Sotapanna

Fra Wikipedia, den frie encyklopædi
Spring til navigation Spring til søgning
Merge-split-transwiki default.svgFlytteforslag
Denne side er foreslået flyttet til Sotapanna. Klik her for at se flytteforslaget.

I buddhismen er en sotāpanna (Pali), śrotāpanna (sanskrit; burmesisk: သောတာပန်, tibetansk: རྒྱུན་ ཞུགས་[1]), "strøm-vinder", [2] eller "strøm-gænger" [3] en person, der har set dharma og følgelig har overskåret de første tre lænker (saŋyojana), der binder et væsen til samsara, nemlig identitetssyn (sakkāya-ditthi), tilknytning til riter og ritualer (sīlabbata-parāmāsa) og tvivl (på Buddha; vicikitsa).

Ordet sotāpanna betyder bogstaveligt "en, der er kommet ind i (āpanna) strømmen (sota)", efter en metafor, der kalder den ædle ottefoldige vej en strøm, der fører til nibbāna. [4] At komme ind i strømmen (sotāpatti) er den første af de fire oplysningstrin.[5]

Opnåelse[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Man bliver sotāpanna ved at skære de tre første lænker over.

Det siges, at sotāpanna har en intuitiv forståelse af dharmaen.[6] Denne visdom kaldes ret forståelse (sammā diṭṭhi). [7]

Sotāpanna har en urokkelig tillid til Buddha, dharma og sangha. Generelt betragtes imidlertid bekræftet tillid til Buddha 'henholdsvis .

Det siges, at sotapanna har "åbnet dhamma-øjet" (dhammacakka), fordi de har indset, at alt, hvad der opstår, vil ophøre (anicca).[8]

En sotāpanna har fået sit første glimt af det ubetingede element, asankhata, [9] hvori man ser målet.

Mens strøm-gængeren har set nibbāna, og således bekræftet tilliden til det, kan arahanten [10] "drikke fuldt ud af kilden", for at bruge en simile fra Kosambi Sutta (SN 12.68).[11]

Sotāpanna "kan sige dette om sig selv: 'Helvede er afsluttet; genfødsel som dyr er afsluttet; tilstanden som hungrende spøgelse er afsluttet; tilværelser med berøvelse, fattigdom og de dårlige genfødsler er ophørt! Jeg er en strøm-vinder, standhaftig, aldrig mere bestemt til tilværelser med ulykke, jeg har kurs mod selvoplysning!".[12]

De resterende tre stier er:

  1. Engangs-tilbagevender (sakadāgāmin),
  2. Ikke-tilbagevender (anāgāmin) og
  3. Arahant

Strøm-gængere er bestemt til at nå disse stier. Deres oplysning som discipel (ariya-sāvaka) bliver uundgåelig inden for syv liv, hvor de transmigrerer blandt guder og mennesker; [13][14] hvis de er vedholdende (appamatta, appamāda) i praksis med Buddhas lære, kan de muligvis vågne fuldstændigt op i deres nuværende liv. De har meget lidt fremtidig lidelse at gennemgå.[15]

De tidlige buddhistiske tekster (f.eks. Ratana Sutta) siger, at en strøm-gænger ikke længere vil blive født i dyreriget eller helvedesriger; ej heller som et hungrende spøgelse. Vejen til uheldige genfødsler (duggati) er blevet lukket for dem.[16]

Seks handlinger, der ikke begås af en sotāpanna[redigér | redigér wikikode]

  1. Dræbe sin egen mor.
  2. Dræbe sin egen far.
  3. Dræbe en arahant.
  4. Ondsindet såre Buddha, så det trækker blod.
  5. Bevidst skabe splid i klosterfællesskabet.
  6. Tage en anden lærer [udover Buddha].[17]

Noter[redigér | redigér wikikode]

