Skandhaer

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Skandhas (sanskrit) eller khandhas (Pāḷi) betyder "dynger, aggregater, samlinger, grupperinger". [1] I buddhismen henviser ordet til de "fem aggregeringer af begær" (Pañcupādānakkhandhā), de fem materielle og mentale faktorer, der medvirker til fremkomsten af begær og klamring. De forklares også som de fem faktorer, der udgør og forklarer et levende væsens person og personlighed, [2][3][4] men dette er en senere fortolkning.

De fem aggregater eller dynger er: form (materielt billede, indtryk - rupa), fornemmelser (følelser, modtaget fra form - vedana), opfattelser (samjna), mental aktivitet eller mentale formationer (sankhara) og bevidsthed (ijnana). [5][6]

Ifølge Theravada-buddhismen opstår dukkha, når man identificerer sig med eller klamrer sig til aggregaterne. Denne lidelse slukkes ved at opgive tilknytning til aggregaterne. I Mahayana-buddhismen hævdes det, at aggregaterne i deres natur er tomme og uden uafhængig eksistens.

Det tilsvarende koncept i vestlig filosofi er bundle theory (David Hume).

Etymologi[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Skandha (स्कन्ध) er et ord fra sanskrit, der betyder "mangfoldighed, mængde, samlet", generelt i sammenhæng med krop, bagagerum, stilk, empirisk observeret grov genstand eller noget, der kan kontrolleres med sanser. [1] [7] Udtrykket vises i den vediske litteratur.

Det tilsvarende ord på Pali er Khandha (undertiden stavet Kkhanda ) [3] forekommer i vid udstrækning i Pali-kanonen, hvor det ifølge Rhys Davids og William Stede betyder "hovedparten af kroppen, aggregat, bunke, materiale indsamlet i bunke" i en sammenhæng, "alt det, der er sammensat af grupperinger" i andre sammenhænge, og især som "elementerne eller underlagene i den sensoriske eksistens, sensoriske aggregater, der konditionerer livets udseende i enhver form". [1] [9]

Paul Williams et al. oversætter skandha som "bunke, samling", med angivelse af, at ordet henviser til forklaringen på den psykofysiske sammensætning af ethvert væsen. [10]

Johannes Bronkhorst gengiver skandha som "aggregater." [11] Damien Keown og Charles Prebish oplyser, at skandha er phung po på tibetansk, og udtrykkene betyder "samlinger eller aggregater eller bundter." [12]

Beskrivelse[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Buddha udlægger i Tipitaka de fem (sanse)-aggregater som følger:

  1. "Form" eller "materie" [13] (Skt., Pāli रूप rūpa ; Tib. gzugs ): materie, krop eller "materiel form" af et væsen eller enhver eksistens. [5] [14] Buddhistiske tekster angiver såkaldte rupa for enhver person, levende væsen og objekt, som sammensættes af fire grundlæggende elementer eller kræfter: jord (soliditet), vand (samhørighed), ild (varme) og vind (bevægelse). [3]
  2. "Føling" eller "følelse" (Skt., Pāli वेदना vedanā ; Tib. tshor-ba ): sanseoplevelse af et objekt. [3] Det er enten behageligt, ubehageligt eller neutralt. [15] [16]
  3. "Opfattelse" [17] (Skt. संज्ञा saṃjñā, Pāli सञ्ञा saññā, Tib. 'du-shes ): sensorisk og mental proces, der registrerer, genkender og mærker (for eksempel formen på et træ, farven grøn, følelsen af frygt). [14]
  4. "Mentale formationer" (Skt. संस्कार saṃskāra, Pāli सङ्खार saṅkhāra, Tib. 'du-byed ):' "konstruktion af aktiviteter" , [14] "betingede ting" , "vilje" , "karmiske aktiviteter"; alle typer mentale aftryk og konditionering udløst af et objekt. [18] [19] [20] Omfatter enhver proces, der får en person til at indlede handling. [14]
  5. "Bevidsthed" (Skt. विज्ञान vijñāna, Pāli विञ्ञाण viññāṇa, Tib. rnam-par-shes-pa ): "diskrimination" eller "bedømmelse" [21] . Kendskab til et objekt og skelnen af dets komponenter og aspekter af det. Der er seks typer, siger Peter Harvey.[14] Den buddhistiske litteratur inddeler denne skandha således:
    1. I Nikayaerne/Āgamas: tanke, eller "det, der skelner".[22] [23] [24] [25]
    2. I Abhidhamma: en række hurtigt skiftende sammenkoblede diskrete tanke-handlinger. [26]
    3. I nogle Mahayana-kilder: basen, der understøtter al erfaring. [27]

