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Republikken Indonesien (Skabelon:Pron-en eller Skabelon:IPA-en) (indonesisk: Republik Indonesia) er et land i Sydøstasien og Oceanien. Indonesien består af 17.508 islands. Med en befolkning på 230 millioner, er det det 4. mest befolkede land, og har verdens største andel af muslimer. Indonesien er en republik med et folkevalgt parlament og præsident. National hovedstad er Jakarta. Landet grænser til Papua Ny Guinea, Østtimor og Malaysia. Nabolandene er Singapore, Philippinerne, Australien og det indiske terriorium Andamanerne og Nicobarerne.

Det indonesiske arkipelag har været et vigtigt handelsområde siden det 7. århundrede, da Srvijaya-kongeriget handlede med Kina og Indien. De lokale magthavere indførte lidt efter lidt indisk kultur, religion og politik i de tidligere århundrede CE, og hinduisme- og buddhisme-riger opstod. Indonesiens historie har været præget af de fremmede magter, der kom til pga. landets naturresurser. Muslimske handelsmænd bragte islam, og de europæiske magter bekæmpede hinanden for at gøre krav på handlen på Molukkerne ved opdagelsestiden. Efter 3½ århundrede med hollandsk styre, fik Indonesien sin uafhængighed efter 2. verdenskrig. Indonesiens historie har siden været urolig, præget af naturkatastrofer, korruption, løsrivelse, en demokratiseringsproces og perioder med svingende økonomi.

Landets mange øer findes der adskilte etniske, sproglige og religiøse grupper. Javaneserne er den største og mest politisk dominerende etniske gruppe. Indonesien har udviklet flere identiteter, som består af et nationalt sprog, etnisk forskellighed, flere religioner blandt et muslimsk flertal og en historie som koloni med et oprør, som var imod det. Indonesiens nationalmotto "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" ("Enhed sammen med forskelliighed" bogstaveligt, "mange, stadig én"), viser den forskellighed, der er i landet. På trods af sit store indbyggertal og tætbefolkede områder, har Indonesien øde vildmarker, som har den næsthøjeste andel af biodiversitet. Landet er rigt på naturesurser, selv om landet er præget af stor fattigdom.[1]

Etymologi[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Navnet Indonesien stammer fra det latinske Indus, som betyder "Indien" og det græske nesos, som betyder "ø".[2] Navnet går tilbage til det 18. århundrede, forud for Indonesiens uafhængighed.[3] I 1850 forslog en engelsk etnolog at kalde indbyggerne i "Indisk Arkepilag og Malaysk Arkepilag" for Indunesians — og, efter hans mening, Malayunesians.[4] I den samme bog brugte en elev fra Earl's, James Richardson Logan, Indonesia som et synonym for "Indisk Arkepilag".[5] Dog gik hollandske akademikere fraHollandsk Ostindien ikke ind for at skrive Indonesia. De brugte i stedet udtrykkene "Malaysk Arkepilag" (Maleische Archipel); Hollandsk Ostindien (Nederlandsch Oost Indië), kendt som Indië; Ost (de Oost); og endda Insulinde.[6]

Fra 1900 blev navnet Indonesien mere populært blandt akademikere uden for Holland, og indonesiske nationalister indførte det for at udtrykke sig politisk.[7] Adolf Bastian, fra universitet i Berlin, gjorde navnet populært i sin Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894. Den første indonesiske lærer, der brugte navnet var Suwardi Suryaningrat (Ki Hajar Dewantara), da han startede et pressebureau i Holland med navnet Indonesisch Pers-bureau i 1913.[3]

History[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Nuvola apps download manager2-70%.svg Hovedartikel: History of Indonesia.
As early as the first century CE Indonesian vessels made trade voyages as far as Africa. Picture: a ship carved on Borobudur, circa 800 CE.

Fosiller af Homo erectus, kendt som "Java-manden" er et bevis på, at Indonesiens arkepilag var beboet for 2 millioner til 500.000 år siden.[8] Austronesiske folk, der udgør flertallet af landets nuærende befolkning, migrerede til Sydøstasien fra Taiwan. De kom til Indonesien omkring 2000 fr.K., og mens de spredte sig over arkepilaget, blev det indfødte, melanesiske folk nødt til at flytte til de østlige områder.[9] Gode landbrugsforhold og brugen af rismarker så tidligt som i det 8. århundrede fr.K.,[10] gav mulighed for landsbyer, byer og små kongeriger at opstå 100 e.Kr. Indonesiens høje søfartsposition gjorde det muligt for landet at forhandle verden rundt. For eksempel blev der indgået handelsaftaler med indiske kongeriger og Kina adskillige århundrede f.Kr.[11] Handel har siden været en del af Indonesiens historie.[12]

Valnøddeplanten findes på Indonesiens Bandaøerne. Den var tidligere et af verdens mest værdifulde varer og bragte de første europæiske kolonister til Indonesien.

