Nirvana

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Disambig bordered fade.svg For alternative betydninger, se Nirvana (flertydig). (Se også artikler, som begynder med Nirvana)

Nirvāṇa (sanskrit, Pali: nibbana) betyder direkte oversat "pustet ud", som flammen i en olielampe.[1] Begrebet er ofte forbundet med hinduisme, jainisme og buddhisme og repræsenterer den ultimative tilstand af soteriologisk frigivelse, frigørelsen fra gentagen genfødsel i saṃsāra. [2][web 1][3]

I indiske religioner er nirvana synonymt med moksha og mukti.[5] Alle indiske religioner hævder, at det er en tilstand af perfekt stilhed, frihed, højeste lykke samt befrielse fra eller afslutning af samsara, den gentagne cyklus af fødsel, liv og død. [6] [7]

Buddhistiske og ikke-buddhistiske traditioner anvender imidlertid disse termer for "befrielse" forskelligt. I den buddhistiske sammenhæng refererer nirvana til realisering af ikke-selvstændighed og tomhed, der markerer afslutningen på genfødsel ved at stille ilden, der holder genfødselsprocessen i gang.[8] [9]

I hinduistisk filosofi betyder det foreningen med eller realiseringen af Atmans identitet med Brahman, afhængigt af den hinduistiske tradition. [10][11][12]

I jainismen er nirvana også det soteriologiske mål, der repræsenterer frigørelsen af en sjæl fra karmisk binding og samsara.[13]

I buddhismen[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Nirvana (nibbana) betyder bogstaveligt talt "udblæsning" eller "slukning". [14] Det er det mest anvendte - såvel som det tidligste udtryk - for det soteriologiske mål i buddhismen: frigørelse fra genfødselscyklussen (saṃsāra). [15] Nirvana er en del af den tredje sandhed om "ophør af dukkha" i De Fire Ædle Sandheder[15] og målet for Den Ædle Ottefoldige Vej.[16]

Nirvana opnås, når man ved at følge Den Ædle Ottefoldige Vej har overskåret de ti lænker.

Buddha antages i den buddhistiske skolastiske tradition at have realiseret to typer nirvana: en ved oplysning og en anden ved sin død.[17] Den første kaldes sopadhishesa-nirvana (nirvana med en rest), den anden parinirvana eller anupadhishesa-nirvana (nirvana uden resten, eller endelig nirvana). [17]

I buddhismen beskrives nirvana som slukning af den ild, der forårsager genfødsler og tilhørende dukkha. [18] De buddhistiske tekster omtaler "tre brande" [19] eller "tre giftstoffer": raga (grådighed, sensualitet), dvesha (modvilje, had) og avidyā eller moha (uvidenhed, vrangforestilling). [20] [21]

Nirvana-tilstanden beskrives også i buddhismen som ophør med alle lidelser, ophør med alle (karmiske) handlinger, ophør med genfødsler og lidelse, der er en konsekvens af lidelser og handlinger. [15] Befrielse beskrives som identisk med anatta (anatman, ikke-selv, mangel på noget selv). [22] [23] I buddhismen opnås befrielse, når det forstås, at alle ting og væsener uden et permanent, iboende selv. [24]

Efterhånden, med udviklingen af buddhistisk lære, blev andre fortolkninger foreslået, såsom at være i "en ubetinget tilstand", [25] som en ild, der går ud på grund af mangel på brændstof, at opgive vævning (vana) sammen af liv efter liv, [26] og eliminering af begær. [27] Buddhistiske tekster har imidlertid hævdet siden oldtiden, at nirvana er mere end "ødelæggelse af begær", det er "genstand for viden" om den buddhistiske sti. [28]

Referencer[redigér | redigér wikikode]