Fortolkning[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Personlighedens aggregater[redigér | redigér wikikode]

De fem aggregater tolkes ofte i senere traditioner som en forklaring på personlighedens og en persons bestanddele, [28] [29] og "listen over aggregater blev ekstremt vigtig for den senere udvikling af lærdommen." [29] I henhold til denne fortolkning er der tomhed og intet stof i hver skandha - krop (materie), fornemmelser, opfattelser, mentale formationer og bevidsthed. [3][11]

Ifølge Harvey giver de fem skandhaer anledning til en følelse af personlighed, [30] men er dukkha, midlertidige og uden et vedvarende selv eller essens. [3] [39] Hvert aggregat er genstand for en griben (klamren sig fast) ved roden til selvidentifikation som "jeg, mig, mig selv". [3] Ifølge Harvey er det nødvendigt at indse skandhas sande natur, både hvad angår ubestandighed og ikke-selv, for at opnå nirvana. [40] [42] Denne 'tomhed fra personlighed' findes i beskrivelser af den oplyste, perfektionerede tilstand Arhat og Tathagata, hvor der ikke længere er nogen identifikation med de fem skandhaer. [44]

Dette 'ingen-essens'-syn har været en kilde til vedvarende spørgsmål, store uenigheder og kommentarer siden antikken, i ikke-buddhistiske indiske religioner såvel som inden for buddhistiske traditioner. [35] [45] [46] Brugen af skandhas-begrebet til at forklare jeg'et er unikt for buddhismen. [47] [48] Dette står i kontrast til hinduismen og jainismens lære om, at et levende væsen har en evig sjæl eller metafysisk selv. [47] [48]

Opfattelsens og erfaringens aggregater[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Ifølge Thanissaro prøvede Buddha aldrig at definere, hvad en "person" er, selvom lærde har en tendens til at gå til skandhaerne som en beskrivelse af personens bestanddele. [note 1] Han tilføjer, at næsten enhver buddhistisk meditationslærer forklarer det på den måde, som buddhistiske kommentarer fra omkring 1. århundrede e.Kr. har gjort. Efter Thanissaros opfattelse er dette forkert, og han foreslår, at skandha skal ses som aktiviteter, der forårsager lidelse, men hvis uheldige effekter kan afbrydes. [28]

Rupert Gethin bemærker også, at de fem skandhas ikke kun er "den buddhistiske analyse af mennesket", men "fem aspekter af individets oplevelse af verden [...], der omfatter både opfattelse og alt det, der er opfattet." [50] [note 2]

I Theravada Abhidhamma[redigér | redigér wikikode]

De tidlige buddhistiske skoler udviklede detaljerede analyser og oversigter over den lære, der findes i sutraerne, kaldet Abhidharma. Hver skole udviklede sin egen Abhidharma. Den bedst kendte i dag er Theravāda Abhidhamma, men Sarvāstivāda Abhidharma var historisk meget indflydelsesrig og er delvis bevaret i det kinesiske Āgama.

De seks sansebaser[redigér | redigér wikikode]

De interne og eksterne sansebaser danner tilsammen de "seks sansebaser." I denne beskrivelse, fundet i tekster som Salayatana samyutta, resulterer i samlingen af et objekt og et sanseorgan i opståen af den tilsvarende bevidsthed.