Fra det 7. århundrede e.Kr. opstod det magtfulde Srivijaya-kongerige pga. handel og indflydelsen fra hinduisme og buddhisme, der blev bragt med det.[13] Mellem det 8. og 10. århundrede opstod og faldt det buddhistiske landbrugssamfund Sailendra og det hinduistiske MataramJavas indland og efterlod store religiøse monumenter som Sailendras Borobudur og Matarams Prambanan. Det hinduistiske Majapahit-kongerige blev grundlagt i det østlige Java i slutningen af det 13. århundrede og under Gajah Mada, fik det indflydelse på meget af Indonesien. Denne periode kaldes ofte for "Guldalderen" i Indonesiens historie.[14]

Selv om muslimske handlere først rejste til Sydøstasien tidligt i den islamiske æra, går de tidligste beviser en på muslimsk befolkning i Indonesien tilbage til det 13. århundrede i det nordlige Sumatra.[15] Andre indonesiske områder indførte islam lidt efter lidt, og det var den dominerende religion i Java og Sumatra ved slutningen af det 16. århundrede. Islam blev stort set blandet med de eksisterende kulturer og religioner, som ændrede den tidligere form for islam i Indonesien, især i Java.[16] De første europæere kom til Indonesien i 1512, da portugisiske handlede, ledet af Francisco Serrão, ville gøre krav på valnødden, nelikke og cucebpeberMalukuøerne.[17] Hollandsk og britiske handlende kom senere. I 1602 oprettede hollænderne Dutch East India Company (VOC) og blev den dominærende europæiske magthaver, og Hollands regering oprettede Hollandsk Ostindien som deres nationale koloni i landet.[17]

I det meste af kolonitiden var den hollandske flåde ikke særlig god kontrol over arkepilaget. Kun i det tidlige 20. århundrede kunne de hollænderne udvide de grænser, som i dag findes i Indonesien.[18] Japans invasion og senere besættelse ved 2. verdenskrig[19] gjorde en ende på det hollandske styre,[20] og styrkede den tidligere pressede indonesiske uafhængighedsbevægelse.[21] To dage efter Japans overgivelse i august 1945 erklærede Sukarno, en indflydelsesrig nationalistisk leder, Indonesiens uafhængighed og blev udpeget til præsident.[22] Holland prøvede at genindføre deres styre, og en bevæbnet og diplomatisk kamp sluttede i december 1949, da anerkendte Indonesien efter internationalt pres[23] (undtagen det hollandsk område i Vest Ny Guinea, som blev en del af Indonesien efter New York-aftalen i 1962, og FN-mandatet Frit valg-akten i 1969).[24]

Sukarno, Indonesiens første præsident

Sukarno skiftede fra demokrati til autoritært styre, og bevarede sin magt ved at kunne overskue modstanderne i militæret og Indonesiens kommunistparti.[25] Et kupforsøg d. 30. september 1965 blev stoppet af hæren, som igangsatte en række voldelige angreb mod kommunisterne. Kommunistpartiet blev beskyldt for kupforsøget og ødelagt.[26] Mellem 500.000-1.000.000 folk blev dræbt.[27] Chefen for militæret, general Suharto gjorde det af med den politisk svækkede Sukarno, og blev udpeget som præsident i marts 1968. Hans nye administration,[28] blev støttet af USA's regering,[29] og styrkede den udenlandske investering i Indonesien, som var en stor faktor i de næste tre årtier med væsentlig økonomisk vækst.[30] Dog blev det nye autoritære styre beskyldt for korruption og angreb på oppositionen

I 1997 og 1998 var Indonesien det land, som blev hårdest ramt af Asienkrisen.[31] Dette øgede folkets utilfredshed med landets styre[32] og førte til protester. Suharto trådte tilbage d. 21. maj 1998.[33] I 1999 stemte Østtimor for at løsrive sig fra Indonesien, efter en 25 år lang, militær besættelse, som blev markeret efter international kritik af Indonesiens brutalitet mod Østtimor.[34] Siden Suhartos fald er demokratiet styrket, og der er blevet indført selstyre i de forskellige regioner og det første præsidentvalg i 2004. Politisk og økonomisk ustabilitet, social uro, korruption og terrorisme har gjort denne proces langsommere. Selv om forholdene mellem de forskellige religioner og etniske grupper ofte er afslappede, findes der intolerance og vold i nogle områder.[35] Et politisk forlig med separatistiske styrker i Aceh blev indgået i Aceh i 2005.[36]

Politik[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Uddybende Uddybende artikel: Indonesiens politik

Indonesien er en republik med et presidentialistisk system. Da landet er en enhedsstat, har regeringen magten. Efter præsident Suharto trådte tilbage i 1998, har Indonesiens politiske og regeringens struktur ændret sig meget. Fire ændringer af Indonesiens forfatning fra 1945[37] har lavet om på de udøvende, dømmende og lovgivende grene.[38] Præsidenten er statsoverhoved, den øverstkommanderende over de Indonesiens væbnede styrker, og chefen for de interne sager, politi og udenrigsforhold. Præsidenten udpeger et ministerråd, som ikke behøver være medlemmer af parlamentet. Præsidentvalget i 2004 var det første, hvor folk direkte valgte en præsident og vicepræsident.[39] Præsidenten kan højst sidde i to perioder, hver på 5 år, i træk.[40]