  1. ^ Richard Gombrich, Theravada Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benāres to Modern Colombo. Routledge
  2. ^ Chad Meister (2009). Introducing Philosophy of Religion. Routledge. s. 25. ISBN 978-1-134-14179-1. Buddhism: the soteriological goal is nirvana, liberation from the wheel of samsara and extinction of all desires, cravings and suffering. 
  3. ^ Kristin Johnston Largen. What Christians Can Learn from Buddhism: Rethinking Salvation. Fortress Press. s. 107-108. ISBN 978-1-4514-1267-3. One important caveat must be noted: for many lay Buddhists all over the world, rebirth in a higher realm - rather than realizing nirvana - has been the primary religious goal. [...] while many Buddhists strongly emphasize the soteriological value of the Buddha's teaching on nirvana [escape from samsara], many other Buddhists focus their practice on more tangible goals, in particular on the propitious rebirth in one's next life. 
  4. ^ "IN THE PRESENCE OF NIBBANA:Developing Faith in the Buddhist Path to Enlightenment". What-Buddha-Taught.net. Hentet 22 October 2014. 
  5. ^ Also called vimoksha, vimukti. The Soka Gakkai Dictionary of Buddhism: "Vimoksha [解脱] (Skt; Jpn gedatsu). Emancipation, release, or liberation. The Sanskrit words vimukti, mukti, and moksha also have the same meaning. Vimoksha means release from the bonds of earthly desires, delusion, suffering and transmigration. While Buddhism sets forth various kinds and stages of emancipation, or enlightenment, the supreme emancipation is nirvana,[4][web 2]
  6. ^ Gavin Flood, Nirvana. In: John Bowker (ed.), Oxford Dictionary of World Religions
  7. ^ Anindita N. Balslev (2014). On World Religions: Diversity, Not Dissension. SAGE Publications. s. 28-29. ISBN 978-93-5150-405-4. 
  8. ^ Steven Collins (1990). Selfless Persons: Imagery and Thought in Theravada Buddhism. Cambridge University Press. s. 81-84. ISBN 978-0-521-39726-1. 
  9. ^ Peter Harvey (2001). Buddhism. Bloomsbury Academic. s. 98-99. ISBN 978-1-4411-4726-4. [Nirvana is] beyond the processes involved in dying and reborn. [...] Nirvana is emptiness in being void of any grounds for the delusion of a permanent, substantial Self, and because it cannot be conceptualized in any view which links it to 'I' or 'mine' or 'Self'. It is known in this respect by one with deep insight into everything as not-Self (anatta), empty of Self. 
  10. ^ Brian Morris (2006). Religion and Anthropology: A Critical Introduction. Cambridge University Press. s. 51. ISBN 978-0-521-85241-8. There has been some dispute as to the exact meaning of nirvana, but clearly the Buddhist theory of no soul seems to imply quite a different perspective from that of Vedantist philosophy, in which the individual soul or self [atman] is seen as identical with the world soul or Brahman [god] (on the doctrine of anatta[no soul] ... 
  11. ^ Gwinyai H. Muzorewa (2000). The Great Being. Wipf. s. 52-54. ISBN 978-1-57910-453-5. Even the Atman depends on the Brahman. In fact, the two are essentially the same. [...] Hindu theology believes that the Atman ultimately becomes one with the Brahman. One's true identity lies in realizing that the Atman in me and the Brahman - the groud of all existence - are similar. [...] The closest kin of Atman is the Atman of all living things, which is grounded in the Brahman. When the Atman strives to be like Brahman it is only because it realizes that that is its origin - God. [...] Separation between the Atman and the Brahman is proved to be impermanent. What is ultimately permanent is the union between the Atman and the Brahman. [...] Thus, life's struggle is for the Atman to be released from the body, which is impermanent, to unite with Brahman, which is permanent - this doctrine is known as Moksha. 
  12. ^ Fowler 2012, s. 46.
  13. ^ John E. Cort (1990), MODELS OF AND FOR THE STUDY OF THE JAINS, Method & Theory in the Study of Religion, Vol. 2, No. 1, Brill Academic, pages 42-71
  14. ^ Steven Collins (1998). Nirvana and Other Buddhist Felicities. Cambridge University Press. s. 191. ISBN 978-0-521-57054-1. 
  15. ^ a b c Buswell & Lopez 2014, s. 589-590.
  16. ^ Keown 2004, s. 194-195.
  17. ^ a b Buswell & Lopez 2014, s. 590.
  18. ^ "nirvana". Encyclopædia Britannica. Hentet 22 October 2014. 
  19. ^ Gombrich 2006, s. 65.
  20. ^ Gombrich 2006, s. 66.
  21. ^ Buswell & Lopez 2014, s. 589.
  22. ^ Steven Collins (1990). Selfless Persons: Imagery and Thought in Theravada Buddhism. Cambridge University Press. s. 82, 84. ISBN 978-0-521-39726-1. Like all other things or concepts (dhammā) it is anattā, 'not-self. Whereas all 'conditioned things' (samkhāra - that is, all things produced by karma) are 'unsatisfactory and impermanent' (sabbe samkhāra dukkhā . . . aniccā) all dhammā whatsoever, whether conditioned things or the unconditioned nibbāna, are 'not-self (sabbe dhammā anattā). [...] The absolute indescribability of nirvana, along with its classification as anattā, 'not-self, has helped to keep the separation intact, precisely because of the impossibility of mutual discourse. 
  23. ^ Sue Hamilton (2000). Early Buddhism: A New Approach : the I of the Beholder. Routledge. s. 18-21. ISBN 978-0-7007-1280-9.  Quote: "The corrected interpretation they offered, widely accepted to his day, still associated anatta with nirvana. What it means, it was now states, is that in order to achieve liberation you need to understand that you are not, and nor do you have, and nor have you ever been or had, an abiding self."
  24. ^ Paul Williams; Anthony Tribe (2000). Buddhist Thought. Routledge. s. 61. ISBN 978-0-415-20701-0. He makes no mention of discovering the True Self in the Anattalakkhana Sutta. As we have seen, the Buddha explains how liberation comes from letting-go of all craving and attachment simply through seeing that things are not Self anatta. That is all there is to it. One cuts the force that leads to rebirth and suffering. There is no need to postulate a Self beyond all this. Indeed any postulated Self would lead to attachment, for it seems that for the Buddha a Self fitting the description could legitimately be a suitable subject of attachment. There is absolutely no suggestion that the Buddha thought there is some additional factor called the Self (or with any other name, but fitting the Self-description) beyond the five aggregates. 
  25. ^ John J. Makransky (1997). Buddhahood Embodied: Sources of Controversy in India and Tibet. State University of New York Press. s. 85. ISBN 978-0-7914-3431-4. 
  26. ^ Collins 2010, s. 63-64.
  27. ^ Charles S. Prebish (2010). Buddhism: A Modern Perspective. Penn State Press. s. 134-135. ISBN 0-271-03803-9. 
  28. ^ Collins 2010, s. 54.

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