Ifølge Bhikkhu Bodhi siger Theravada-traditionen, at de seks sansebaser rummer "alle eksistensfaktorer", det er "det hele", og "adskilt fra, hvor intet overhovedet findes," [51] og de "er uden et selv og hvad der hører til selvet ". [52] [54]

  • De første fem eksterne sansebaser (synlig form, lyd, lugt, smag og berøring), og de første fem interne sansebaser (øje, øre, næse, tunge og krop) er en del af formaggregatet;
  • Det mentale sansobjekt (dvs. mentale objekter) overlapper de første fire aggregeringer (form, følelse, opfattelse og dannelse);
  • Det mentale sansorgan (sind) kan sammenlignes med den samlede bevidsthed.

Bodhi anfører, at de seks sansebaser er et "lodret" syn på menneskelige oplevelser, mens aggregaterne er et "vandret" (tidsmæssigt) syn. [55] Den Theravada-buddhistiske meditationspraksis på sanse-baserne er rettet mod både at fjerne forvrængede kognitioner som dem, der er påvirket af trang, forestillinger og meninger, såvel som "at trække op med rod alle forestillinger i alle deres skikkelser". [56]

Satipatthana[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Mindfulness tænkes anvendt på fire upassanā (domæner eller baser), som overlapper med skandhaerne, ved "konstant at se på sensorisk oplevelse for at forhindre opståen af trang, der vil give kraft til at gøre fremtidige oplevelser til genfødsler,". [57] De fire domæner er: [58]

  • mindfulness om kroppen (kaya); [59] [web 1]
  • mindfulness om følelser eller fornemmelser (vedanā); [60]
  • mindfulness om sind eller bevidsthed (citta); [61] og
  • mindfulness om dhamma. [62]

Ifølge Grzegorz Polak er de fire upassanā har de forskellige buddhistiske traditioner, herunder Theravada, udviklet sig hen i den misforståelse, at upassana henviser til fire forskellige fundamenter. Ifølge Polak henviser de fire upassanā ikke til fire forskellige fundamenter, som man skal være opmærksom på, men er en alternativ beskrivelse af jhanerne, der beskriver hvordan samskharerne er beroligede: [63]

  • de seks sansebaser, som man skal være opmærksom på (kāyānupassanā);
  • Tanker over vedaner, der opstår i kontakten mellem sanserne og deres genstande (vedanānupassanā);
  • de ændrede sindstilstande, som denne praksis fører til (cittānupassanā);
  • udviklingen fra de fem hindringer til de syv oplysningsfaktorer (dhammānupassanā).

I Mahayana-traditionen[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Mahayana udviklede sig fra de traditionelle skoler, og introducerede nye tekster, som lægger andre vægt på læren om især sunyata og Bodhisattva-idealet.

Der findes mange forskellige uddybninger af skandhaerne i de forskellige Mahayana-skoler.

Noter[redigér | redigér wikikode]

  1. ^ Adrian Snodgrass (1984) asserts that the term literally means "heap", and the concept refers to the teaching accepted by all Buddhist schools that "the personality is an aggregate of five constituent parts," referring back to older publications from the 1930s to the 1950s.[49]
  2. ^ Gethin: "To explain the khandhas as the Buddhist analysis of man, as has been the tendency of contemporary scholars, may not be incorrect as far as it goes, yet it is to fix upon one facet of the treatment of the khandhas at the expense of others. Thus A. B. Keith could write, “By a division which ... has certainly no merit, logical or psychological, the individual is divided into five aggregates or groups.” However, the five khandhas, as treated in the nikāyas and early abhidhamma, do not exactly take on the character of a formal theory of the nature of man. The concern is not so much the presentation of an analysis of man as object, but rather the understanding of the nature of conditioned existence from the point of view of the experiencing subject. Thus at the most general level rūpa, vedanā, sañña, and are presented as five aspects of an individual being's experience of the world; each khandha is seen as representing a complex class of phenomena that is continuously arising and falling away in response to processes of consciousness based on the six spheres of sense. They thus become the five upādānakkhandhas, encompassing both grasping and all that is grasped."[50]