Indonesiens parlament i Jakarta

Landets parlament følger og kan ændre forfatningen og godkender de broad outlines of state policy. Præsidenten holder sin åbningstale her, og parlamentet kan lægge sag an mod præsidenten.[41] Parlamentet består af to kamre, Folkets repræsentantråd, med 560 medlemmer, og det Regionale repræsentanters råd, med 132 medlemmer.[42] I det førstnævnte af de to kamre går lovene igennem og moniterer den udøvende magt. Partimedlemmer vælges ind i perioder på 5 år ved forholdstalsmetoden.[38] Reformer har siden 1998 forøget Folkets repræsentantsråd magt.[43] Regionale repræsentanters råd er et nyt kammer, når det kommer til regional styring.[44]

De fleste civile sager kommer for landsretten; de høres før de kommer i højesteret.

Most civil disputes appear before a State Court; appeals are heard before the High Court. The Supreme Court is the country's highest court, and hears final cassation appeals and conducts case reviews. Other courts include the Commercial Court, which handles bankruptcy and insolvency; a State Administrative Court to hear administrative law cases against the government; a Constitutional Court to hear disputes concerning legality of law, general elections, dissolution of political parties, and the scope of authority of state institutions; and a Religious Court to deal with specific religious cases.[45]

Foreign relations and military[redigér | redigér wikikode]

In contrast to Sukarno's anti-imperialistic antipathy to western powers and tensions with Malaysia, Indonesia's foreign relations since the Suharto "New Order" have been based on economic and political cooperation with Western nations.[46] Indonesia maintains close relationships with its neighbors in Asia, and is a founding member of ASEAN and the East Asia Summit.[42] The nation restored relations with the People's Republic of China in 1990 following a freeze in place since anti-communist purges early in the Suharto era.[45] Indonesia has been a member of the United Nations since 1950,[47] and was a founder of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) and the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC).[42] Indonesia is signatory to the ASEAN Free Trade Area agreement, the Cairns Group, and the WTO, and has historically been a member of OPEC, although it withdrew in 2008 as it was no longer a net exporter of oil. Indonesia has received humanitarian and development aid since 1966, in particular from the United States, western Europe, Australia, and Japan.[42]


The Indonesian Government has worked with other countries to apprehend and prosecute perpetrators of major bombings linked to militant Islamism and Al-Qaeda.[48] The deadliest killed 202 people (including 164 international tourists) in the Bali resort town of Kuta in 2002.[49] The attacks, and subsequent travel warnings issued by other countries, severely damaged Indonesia's tourism industry and foreign investment prospects.[50]

Indonesia's 300,000-member armed forces (TNI) include the Army (TNI–AD), Navy (TNI–AL, which includes marines), and Air Force (TNI–AU).[51] The army has about 233,000 active-duty personnel. Defense spending in the national budget was 4% of GDP in 2006, and is controversially supplemented by revenue from military commercial interests and foundations.[52] One of the reforms following the 1998 resignation of Suharto was the removal of formal TNI representation in parliament; nevertheless, its political influence remains extensive.[53]

Separatist movements in the provinces of Aceh and Papua have led to armed conflict, and subsequent allegations of human rights abuses and brutality from all sides.[54] Following a sporadic thirty-year guerrilla war between the Free Aceh Movement (GAM) and the Indonesian military, a ceasefire agreement was reached in 2005.[55] In Papua, there has been a significant, albeit imperfect, implementation of regional autonomy laws, and a reported decline in the levels of violence and human rights abuses, since the presidency of Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono.[56]

Administrative divisions[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Provinces of Indonesia

Administratively, Indonesia consists of 33 provinces, five of which have special status. Each province has its own political legislature and governor. The provinces are subdivided into regencies (kabupaten) and cities (kota), which are further subdivided into subdistricts (kecamatan), and again into village groupings (either desa or kelurahan). Following the implementation of regional autonomy measures in 2001, the regencies and cities have become the key administrative units, responsible for providing most government services. The village administration level is the most influential on a citizen's daily life, and handles matters of a village or neighborhood through an elected lurah or kepala desa (village chief).

The provinces of Aceh, Jakarta, Yogyakarta, Papua, and West Papua have greater legislative privileges and a higher degree of autonomy from the central government than the other provinces. The Acehnese government, for example, has the right to create an independent legal system; in 2003, it instituted a form of Sharia (Islamic law).[57] Yogyakarta was granted the status of Special Region in recognition of its pivotal role in supporting Indonesian Republicans during the Indonesian Revolution.[58] Papua, formerly known as Irian Jaya, was granted special autonomy status in 2001.[59] Jakarta is the country's special capital region.


