning for en persons sygdomsrisiko eller respons overfor antibiotika og andre farmaka[10]

USA borgerrettigheder[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Freddie Gray

Michael Brown

Eric Garner

Tamir Rice

[Trayvon Martin] [jordan Davis]


HIV[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Only 1 Person Has Been Cured of HIV: New Study Suggests Why. Livescience]</ref>

Thapsigargin[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Thapsigargin inhibits Ca2+-transporting ATPase mediated uptake of calcium ions into sarcoplasmic reticulum.

Kemikere overgår naturen Dyreforsøg har vist, at plantestoffet thapsigargin kan anvendes til udvikling af medicin mod prostatakræft. Nu er det lykkedes at syntetisere et stof, som slår kræftceller ihjel ti gange mere effektivt end naturstoffet. Af Søren Brøgger Christensen, Helmer Søhoel og Tommy Liljefors. Fra Lægemiddelforskning 2005 Udgangspunktet for vor kemiske bedrift er naturstoffet thapsigargin, som er en meget kraftig hæmmer af en intracellulær calciumpumpe (SERCA). Når pumpen hæmmes, kan cellen ikke opretholde calciumbalancen og må dø.


  1. ^ The human protein atlas
  2. ^ The bite that heals. National Geographic. Februar 2013
  3. ^ World's 2nd deadliest poison, in an aquarium store near you. Discover 2011
  4. ^ Arnon, Stephen S.; Schechter R, Inglesby TV, Henderson DA, Bartlett JG, Ascher MS, Eitzen E, Fine AD, Hauer J, Layton M, Lillibridge S, Osterholm MT, O'Toole T, Parker G, Perl TM, Russell PK, Swerdlow DL, Tonat K; Working Group on Civilian Biodefense. (21. februar 2001). "Botulinum Toxin as a Biological Weapon: Medical and Public Health Management" (PDF, 0.5 MB). Journal of the American Medical Association 285 (8): 1059–1070. doi:10.1001/jama.285.8.1059. PMID 11209178. 
  5. ^ Giftige planter og dyr kan bruges i medicin. 2009
  6. ^ Danske forskere forbedrer slangemodgift. 2017
  7. ^ Gut-Bacteria Mapping Finds Three Global Varieties. Wiredscience
  8. ^ Coghlan, Andy (20 April 2011). "Each human has one of only three gut ecosystems". New Scientist. Hentet 21 April 2011. 
  9. ^ Wu GD, Chen J, Hoffmann C, Bittinger K, Chen YY, Keilbaugh SA, Bewtra M, Knights D, Walters WA, Knight R, Sinha R, Gilroy E, Gupta K, Baldassano R, Nessel L, Li H, Bushman FD, Lewis JD (October 7, 2011). "Linking long-term dietary patterns with gut microbial enterotypes". Science 334 (6052): 105–8. doi:10.1126/science.1208344. PMID 21885731. 
  10. ^ Gut microbial 'enterotypes' become less clear-cut. Communities of gut bacteria may form a spectrum rather than falling into distinct groups. Nature 2012