Referencer[redigér | redigér wikikode]

  1. ^ a b c Thomas William Rhys Davids; William Stede (1921). Pali-English Dictionary. Motilal Banarsidass. s. 232-234. ISBN 978-81-208-1144-7. 
  2. ^ Robert E. Buswell Jr.; Donald S. Lopez Jr. (2013). The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton University Press. s. 708, 721-723, 827-828. ISBN 978-1-4008-4805-8. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Harvey 2013, s. 55.
  4. ^ Steven M. Emmanuel (2015). A Companion to Buddhist Philosophy. John Wiley & Sons. s. 193, 232-233, 421-425. ISBN 978-1-119-14466-3. 
  5. ^ a b Steven M. Emmanuel (2015). A Companion to Buddhist Philosophy. John Wiley & Sons. s. 587-588. ISBN 978-1-119-14466-3. 
  6. ^ Skandha Encyclopædia Britannica (2013)
  7. ^ Monier Monier-Williams (1872). A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. s. 1141. 
  8. ^ Dalai Lama (1966). The Opening of the Wisdom-Eye: And the History of the Advancement of Buddhadharma in Tibet. Theosophical Publishing House. s. 37-38. ISBN 978-0-8356-0549-6. 
  9. ^ According to Dalai Lama, skandha means "heap, group, collection or aggregate".[8]
  10. ^ Paul Williams; Anthony Tribe (2000). Buddhist Thought. Routledge. s. 42, 48, 58-60, 69-70. ISBN 978-0-415207003. 
  11. ^ a b c Bronkhorst 2009, s. 28–31.
  12. ^ Damien Keown; Charles S. Prebish (2013). Encyclopedia of Buddhism. Routledge. s. 321-322, 382, 844-845. ISBN 978-1-136-98588-1. 
  13. ^ In Rawson (1991: p.11), the first skandha is defined as: "name and form (Sanskrit nāma-rūpa, Tibetan gzugs)...". In the Pali literature, nāma-rūpa traditionally refers to the first four aggregates, as opposed to the fifth aggregate, consciousness.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g Harvey 2013, s. 56-57.
  15. ^ The Pali canon universally identifies that vedana involves the sensing or feeling of something as pleasant, unpleasant or neutral (see, for instance, SN 22). When contemporary authors elaborate on vedana, they define it similarly (see, for instance, Nhat Hanh, 1999, p. 178; Trungpa, 2001, p. 21; and, Trungpa, 2002, p. 126). The one exception is in Trungpa (1976), pp. 20-23, where he states that the "strategies or impluses" of "indifference, passion and aggression" are "part of the third stage [aggregate]," "guided by perception." (This section of Trungpa, 1976, is anthologized in Trungpa, 1999, pp. 55-58.)
  16. ^ Generally, vedanā is considered to not include "emotions." For example, Bodhi (2000a), p. 80, writes: "The Pali word vedanā does not signify emotion (which appears to be a complex phenomenon involving a variety of concomitant mental factors), but the bare affective quality of an experience, which may be either pleasant, painful or neutral." Perhaps somewhat similarly, Trungpa (1999), p.58, writes: "Consciousness [the fifth aggregate] consists of emotions and irregular thought patterns...."
  17. ^ Some translate this term as perception although this is typically the translation of pratyakṣa meaning the apprehension of sensibilia and not any subsequent judgement concerning them. The English word conception is more accurate, although this implies less a process and more the static end result (the mental state of holding a concept)), hence discrimination is preferred.
  18. ^ David J. Kalupahana (1992). A History of Buddhist Philosophy: Continuities and Discontinuities. University of Hawaii Press. s. 71-72. ISBN 978-0-8248-1402-1. 
  19. ^ Thomas William Rhys Davids; William Stede (1921). Pali-English Dictionary. Motilal Banarsidass. s. 664-665. ISBN 978-81-208-1144-7. 
  20. ^ The Theravada Abhidhamma divides saṅkhāra into fifty mental factors (Bodhi, 2000a, p. 26). Trungpa (2001), pp. 47ff, following the Sarvastivada Abhidharma studied in Mahayana Buddhism, states that there are fifty-one "general types" of samskara.
  21. ^ Peter Harvey, The Selfless Mind. Curzon Press 1995, page 143-146.
  22. ^ See, for instance, SN 22.79, "Being Devoured" (Bodhi, 2000b, p. 915).
  23. ^ In commenting on the use of "consciousness" in SN 22.3 [1], Bodhi (2000b), pp. 1046-7, n. 18, states: "The passage confirms the privileged status of consciousness among the five aggregates. While all the aggregates are conditioned phenomena marked by the three characteristics, consciousness serves as the connecting thread of personal continuity through the sequence of rebirths.... The other four aggregates serve as the 'stations for consciousness' (vinnanatthitiyo: see [SN] 22:53-54). Even consciousness, however, is not a self-identical entity but a sequence of dependently arisen occasions of cognizing; see MN I 256-60."
  24. ^ Peter Harvey, The Selfless Mind. Curzon Press 1995, page 143-146