Indonesian provinces and their capitals - listed by region
(Indonesian name in parentheses if different from English)

† indicates provinces with Special Status

Geography[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Nuvola apps download manager2-70%.svg Hovedartikel: Geography of Indonesia.
Map of Indonesia

Indonesia consists of 17,508 islands, about 6,000 of which are inhabited.[60] These are scattered over both sides of the equator. The five largest islands are Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan (the Indonesian part of Borneo), New Guinea (shared with Papua New Guinea), and Sulawesi. Indonesia shares land borders with Malaysia on the islands of Borneo and Sebatik, Papua New Guinea on the island of New Guinea, and East Timor on the island of Timor. Indonesia also shares borders with Singapore, Malaysia, and the Philippines to the north and Australia to the south across narrow straits of water. The capital, Jakarta, is on Java and is the nation's largest city, followed by Surabaya, Bandung, Medan, and Semarang.[61]

At 1,919,440 square kilometers (741,050 sq mi), Indonesia is the world's 16th-largest country in terms of land area.[62] Its average population density is 134 people per square kilometer (347 per sq mi), 79th in the world,[63] although Java, the world's most populous island,[64] has a population density of 940 people per square kilometer (2,435 per sq mi). At 4.884 metres (16.024 feet), Puncak Jaya in Papua is Indonesia's highest peak, and Lake Toba in Sumatra its largest lake, with an area of 1,145 square kilometers (442 sq mi). The country's largest rivers are in Kalimantan, and include the Mahakam and Barito; such rivers are communication and transport links between the island's river settlements.[65]

Mount Semeru and Mount Bromo in East Java. Indonesia's seismic and volcanic activity is among the world's highest.

Indonesia's location on the edges of the Pacific, Eurasian, and Australian tectonic plates makes it the site of numerous volcanoes and frequent earthquakes. Indonesia has at least 150 active volcanoes,[66] including Krakatoa and Tambora, both famous for their devastating eruptions in the 19th century. The eruption of the Toba supervolcano, approximately 70,000 years ago, was one of the largest eruptions ever, and a global catastrophe. Recent disasters due to seismic activity include the 2004 tsunami that killed an estimated 167,736 in northern Sumatra,[67] and the Yogyakarta earthquake in 2006. However, volcanic ash is a major contributor to the high agricultural fertility that has historically sustained the high population densities of Java and Bali.[68]

Lying along the equator, Indonesia has a tropical climate, with two distinct monsoonal wet and dry seasons. Average annual rainfall in the lowlands varies from 1,780–3,175 millimeters (70–125 in), and up to 6,100 millimeters (240 in) in mountainous regions. Mountainous areas—particularly in the west coast of Sumatra, West Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua—receive the highest rainfall. Humidity is generally high, averaging about 80%. Temperatures vary little throughout the year; the average daily temperature range of Jakarta is 26–30 °C (79–86 °F).[69]

Biota and environment[redigér | redigér wikikode]

The critically endangered Sumatran Orangutan, a great ape endemic to Indonesia and Malaysia.

Indonesia's size, tropical climate, and archipelagic geography, support the world's second highest level of biodiversity (after Brazil),[70] and its flora and fauna is a mixture of Asian and Australasian species.[71] Once linked to the Asian mainland, the islands of the Sunda Shelf (Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Bali) have a wealth of Asian fauna. Large species such as the tiger, rhinoceros, orangutan, elephant, and leopard, were once abundant as far east as Bali, but numbers and distribution have dwindled drastically. Forests cover approximately 60% of the country.[72] In Sumatra and Kalimantan, these are predominantly of Asian species. However, the forests of the smaller, and more densely populated Java, have largely been removed for human habitation and agriculture. Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara, and Maluku—having been long separated from the continental landmasses—have developed their own unique flora and fauna.[73] Papua was part of the Australian landmass, and is home to a unique fauna and flora closely related to that of Australia, including over 600 bird species.[74]

Indonesia is second only to Australia in its degree of endemism, with 26% of its 1,531 species of bird and 39% of its 515 species of mammal being endemic.[75] Indonesia's 80,000 kilometers (50,000 mi) of coastline are surrounded by tropical seas that contribute to the country's high level of biodiversity. Indonesia has a range of sea and coastal ecosystems, including beaches, sand dunes, estuaries, mangroves, coral reefs, sea grass beds, coastal mudflats, tidal flats, algal beds, and small island ecosystems.[2] The British naturalist, Alfred Wallace, described a dividing line between the distribution and peace of Indonesia's Asian and Australasian species.[76] Known as the Wallace Line, it runs roughly north-south along the edge of the Sunda Shelf, between Kalimantan and Sulawesi, and along the deep Lombok Strait, between Lombok and Bali. West of the line the flora and fauna are more Asian; moving east from Lombok, they are increasingly Australian. In his 1869 book, The Malay Archipelago, Wallace described numerous species unique to the area.[77] The region of islands between his line and New Guinea is now termed Wallacea.[76]

