Forskel mellem versioner af "Bruger:Brol/sandkasse"

Spring til navigation Spring til søgning
16.132 bytes tilføjet ,  for 1 år siden
ingen redigeringsopsummering
{{coord wd|type=river}}
[[Kategori:Floder i Australien]]
{{Use dmy dates|date=May 2015}}
{{Use Australian English|date=May 2015}}
{{Infobox river
| name = Flinders
| name_native =
| name_native_lang =
| name_other =
| name_etymology = In honour of [[Matthew Flinders]]
<!---------------------- IMAGE & MAP -->
| image = StateLibQld 1 164135 Flooding of the Flinders River at Hughenden, January 1917.jpg
| image_size = 280
| image_caption = Flooding of the Flinders River at Hughenden, January 1917
| map =
| map_size =
| map_caption =
| pushpin_map = Australia Queensland
| pushpin_map_size =
| pushpin_map_caption= Location of Flinders River [[river mouth|mouth]] in Queensland
<!---------------------- LOCATION -->
| subdivision_type1 = Country
| subdivision_name1 = [[Australia]]
| subdivision_type2 = [[States and territories of Australia|State]]
| subdivision_name2 = [[Queensland]]
| subdivision_type3 = [[Regions of Queensland|Region]]
| subdivision_name3 = [[North West Queensland]], [[Gulf Country]]
| subdivision_type4 =
| subdivision_name4 =
| subdivision_type5 = Settlements
| subdivision_name5 = {{QLDcity|McKinlay}}, {{QLDcity|Hughenden}}, {{QLDcity|Richmond}}, {{QLDcity|Julia Creek}}, {{QLDcity|Cloncurry}}, Burke and Wills Junction
<!---------------------- PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS -->
| length = {{convert|1004|km|mi|abbr=on}}
| width_min =
| width_avg =
| width_max =
| depth_min =
| depth_avg =
| depth_max =
| discharge1_location=
| discharge1_min =
| discharge1_avg = {{convert|122.2|m3/s|cuft/s|abbr=on}}
| discharge1_max = {{convert|570.2|m3/s|cuft/s|abbr=on}}
<!---------------------- BASIN FEATURES -->
| source1 = Burra Range, [[Great Dividing Range]]
| source1_location = Reedy Springs
| source1_coordinates=
| source1_elevation = {{convert|816|m|abbr=on}}
| mouth = [[Gulf of Carpentaria]]
| mouth_location = west of {{QLDcity|Karumba}}
| mouth_coordinates = {{coord|17|35|59|S|140|35|44|E|display=inline,title}}
| mouth_elevation = {{convert|0|m|abbr=on}}
| progression =
| river_system =
| basin_size = {{convert|109000|km2|abbr=on}}
| tributaries_left = [[Cloncurry River]], Corella River, [[Bynoe River]]
| tributaries_right = [[Saxby River]]
| custom_label =
| custom_data =
| extra = <ref name=bonzle>{{cite web|url=|title=Map of Flinders River, QLD|year=2015|accessdate=30 May 2015|work=Bonzle Digital Atlas of Australia|archive-url=|archive-date=4 February 2010|url-status=live|df=dmy-all}}</ref>
The '''Flinders River''' is the longest river in [[Queensland]], Australia, at approximately {{convert|1004|km|mi}}.<ref name=ga/> It was named in honour of the explorer [[Matthew Flinders]]. The catchment is sparsely populated and mostly undeveloped. The Flinders rises on the western slopes of the [[Great Dividing Range]] in [[North West Queensland]] and flows generally north-west through the [[Gulf Country]], across a large, flat clay pan, before entering the [[Gulf of Carpentaria]].
==Course and features==
The River rises in the Burra Range, part of the Great Dividing Range,<ref name=sgc>{{cite web|url=|title=The Land - Overview|accessdate=30 May 2015|publisher=Southern Gulf Catchments|url-status=dead|archiveurl=|archivedate=11 April 2015|df=dmy-all}}</ref> {{convert|110|km|mi|0}} north-east of [[Hughenden, Queensland|Hughenden]] and flows in a westerly direction past Hughenden, [[Richmond, Queensland|Richmond]] and [[Julia Creek, Queensland|Julia Creek]], then north-west to the Gulf of Carpentaria {{convert|25|km|mi|abbr=on}} west of {{QLDcity|Karumba}}. The catchment is bordered to the south by the [[Selwyn Range (Australia)|Selwyn Range]].