  25. ^ Harvey writes, "This is in contrast to saññā, which knows by grouping things together, labeling them. This contrast can be seen in terms of the typical objects of these states: colours for saññā (S.III.87), but tastes (S.III.87) or feelings (M.I.292) for viññāṇa. While colours usually be immediately identified, tastes and feelings often need careful consideration to properly identify them: discernment and analysis are needed."
  26. ^ This conception of consciousness is found in the Theravada Abhidhamma (Bodhi, 2000a, p. 29).
  27. ^ While not necessarily contradicted by the Nikayas, this is a particularly Mahayana statement. For instance, Nhat Hanh (1999, pp. 180-1) states: "Consciousness here means store consciousness, which is at the base of everything we are, the ground of all of our mental formations." Similarly, Trungpa (2001, pp. 73-4) states that consciousness "is the finally developed state of being that contains all the previous elements.... [C]onsciousness constitutes an immediately available source of occupation for the momentum of the skandhas to feed on."
  28. ^ a b Thanissaro Bhikkhu (2010), The Five Aggregates. A Study Guide
  29. ^ a b Bronkhorst 2009, s. 28.
  30. ^ Harvey 2013, s. 56.
  31. ^ Bhikkhu Bodhi, 2000b, p. 840
  32. ^ Anicca Buddhism, Encyclopædia Britannica (2013)
  33. ^ David J. Kalupahana (1975). Causality: The Central Philosophy of Buddhism. University Press of Hawaii. s. 84-86. ISBN 978-0-8248-0298-1. 
  34. ^ Clark Johnson (2006). On Buddha Essence: A Commentary on Rangjung Dorje's Treatise. Shambhala Publications. s. 34-35. ISBN 978-1-59030-276-7. 
  35. ^ a b MacKenzie 2013, s. 242–247.
  36. ^ Peter Harvey (2012). An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices. Cambridge University Press. s. 57-62. ISBN 978-0-521-85942-4. 
  37. ^ Peter Harvey (2015). Steven M. Emmanuel, (red.). A Companion to Buddhist Philosophy. John Wiley & Sons. s. 34-37. ISBN 978-1-119-14466-3. 
  38. ^ Kalupahana (1975), page 86. The quote is from S 3.142, and also occurs in the Āgamas.
  39. ^ * Dukkha: The first Noble Truth states that "in brief, the five bundles of grasping-fuel (upadana-skandha) are painful [dukkha]."[3][31] The five aggregates trigger suffering, pain or unsatisfactoriness. Everything that makes a person is a factor of dukkha, and these in Buddhist thought are not a source of pleasure but of sorrow.[14] Nirvana requires transcendence from all five skandhas and the sense objects.[3]
    * Impermanent: they come into being and dissolve.[14][32]
    * Anatta: each of the skandhas lacks a self and substantiality.[33] The aggregates are appearances which don't have an essence either separately or together, all that is perceived as an aggregate or a whole has no real existence.[34][35] This is the "non-self" (anatta) doctrine, and it holds that a belief in self is a source of Dukkha (suffering, pain, unsatisfactoriness).[36][37] The explicit denial of substantiality or essence in any of the five skandha appears in the early Buddhist texts: "All form is comparable to foam; all feelings to bubbles; all sensations are mirage-like; dispositions are like the plantain trunk; consciousness is but an illusion: so did the Buddha illustrate [the nature of the aggregates]."[38]
  40. ^ Peter Harvey (2012). An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices. Cambridge University Press. s. 59-62. ISBN 978-0-521-85942-4. 
  41. ^ Harvey 2013, s. 57.
  42. ^ The initial part of the Buddhist practice is purification of each of the above "five aggregates" through meditation, study, ritual and living by virtues, particularly abstaining from mental intoxicants. Ultimately, the practice shifts to considering these as naive, then transcending them to reach the state of realization that there is neither person nor self within, or in any other being, states Harvey, where everyone and everything is without self or substantiality and is a "cluster of changing physical and mental processes".[11][41]
  43. ^ a b c Peter Harvey (1995), The Selfless Mind, Curzon Press, pages 228-230.
  44. ^ The physical, the personality factors (skandhas), and any sense of Self or I are a burden which the enlightened individual has dropped, thus becoming a "man of nothing", not clinging to anything internal or external.[43] The perfect state of enlightenment is one without any personality, no "I am" conceit, no physical identification, no intellectual identification, no identification in direct or indirects terms related to any of the five skandhas, because "a tathagata has abandoned the personality factors".[43] No one can find him because he has no "I", self or identity, while his citta expands to infinity; he is beyond the reach of the unenlightened human beings, as well as the army of the Mara (demon of death in Buddhism).[43]
  45. ^ William Edelglass; Jay Garfield (2009). Buddhist Philosophy: Essential Readings. Oxford University Press. s. 261-264, 288-295, 297-308, 358-363, 226-227, 317-329. ISBN 978-0-19-971655-5. ;