Indonesia's high population and rapid industrialization present serious environmental issues, which are often given a lower priority due to high poverty levels and weak, under-resourced governance.[78] Issues include large-scale deforestation (much of it illegal) and related wildfires causing heavy smog over parts of western Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore; over-exploitation of marine resources; and environmental problems associated with rapid urbanization and economic development, including air pollution, traffic congestion, garbage management, and reliable water and waste water services.[78] Deforestation and the destruction of peatlands make Indonesia the world's third largest emitter of greenhouse gases.[79] Habitat destruction threatens the survival of indigenous and endemic species, including 140 species of mammals identified by the World Conservation Union (IUCN) as threatened, and 15 identified as critically endangered, including the Sumatran Orangutan.[80]

Economy[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Nuvola apps download manager2-70%.svg Hovedartikel: Economy of Indonesia.
Using water buffalo to plough rice fields in Java. Agriculture has been the country's largest employer for centuries.

Indonesia is the largest economy in Southeast Asia and a member of the G-20 major economies.[81] Indonesia's estimated Gross Domestic Product (nominal) for 2008 was US$511.7 billion with estimated nominal per capita GDP was US$2,246, and per capita GDP PPP was US$3,979 (International Dollars).[82] The services sector is the economy's largest and accounts for 45.3% of GDP (2005). This is followed by industry (40.7%) and agriculture (14.0%).[83] However, agriculture employs more people than other sectors, accounting for 44.3% of the 95 million-strong workforce. This is followed by the services sector (36.9%) and industry (18.8%).[84] Major industries include petroleum and natural gas, textiles, apparel, and mining. Major agricultural products include palm oil, rice, tea, coffee, spices, and rubber.

Indonesia's main export markets (2005) are Japan (22.3%), the United States (13.9%), China (9.1%), and Singapore (8.9%). The major suppliers of imports to Indonesia are Japan (18.0%), China (16.1%), and Singapore (12.8%). In 2005, Indonesia ran a trade surplus with export revenues of US$83.64 billion and import expenditure of US$62.02 billion. The country has extensive natural resources, including crude oil, natural gas, tin, copper, and gold. Indonesia's major imports include machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, and foodstuffs.[85]

Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia and the country's largest commercial center

In the 1960s, the economy deteriorated drastically as a result of political instability, a young and inexperienced government, and economic nationalism, which resulted in severe poverty and hunger.[86] Following President Sukarno's downfall in the mid-1960s, the New Order administration brought a degree of discipline to economic policy that quickly brought inflation down, stabilized the currency, rescheduled foreign debt, and attracted foreign aid and investment.[87] Indonesia is Southeast Asia's only member of OPEC, and the 1970s oil price raises provided an export revenue windfall that contributed to sustained high economic growth rates.[88] Following further reforms in the late 1980s,[89] foreign investment flowed into Indonesia, particularly into the rapidly developing export-oriented manufacturing sector, and from 1989 to 1997, the Indonesian economy grew by an average of over 7%.[90]

Indonesia was the country hardest hit by the East Asian financial crisis of 1997–98. Against the US dollar, the Rupiah dropped from about Rp. 2,600 to a low point of 14,000, and the economy shrank by 13.7%.[91] The Rupiah has since stabilised in the Rp. 8,000 to 10,000 range,[92] and a slow but significant economic recovery has ensued. However, political instability, slow economic reform, and corruption at all levels of government and business, have slowed the recovery.[1][93] Transparency International ranked Indonesia 143rd out of 180 countries in its 2007 Corruption Perceptions Index.[94] The rank dropped to 111st out of 180 in 2009 [95]GDP growth, however, exceeded 5% in both 2004 and 2005, and is forecast to increase further.[96] This growth rate, however, was not enough to make a significant impact on unemployment,[97] and stagnant wages growth and increases in fuel and rice prices have worsened poverty levels. As of 2006, an estimated 17.8% of the population was living below the poverty line, defined by the Indonesian government as purchasing power parity of US$1.55 per day (household income). According to the 2006 estimates, nearly half of the population was living on less than US$2 per day.[98] In recent years, the strongest growth rates since the Suharto years have helped the unemployment rate decline to 8.46% in 2008,[99] and in comparison to its neighbours, Indonesia has been less affected by the recent global recession.[100]

Demographics[redigér | redigér wikikode]

The national population from the 2000 national census is 206 million,[101] and the Indonesian Central Statistics Bureau and Statistics Indonesia estimate a population of 222 million for 2006.[102] 130 million people live on the island of Java, the world's most populous island.[103] Despite a fairly effective family planning program that has been in place since the 1960s, the population is expected to grow to around 254 million by 2020 and 288 million by 2050.[104]

An ethnic Minangkabau woman in traditional dress. There are around 300 distinct native ethnicities in Indonesia.