At {{convert|1004|km|mi|0}} in length, it is the eighth-longest river in Australia.<ref name=ga>{{cite web |url= |title=Longest Rivers |date=18 November 2010 |work=Geoscience Australia |publisher=Commonwealth of Australia |accessdate=3 July 2011 |archive-url= |archive-date=3 February 2012 |url-status=live |df=dmy-all }}</ref> The catchment covers {{convert|109000|km2}}.<ref name="fwfr">{{cite web |url= |title=Flood Warning System For The Flinders River |publisher=Bureau of Meteorology |accessdate=3 July 2011 |archive-url= |archive-date=3 June 2011 |url-status=live |df=dmy-all }}</ref> The primary land use in the catchment is grazing<ref name="anraov">{{cite web |url= |title=Water resources - Overview - Queensland: Flinders River |work=Australian Natural Resources Atlas |publisher=Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities |accessdate=3 July 2011 |url-status=dead |archiveurl= |archivedate=2 June 2011 |df=dmy-all }}</ref> and other agriculture, the catchment covers 1.5% of the continent.<ref name=ABCFR>{{cite web|url=|title=From cattle country to crops: Flinders River moratorium lifted|date=18 February 2013|accessdate=30 May 2015|publisher=[[Australian Broadcasting Corporation]]|archive-url=|archive-date=20 December 2015|url-status=live|df=dmy-all}}</ref>
A total of 36 [[tributary|tributaries]] flow into the Flinders,<ref name=bonzle/> the principal ones being the [[Cloncurry River|Cloncurry]], [[Saxby River|Saxby]] and the [[Corella River|Corella]] rivers.<ref name="fwfr"/> Another major tributary is Porcupine Creek, which has carved out a dramatic gorge located in the [[Porcupine Gorge National Park]].<ref name="naq">{{cite book |title=Natural Areas of Queensland |last=Shilton |first=Peter |year=2005 |publisher=Goldpress |location=Mount Gravatt, Queensland |isbn=0-9758275-0-2 |page=256 }}<!--|accessdate=3 July 2011--></ref> There are two dams on the river - the Flinders River Dam and [[Corella Dam]].<ref name="anraov"/> Other smaller tributaries include: Range Creek, Morepork Creek, Oxley Creek, Canterbury Creek, Dutton River, Back Valley Creek, L-Tree Creek, Gorman Creek, Hazlewood Creek, Nonda Creek, Eurimpy Creek, Yambore Creek, [[Bynoe River]] and Armstrong Creek. The river flows through one permanent waterhole, Flagstone waterhole.<ref name=bonzle/>
Several towns are located within the catchment including: [[McKinlay, Queensland|McKinlay]], Burke and Wills Junction, Hughenden, Richmond, Julia Creek and [[Cloncurry, Queensland|Cloncurry]].<ref name=sgc/>
The river has a mean annual discharge of {{convert|3857|GL|impgal USgal|sigfig=3}}.<ref name=sgc/> The maximum flow recorded is {{convert|18000|GL|impgal USgal|sigfig=3}}.<ref name=Griff>{{cite web|url=|author=Alisha Steward|title=Terrestrial invertebrates of dry river beds are not simply subsets of riparian assemblages|accessdate=31 May 2015|publisher=[[Griffith University]]|display-authors=etal|archive-url=|archive-date=30 March 2016|url-status=live|df=dmy-all}}</ref>
The riverbed is composed of silt with clay and sand, sand and gravel, and gravel with cobble.<ref name=Griff/> A large, flat clay pan is located in the area where the Flinders, [[Gregory River (Australia)|Gregory]] and [[Leichhardt River]]s enter the Gulf. The mouth of the river lies in the [[Gulf Plains Important Bird Area]].<ref>BirdLife International (2011) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Gulf Plains. Downloaded from {{cite web |url= |title=Archived copy |accessdate=2013-04-13 |url-status=dead |archiveurl= |archivedate=10 July 2007 |df=dmy }} on 01/07/2011</ref>
In 2015, the population living within the catchment was 6,600.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Flinders River catchment|accessdate=30 May 2015|publisher=TRaCK|archive-url=|archive-date=14 July 2016|url-status=dead|df=dmy-all}}</ref>
Vegetation along the river in the upper catchment includes [[riparian]] woodlands composed of paperbarks including; ''[[Melaleuca argentea]]'', ''[[Melaleuca bracteata]]'' and ''[[Melaleuca fluviatilis]]'' and sub-dominant eucalypts including [[Eucalyptus camaldulensis|River Red Gum]], [[Eucalyptus coolabah|Coolabah]], with minor [[Lysiphyllum cunninghamii|Bauhinia]]. Other species found include the [[Acacia salicina|wattle]]. Infestations of weeds such as [[Acacia nilotica|Prickly acacia]], Noogoora burr, Rubber vine and [[Zizyphus mauritiana|Chonky apple]] are also found.<ref name=RD>{{cite web|url=|title=Richmond Dam and irrigation development proposal ecological issues|date=July 1998|accessdate=31 May 2015|author=Tait, Jim|publisher=[[James Cook University]]|archive-url=|archive-date=4 March 2016|url-status=live|df=dmy-all}}</ref> The understorey is dominated by a closed cover of riparian grasses including native couch on the sandy loams adjacent the stream channels.