    Irina Kuznetsova; Chakravarthi Ram-Prasad (2012). "Chapter 9, see also the Introduction Chapter". Hindu and Buddhist Ideas in Dialogue: Self and No-Self. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4094-5662-9. 
  46. ^ Rupert Gethin (16 July 1998). The Foundations of Buddhism. Oxford University Press. s. 140–149, 238–239. ISBN 978-0-19-289223-2. , Quote: We have seen how Buddhist thought criticizes the concept of an unchanging self as incoherent; however, both ancient and modern critics have argued that to do away with the self in the manner of Buddhist thought in fact creates insurmountable philosophical and moral problems. (...) We have seen how Buddhist thought breaks down an individual into five classes of physical and mental events known as skandhas or aggregates".
  47. ^ a b Ruhe 2005, s. 92–93.
  48. ^ a b Loy 2009, s. 63–64.
  49. ^ Adrian Snodgrass (1992). The Symbolism of the Stupa. Motilal Banarsidass. s. 137 with note 165. ISBN 978-81-208-0781-5. 
  50. ^ a b Gethin 1986.
  51. ^ Bodhi 2000b, s. 1122.
  52. ^ Bodhi 2000b, s. 1125-127.
  53. ^ Maha-punnama Sutta: The Great Full-moon Night Discourse, Thanissaro Bhikkhu (2001)
  54. ^ According to Bikkhu Bodhi, the Maha-punnama Sutta, also called The Great Full-moon Night Discourse, describes the impermanence of the aggregates to assert that there is no self, and the right discernment is, "this is not mine, this is not my self, this is not what I am". From Maha-punnama Sutta