Most Indonesians are descended from Austronesian-speaking peoples whose languages can be traced to Proto Austronesian (PAn), which likely originated on Taiwan. The other major grouping are Melanesians, who inhabit eastern Indonesia.[105] There are around 300 distinct native ethnicities in Indonesia, and 742 different languages and dialects.[106] The largest ethnic group is the Javanese, who comprise 42% of the population, and are politically and culturally dominant.[107] The Sundanese, ethnic Malays, and Madurese are the largest non-Javanese groups.[108] A sense of Indonesian nationhood exists alongside strong regional identities.[109] Society is largely harmonious, although social, religious and ethnic tensions have triggered horrendous violence.[110] Chinese Indonesians are an influential ethnic minority comprising less than 1% of the population.[111] Much of the country's privately owned commerce and wealth is Chinese-controlled,[112] which has contributed to considerable resentment, and even anti-Chinese violence.[113]


The official national language, Indonesian, is universally taught in schools, and consequently is spoken by nearly every Indonesian. It is the language of business, politics, national media, education, and academia. It was constructed from a lingua franca that was in wide use throughout the region, and is thus closely related to Malay which is an official language in Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore. Indonesian was first promoted by nationalists in the 1920s, and declared the official language on the proclamation of independence in 1945. Most Indonesians speak at least one of the several hundred local languages (bahasa daerah), often as their first language. Of these, Javanese is the most widely spoken as the language of the largest ethnic group.[85] On the other hand, Papua has over 270 indigenous Papuan and Austronesian languages,[114] in a region of about 2.7 million people. A significant fraction of the people who attended school before independence can speak Dutch to some extent.[115]

Although religious freedom is stipulated in the Indonesian constitution,[116] the government officially recognizes only six religions: Islam, Protestantism, Roman Catholicism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism.[117] Although it is not an Islamic state, Indonesia is the world's most populous Muslim-majority nation, with 86.1% of Indonesians declared Muslim according to the 2000 census.[85] 8.7% of the population is Christian,[118] 3% are Hindu, and 1.8% Buddhist or other. Most Indonesian Hindus are Balinese,[119] and most Buddhists in modern-day Indonesia are ethnic Chinese.[120] Though now minority religions, Hinduism and Buddhism remain defining influences in Indonesian culture. Islam was first adopted by Indonesians in northern Sumatra in the 13th century, through the influence of traders, and became the country's dominant religion by the 16th century.[121] Roman Catholicism was brought to Indonesia by early Portuguese colonialists and missionaries,[122] and the Protestant denominations are largely a result of Dutch Calvinist and Lutheran missionary efforts during the country's colonial period.[123] A large proportion of Indonesians—such as the Javanese abangan, Balinese Hindus, and Dayak Christians—practice a less orthodox, syncretic form of their religion, which draws on local customs and beliefs.[124]

Culture[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Nuvola apps download manager2-70%.svg Hovedartikel: Culture of Indonesia.
A Wayang kulit shadow puppet performance as seen by the audience

Indonesia has around 300 ethnic groups, each with cultural differences developed over centuries, and influenced by Indian, Arabic, Chinese, Malay, and European sources. Traditional Javanese and Balinese dances, for example, contain aspects of Hindu culture and mythology, as do wayang kulit (shadow puppet) performances. Textiles such as batik, ikat and songket are created across Indonesia in styles that vary by region. The most dominant influences on Indonesian architecture have traditionally been Indian; however, Chinese, Arab, and European architectural influences have been significant.

Sports in Indonesia are generally male-orientated and spectator sports are often associated with illegal gambling.[125] The most popular sports are badminton and football. Indonesian teams have won the Thomas Cup (the world team championship of men's badminton) thirteen of the twenty-five times that it has been held since 1949, as well as Olympic medals since the sport gained full Olympic status in 1992. Its women have won the Uber Cup, the female equivalent of the Thomas Cup, twice, in 1994 and 1996. Liga Indonesia is the country's premier football club league. Traditional sports include sepak takraw, and bull racing in Madura. In areas with a history of tribal warfare, mock fighting contests are held, such as, caci in Flores, and pasola in Sumba. Pencak Silat is an Indonesian martial art.

A selection of Indonesian food, including Soto Ayam (chicken soup), sate kerang (shellfish kebabs), telor pindang (preserved eggs), perkedel (fritter), and es teh manis (sweet iced tea)

Indonesian cuisine varies by region and is based on Chinese, European, Middle Eastern, and Indian precedents.[126] Rice is the main staple food and is served with side dishes of meat and vegetables. Spices (notably chili), coconut milk, fish and chicken are fundamental ingredients.[127] Indonesian traditional music includes gamelan and keroncong. Dangdut is a popular contemporary genre of pop music that draws influence from Arabic, Indian, and Malay folk music. The Indonesian film industry's popularity peaked in the 1980s and dominated cinemas in Indonesia,[128] although it declined significantly in the early 1990s.[129] Between 2000 and 2005, the number of Indonesian films released each year has steadily increased.[128]