  1. ^ Meditative States in Tibetan Buddhism By Lati Rinpoche, Denma Locho Rinpoche, Leah Zahler, Jeffrey Hopkins. pg 63
  2. ^ "A Glossary of Pali and Buddhist Terms". Access to Insight. Hentet 2010-08-22. 
  3. ^ Snyder, David. "Definition of a Buddhist". The Dhamma. 
  4. ^ Bhikkhu, Thanissaro. "Intro the Stream: A Study Guide on the First Stage of Awakening". Access to Insight. Very good, Sariputta! Very good! This noble eightfold path — right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration — is the stream. 
  5. ^ Sujato, Bhikkhu. "A Swift Pair of Messengers". Santipada. 
  6. ^ Tan, Piya. "Sarakani Sutta 1" (PDF). The Dharmafarers. Hentet 25. juni 2015. Even these great sal trees,43 Mahanama, if they could understand what is well spoken and what is ill spoken, I would declare them to be streamwinners, no longer bound to the lower world, of fixed destiny, sure of awakening! 
  7. ^ Bhikkhu, Thanissaro. "Maha-cattarisaka Sutta: The Great Forty". Access to Insight. "And what is the right view that is noble, without effluents, transcendent, a factor of the path? The discernment, the faculty of discernment, the strength of discernment, analysis of qualities as a factor for awakening, the path factor of right view[1] in one developing the noble path whose mind is noble, whose mind is without effluents, who is fully possessed of the noble path. This is the right view that is noble, without effluents, transcendent, a factor of the path. 
  8. ^ Bhikkhu, Thanissaro. "Upatissa-pasine: Upatissa's (Sariputta's) Question". Access to Insight. Hentet 25. juni 2015. Then to Sariputta the wanderer, as he heard this Dhamma exposition, there arose the dustless, stainless Dhamma eye: "Whatever is subject to origination is all subject to cessation." 
  9. ^ Nyanatiloka, Maha Thera. "Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines". Dhamma Wiki. Hentet 25. juni 2015. 
  10. ^ Bhikkhu, Thanissaro. "Sekha Sutta: The Learner". Access to Insight. Hentet 25. juni 2015. 
  11. ^ Bhikkhu, Thanissaro. ["My friend, although I have seen properly with right discernment, as it actually is present, that 'The cessation of becoming is Unbinding,' still I am not an arahant whose fermentations are ended. [2] It's as if there were a well along a road in a desert, with neither rope nor water bucket. A man would come along overcome by heat, oppressed by the heat, exhausted, dehydrated, & thirsty. He would look into the well and would have knowledge of 'water,' but he would not dwell touching it with his body. [3] In the same way, although I have seen properly with right discernment, as it actually is present, that 'The cessation of becoming is Unbinding,' still I am not an arahant whose fermentations are ended." "Kosambi Sutta: At Kosambi (On Knowing Dependent Co-arising)"] Tjek |url= (hjælp). Access to Insight. 
  12. ^ Bhikkhu, Thanissaro. "Vera Sutta: Animosity". Access to Insight. 
  13. ^ Thera, Piyadassi. "Ratana Sutta". Access to Insight. 
  14. ^ Tan, Piya. "Velama Sutta" (PDF). The Dharmafarers. Furthermore, Sariputta, here a certain person fulfills moral virtue, but gains only limited concentration, gains only limited wisdom.20 With the total destruction of the three fetters, he is a seven-at-most,21 having re-arisen and wandered amongst gods and humans for seven lives at the most, makes an end of suffering.22 
  15. ^ Bhikkhu, Thanissaro. "Nakhasikha Sutta". Access to Insight. Hentet 25. juni 2015. 
  16. ^ Bhikkhu, Thanissaro. "Cakkhu Sutta". Access to Insight. Hentet 25. juni 2015. He is incapable of doing any deed by which he might be reborn in hell, in the animal womb, or in the realm of hungry shades. He is incapable of passing away until he has realized the fruit of stream-entry. 
  17. ^ Tan, Piya. "Bahu Dhatuka Sutta" (PDF). The Dharmafarers. Hentet 25. juni 2015. (4) He understands that it is impossible, there is no chance, that an individual attained to right view, would deprive his mother of life—this is not possible.41 And he understands that it is possible, there is the chance, that an ordinary worldling, would deprive his mother of life—this is possible. (5) He understands that it is impossible, there is no chance, that [65] an individual attained to right view, would deprive his father of life—this is not possible. And he understands that it is possible, there is the chance, that an ordinary worldling, would deprive his father of life—this is possible. (6) He understands that it is impossible, there is no chance, that an individual attained to right view, would deprive an arhat of life—this is not possible. And he understands that it is possible, there is the chance, that an ordinary worldling, would deprive an arhat of life—this is possible. (7) He understands that it is impossible, there is no chance, that an individual attained to right view, would draw the Tathagata’s blood—this is not possible. And he understands that it is possible, there is the chance, that an ordinary worldling, would draw the Tathagata’s blood—this is possible. (8) He understands that it is impossible, there is no chance, that an individual attained to right view, would divide the monastic order [the Sangha]—this is not possible. And he understands that it is possible, there is the chance, that an ordinary worldling, would divide the monastic order—this is possible. (9) He understands that it is impossible, there is no chance, that an individual attained to right view, would proclaim another Teacher—this is not possible.42 And he understands that it is possible, there is the chance, that an ordinary worldling, would declare another Teacher—this is possible. 

Eksterne links[redigér | redigér wikikode]