    [Buddha:] "It's possible that a senseless person — immersed in ignorance, overcome with craving — might think that he could outsmart the Teacher's message in this way: 'So — form is not-self, feeling is not-self, perception is not-self, fabrications are not-self, consciousness is not-self. Then what self will be touched by the actions done by what is not-self?' Now, monks, haven't I trained you in counter-questioning with regard to this & that topic here & there? What do you think — Is form constant or inconstant?" "Inconstant, lord." "And is that which is inconstant easeful or stressful?" "Stressful, lord." "And is it fitting to regard what is inconstant, stressful, subject to change as: 'This is mine. This is my self. This is what I am'?"
    [Monks:] "No, lord."
    "... Is feeling constant or inconstant?" "Inconstant, lord."...
    "... Is perception constant or inconstant?" "Inconstant, lord."...
    "... Are fabrications constant or inconstant?" "Inconstant, lord."...
    "What do you think, monks — Is consciousness constant or inconstant?" "Inconstant, lord." "And is that which is inconstant easeful or stressful?" "Stressful, lord." "And is it fitting to regard what is inconstant, stressful, subject to change as: 'This is mine. This is my self. This is what I am'?"
    "No, lord."
    "Thus, monks, any form whatsoever that is past, future, or present; internal or external; blatant or subtle; common or sublime; far or near: every form is to be seen as it actually is with right discernment as: 'This is not mine. This is not my self. This is not what I am.'

    – Majjhima Nikaya iii 15, Translated by Thanissaro Bhikkhu[53]

  55. ^ Bodhi, 2000b, pp. 1122-23
  56. ^ Bodhi (2000b), pp. 1125-26
  57. ^ Williams 2000, s. 46.
  58. ^ Kuan 2008, s. i, 9, 81.
  59. ^ (Pāli: kāya-sati, kāyagatā-sati; Skt. kāya-smṛti)
  60. ^ (Pāli vedanā-sati; Skt. vedanā-smṛti)
  61. ^ (Pāli citta-sati; Skt. citta-smṛti)
  62. ^ (Pāli dhammā-sati; Skt. dharma-smṛti)
  63. ^ Polak 2011, s. 153-156, 196-197.

Kilder [redigér | redigér wikikode]

Primære kilder[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Sutta Pitaka
  • Bodhi, Bhikkhu (trans.) (2000b), The Connected Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Samyutta Nikaya, Boston: Wisdom Publications, ISBN 978-0-86171-331-8. 
  • Ñāṇamoli, Bhikkhu (trans.) & Bodhi, Bhikkhu (ed.) (2001). The Middle-Length Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Majjhima Nikāya. Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-072-X.
Anthologies of suttas
  • Bodhi, Bhikkhu (ed.) (2005a). In the Buddha's Words: An Anthology of Discourses from the Pāli Canon. Boston: Wisdom Pubs. ISBN 0-86171-491-1.
Single sutras
Abhidhamma, Pali commentaries, modern Theravada
Mahayana

Sekundære kilder[redigér | redigér wikikode]