The oldest evidence of writing in Indonesia is a series of Sanskrit inscriptions dated to the 5th century CE. Important figures in modern Indonesian literature include: Dutch author Multatuli, who criticized treatment of the Indonesians under Dutch colonial rule; Sumatrans Muhammad Yamin and Hamka, who were influential pre-independence nationalist writers and politicians;[130] and proletarian writer Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Indonesia's most famous novelist.[131] Many of Indonesia's peoples have strongly rooted oral traditions, which help to define and preserve their cultural identities.[132]

Media freedom in Indonesia increased considerably after the end of President Suharto's rule, during which the now-defunct Ministry of Information monitored and controlled domestic media, and restricted foreign media.[133] The TV market includes ten national commercial networks, and provincial networks that compete with public TVRI. Private radio stations carry their own news bulletins and foreign broadcasters supply programs. At a reported 25 million users in 2008,[134] Internet usage was estimated at 12.5% in September 2009.[135]

See also[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Skabelon:Indonesia topics

Notes[redigér | redigér wikikode]

  1. ^ a b "Poverty in Indonesia: Always with them". The Economist. 14 September 2006. Hentet 2006-12-26. ; (subsequent correction)
  2. ^ a b Tomascik, T; Mah, J.A., Nontji, A., Moosa, M.K. (1996). The Ecology of the Indonesian Seas - Part One. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions Ltd.. ISBN 962-593-078-7. 
  3. ^ a b Skabelon:Id icon Anshory, Irfan (2004-08-16). Asal Usul Nama Indonesia. Pikiran Rakyat. Hentet 2006-10-05. 
  4. ^ Earl, George S. W. (1850). "On The Leading Characteristics of the Papuan, Australian and Malay-Polynesian Nations". Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia (JIAEA): 119. 
  5. ^ Logan, James Richardson (1850). "The Ethnology of the Indian Archipelago: Embracing Enquiries into the Continental Relations of the Indo-Pacific Islanders". Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia (JIAEA): 4:252–347. ; Earl, George S. W. (1850). "On The Leading Characteristics of the Papuan, Australian and Malay-Polynesian Nations". Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia (JIAEA): 254, 277–278. 
  6. ^ (This term was introduced in 1860 in the influential novel Max Havelaar (1859), written by Multatuli, critical of Dutch colonialism). Justus M. van der Kroef (1951). "The Term Indonesia: Its Origin and Usage". Journal of the American Oriental Society 71 (3): 166–171. doi:10.2307/595186. 
  7. ^ Jusuf M. van der Kroef (1951). "The Term Indonesia: Its Origin and Usage". Journal of the American Oriental Society 71 (3): 166–171. doi:10.2307/595186. 
  8. ^ Pope, G G (1988). "Recent advances in far eastern paleoanthropology". Annual Review of Anthropology 17: 43–77. doi:10.1146/annurev.an.17.100188.000355.  citeret i Whitten, T; Soeriaatmadja, R. E., Suraya A. A. (1996). The Ecology of Java and Bali. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions Ltd. s. 309–312. ; Pope, G (15 August 1983). "Evidence on the Age of the Asian Hominidae". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 80 (16): 4,988–4992. doi:10.1073/pnas.80.16.4988. PMID 6410399. PMC: 384173.  citeret i Whitten, T; Soeriaatmadja, R. E., Suraya A. A. (1996). The Ecology of Java and Bali. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions Ltd. s. 309. ; de Vos, J.P.; P.Y. Sondaar, (9 December 1994). "Dating hominid sites in Indonesia" (PDF). Science Magazine 266 (16): 4,988–4992. doi:10.1126/science.7992059.  citeret i Whitten, T; Soeriaatmadja, R. E., Suraya A. A. (1996). The Ecology of Java and Bali. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions Ltd. s. 309. 
  9. ^ Taylor (2003), side 5–7
  10. ^ Taylor, Jean Gelman. Indonesia. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. s. 8–9. ISBN 0-300-10518-5. 
  11. ^ Taylor, Jean Gelman. Indonesia. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. s. 15–18. ISBN 0-300-10518-5. 
  12. ^ Taylor (2003), side 3, 9, 10–11, 13, 14–15, 18–20, 22–23; Vickers (2005), side 18–20, 60, 133–134
  13. ^ Taylor (2003), side 22–26; Ricklefs (1991), side 3
  14. ^ Peter Lewis (1982). "The next great empire". Futures 14 (1): 47–61. doi:10.1016/0016-3287(82)90071-4. 
  15. ^ Ricklefs (1991), side 3 til 14
  16. ^ Ricklefs (1991), side 12–14