[[File:Edward Jukes Greig - Arrival of Burke & Wills at Flinders River, 1862.jpg|thumb|left|Edward Jukes Greig - Arrival of Burke & Wills at Flinders River, 1862]]
The [[indigenous Australian|traditional owners]] of the area are the Kalkadoon, Mitakoodi, Kukatj, Guthaarn, Mayi-Yapi, Mayi-Kulan, Mayi-Thakurti, Ngawun, Wanamara, Mbara, Yirandali and Gugu-Badhun peoples, who have inhabited the area for thousands of years.<ref name=sgc/>
[[Yirandhali language|''Jirandali'']] (also known as ''Yirandali'', ''Warungu'', and ''Yirandhali'') is an [[Australian Aboriginal language]] of [[North West Queensland|North-West Queensland]], particularly the [[Hughenden, Queensland|Hughenden]] area. The language region includes the local government area of the [[Shire of Flinders (Queensland)|Shire of Flinders]], including [[Dutton River]], Flinders River, Mount Sturgeon, [[Barcaldine Region|Caledonia]], [[Richmond, Queensland|Richmond]], [[Corfield, Queensland|Corfield]], [[Winton, Queensland|Winton]], Torrens, Tower Hill, Landsborough Creek, [[Lammermoor, Queensland|Lammermoor]], Hughenden, and [[Tangorin]].<ref>{{Cite SLQ-CC-BY|url=|title=Guugu Yimithirr|author=|date=|website=Queensland Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages map|access-date=28 January 2020}}</ref>
''[[Wanamara language|Wanamarra]]'' (also known as ''Maykulan'' and ''Wunumura'') is an Australian Aboriginal language in [[North West Queensland]]. The language region includes areas within the [[Shire of Mckinlay|Shire of McKinlay]], [[Shire of Cloncurry]] and [[Shire of Richmond]], including the Flinders River area, and the towns of [[Kynuna]] and [[Richmond, Queensland|Richmond]].<ref>{{Cite SLQ-CC-BY|url=|title=Wanamarra|author=|date=|website=Queensland Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages map|access-date=5 February 2020}}</ref>
Dalleburra (also known as Dalebura, Dal-leyburra, Yirandali) is a language of [[Gulf Country|North-West Queensland]], particularly Lammermoor Station via [[Hughenden, Queensland|Hughenden]]. The Dalleburra language region includes the local government boundaries of the [[Shire of Flinders (Queensland)|Flinders Shire Council]].
<ref>{{Cite SLQ-CC-BY|url=|title=Indigenous languages map of Queensland|author=|date=|website=State Library of Queensland|access-date=5 February 2020}}</ref>
The Flinders River was named in 1841 by Captain Wickham and Lieutenant [[John Lort Stokes]] of {{HMS|Beagle}}, in honour of the explorer Matthew Flinders. Stokes charted and surveyed the estuary of the Flinders and [[Albert River (Gulf Savannah)|Albert]] rivers, and named many other features in the area, including Disaster Inlet, Morning Inlet and the Van Diemen River.<ref name=gut>{{cite web|url=|title=Early Days in North Queensland|year=1903|author=Palmer, Edward|authorlink=Edward Palmer (Australian politician)|publisher=[[Project Gutenberg]]|access-date=30 May 2015|archive-url=|archive-date=3 April 2015|url-status=live|df=dmy-all}}</ref>
[[Robert O'Hara Burke]], [[William John Wills]] and Charles Gray reached the river delta in 1861, completing the goal of their [[Burke and Wills expedition|expedition]] to cross the continent from south to north. Gray died on the journey back to [[Cooper Creek]], and both Burke and Wills died after reaching the creek to find their depot abandoned.<ref name=gut/>
The first [[pastoralism|pastoralist]] to stock country along the Flinders was James Gibson who established Prairie Station in 1861. In 1864 more [[cattle station]]s were established by Gibson including [[Millungera Station|Millungera]] and Taldora Stations.<ref name=gut/>
Massive flooding occurred along the river in July 1870. One station lost over 4,000 sheep and roads were cut. In 1917 even larger floods were recorded, with Hughenden inundated several people drowned. More heavy flooding occurred in 1955, 1960, 1974, 1991 and 2000.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Archive: Harden Up Chronological History of Flooding 1857-2010|accessdate=30 May 2015|publisher=Green Cross Australia|archive-url=|archive-date=30 May 2015|url-status=live|df=dmy-all}}</ref>
In 2003, licences to take water from the river were first released when a pastoralist, Corbett Tritton, applied for an irrigation licence. He successfully grew crops like [[sorghum]] and [[cotton]] on his cattle station and soon other graziers were interested. A moratorium on the issuing of licences followed, but was lifted in 2013.<ref name=ABCFR/>
Heavy rainfall in Queensland in early 2019 resulted in major flooding along the Flinders, considered the worst in half a century. The broad [[flood plain]] has allowed the Flinders to stretch as wide as 60 [[km]]. The rising water also caused devastation to farmers with heavy losses to [[cattle]] herds.<ref>{{Cite news|url=|title=Australian river swells to 37 miles wide due to flooding, creates its own weather system|last=Berlinger|first=Joshua|date=14 February 2019|work=[[CNN]]|access-date=16 May 2019}}</ref>
==See also==
*[[List of rivers of Australia#Queensland|List of rivers of Queensland]]
==External links==
{{commons category-inline}}
{{Rivers of Queensland}}
[[Category:Rivers of Queensland]]
[[Category:North West Queensland]]
[[Category:Gulf of Carpentaria]]