  • Boisvert, Mathieu (1995), The Five Aggregates. Understanding Theravada Psychology and Soteriology, Wilfrid Laurier University Press, for the Canadian Corporation for Studies in Religion / Corporation Canadienne des Sciences Religieuses. 
  • Bronkhorst, Johannes (2009), Buddhist Teaching in India, Wisdom Publications, ISBN 978-0-86171-811-5. 
  • Bucknell, Roderick S. (1999), "Conditioned Arising Evolves: Variation and Change in Textual Accounts of the Paticca-samupadda Doctrine", Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies, 22 (2). 
  • Frauwallner, Erich (1973), "Chapter 5. The Buddha and the Jina", History of Indian Philosophy: The philosophy of the Veda and of the epic. The Buddha and the Jina. The Sāmkhya and the classical Yoga-system, Motilal Banarsidass. 
  • Gal, Noa (July 2003). The Rise of the Concept of ‘Own-Nature’: (Sabhāva) in the Paisambhidāmagga [udtræk fra Ph.D.-afhandling]. Oxford: Wolfson College. Modtaget 2008-01-22 fra "Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies" på Internet Archive.
  • Gethin, Ruper (1986), "The five khandhas: Their theatment in the nikāyas and early abhidhamma", Journal of Indian Philosophy, 14, doi:10.1007/BF00165825. 
  • Gombrich, Richard (2009), "Chaper 9. Causation and non-random process", What the Buddha Thought, Equinox. 
  • Sue Hamilton. "From the Buddha to Buddhaghosa: Changing Attitudes Toward the Human Body in Theravāda Buddhism." In Religious Reflections on the Human Body, edited by Jane Marie Law. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1995, pp. 46–63.
  • Sue Hamilton. Identity and Experience: the Constitution of the Human Being According to Early Buddhism. London: Luzac Oriental,
  • Harvey, Peter (2013), An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices, 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-85942-4. 1996.
  • Jinpa, Thupten (2002). Self, Reality and Reason in Tibetan Philosophy: Tsongkhapa's Quest for the Middle Way. Routledge.
  • Jones, Dhivan Thomas (2009), "New Light on the Twelve Nidanas", Contemporary Buddhism, 10 (2). 
  • Jurewicz, Joanna (2000), "Playing with Fire: The pratityasamutpada from the perspective of Vedic thought" (PDF), Journal of the Pali Text Society, 26: 77-103. 
  • Kalupahana, David (1975). Causality: The Central Philosophy of Buddhism. The University Press of Hawaii.
  • Kuan, Tse-fu (2008), Mindfulness in Early Buddhism: New Approaches through Psychology and Textual Analysis of Pāli, Chinese and Sanskrit Sources, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-43737-0. 
  • Lai, Whalen (2003), Buddhism in China: A Historical Survey. In Antonio S. Cua (ed.): Encyclopedia of Chinese Philosophy (PDF), New York: Routledge, Arkiveret fra originalen den November 12, 2014. 
  • Loy, David (2009), Awareness Bound and Unbound: Buddhist Essays, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-1-4384-2680-8. 
  • MacKenzie, Matthew (2013), "Enacting the Self: Buddhist and Enactivist Approaches to the Emergence of the Self", i Siderits, Mark; Thompson, Evan; Zahavi, Dan, Self, No Self?: Perspectives from Analytical, Phenomenological, and Indian Traditions, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-166830-2. 
  • Nattier, Jan (1992). "The Heart Sutra: A Chinese Apocryphal Text?" Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 153–223.
  • Polak, Grzegorz (2011), Reexamining Jhana: Towards a Critical Reconstruction of Early Buddhist Soteriology, UMCS. 
  • Rawson, Philip (1991). Sacred Tibet. NY: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-81032-X.
  • Ruhe, Brian (2005), Freeing the Buddha, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-1835-4. 
  • Schumann, Hans Wolfgang (1974), Buddhism: an outline of its teachings and schools, Theosophical Pub. House. 
  • Schumann, Hans Wolfgang (1997) [1976], Boeddhisme. Stichter, scholen, systemen (Buddhismus - Stifter, Schulen und Systemen), Asoka. 
  • Shulman, Eviatar (2007), "Early Meanings of Dependent-Origination", Journal of Indian Philosophy, 36 (2): 297-317, doi:10.1007/s10781-007-9030-8. 
  • Swanson, Paul L. (1993), The Spirituality of Emptiness in Early chinese Buddhism. In: Buddhist Spirituality. Indian, Southeast Asian, Tibetan, Early Chinese; edited by Takeuchi Yoshinori, New York: Crossroad. 
  • Wayman, Alex (1971), "Buddhist Dependent Origination", History of Religions, 10 (3): 185-203, JSTOR 1062009. 
  • Wayman, Alex (1984), "Dependent Origination - the Indo-Tibetan Vision", Buddhist Insight: Essays, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0675-7. 
  • Wayman, Alex (1990) [1984], "The Intermediate-State Dispute in Buddhism", Buddhist Insight: Essays, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0675-7. 
  • Wayman, Alex (1990), Budddhist Insight. Essays by Alex Wayman, Motilall Banarsidass. 
  • Williams, Paul; Tribe, Anthony (2000), Buddhist Thought, Routledge. 


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