  17. ^ a b Ricklefs, M.C (1993). A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300, second edition. London: MacMillan. s. 22–24. ISBN 0-333-57689-6.  Fodnotefejl: Ugyldigt <ref> tag; navnet "RICKLEFSp24" er defineret flere gange med forskelligt indhold
  18. ^ De hollandske tropper var i konstant kamp mod oprørere både i og uden for Java. Indflydelsen fra lokale ledere Prins Diponegoro i det centrale Java, Imam Bonjol i det centrale Sumatra og Pattimura i Maluku og en blodig 30 år lang krig svækkede hollænderne og gjorde det af med de militære styrker.(Schwartz 1999, side 3–4) På trods af interne politiske, sociale og sekteriske delinger ved den nationale revolution, gik indoneserne, i det hele taget, sammen om at kæmpe for uafhængighed.
  19. ^ Dower, John W. War Without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War (1986; Pantheon; ISBN 0-394-75172-8)
  20. ^ Gert Oostindie and Bert Paasman (1998). "Dutch Attitudes towards Colonial Empires, Indigenous Cultures, and Slaves". Eighteenth-Century Studies 31 (3): 349–355. doi:10.1353/ecs.1998.0021. ; Ricklefs, M.C. (1993). History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300, second edition. London: MacMillan. ISBN 0-333-57689-6. 
  21. ^ Library of Congress, 1992, "Indonesia: World War II and the Struggle For Independence, 1942-50; The Japanese Occupation, 1942-45".
  22. ^ H. J. Van Mook (1949). "Indonesia". Royal Institute of International Affairs 25 (3): 274–285. ; Charles Bidien (5 December 1945). "Independence the Issue". Far Eastern Survey 14 (24): 345–348. doi:10.1525/as.1945.14.24.01p17062. ; Taylor, Jean Gelman (2003). Indonesia: Peoples and History. Yale University Press. s. 325. ISBN 0-300-10518-5. ; Reid (1973), page 30
  23. ^ Charles Bidien (5 December 1945). "Independence the Issue". Far Eastern Survey 14 (24): 345–348. doi:10.1525/as.1945.14.24.01p17062. ; "Indonesian War of Independence"". Military (GlobalSecurity.org). Hentet 2006-12-11. 
  24. ^ Indonesia's 1969 Takeover of West Papua Not by "Free Choice". National Security Archive, Suite 701, Gelman Library, The George Washington University.
  25. ^ Ricklefs (1991), side 237 - 280
  26. ^ Friend (2003), side 107–109; Chris Hilton (writer and director).. Shadowplay. [Television documentary]. Vagabond Films and Hilton Cordell Productions. ; Ricklefs (1991), pages 280–283, 284, 287–290
  27. ^ John Roosa and Joseph Nevins (5 November 2005). "40 Years Later: The Mass Killings in Indonesia". CounterPunch. Hentet 2006-11-12. ; Robert Cribb (2002). "Unresolved Problems in the Indonesian Killings of 1965-1966". Asian Survey 42 (4): 550–563. doi:10.1525/as.2002.42.4.550. 
  28. ^ John D. Legge (1968). "General Suharto's New Order". Royal Institute of International Affairs 44 (1): 40–47. 
  29. ^ US National Archives, RG 59 Records of Department of State; cable no. 868, ref: Embtel 852, October 5, 1965. [1]; Adrian Vickers, A History of Modern Indonesia. Cambridge University Press, p. 163; 2005; David Slater, Geopolitics and the Post-Colonial: Rethinking North-South Relations, London: Blackwell, p. 70
  30. ^ Vickers, Adrian (2005). A History of Modern Indonesia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-54262-6. ; Schwarz, A. (1994). A Nation in Waiting: Indonesia in the 1990s. Westview Press. ISBN 1-86373-635-2. ; Ricklefs, M. C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia since c.1300, Second Edition. MacMillan. ISBN 0-333-57689-X. 
  31. ^ Delhaise, Philippe F. (1998). Asia in Crisis: The Implosion of the Banking and Finance Systems. Willey. s. 123. ISBN 0-471-83450-5. 
  32. ^ Jonathan Pincus and Rizal Ramli (1998). "Indonesia: from showcase to basket case". Cambridge Journal of Economics 22 (6): 723–734. doi:10.1093/cje/22.6.723. 
  33. ^ President Suharto resigns. BBC. 21 May 1998. Hentet 2006-11-12. 
  34. ^ Burr, W.; Evans, M.L. (6 December 2001). "Ford and Kissinger Gave Green Light to Indonesia's Invasion of East Timor, 1975: New Documents Detail Conversations with Suharto". National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 62 (National Security Archive, The George Washington University, Washington, DC). Hentet 2006-09-17. ; "International Religious Freedom Report". Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (U.S. Department of State). 2002-10-17. Hentet 2006-09-29. 
  35. ^ Robert W. Hefner (2000). "Religious Ironies in East Timor". Religion in the News 3 (1). Hentet 2006-12-12. 
  36. ^ Aceh rebels sign peace agreement. BBC. 15 August 2005. Hentet 2006-12-12. 
  37. ^ I 1998, 1999, 2000 og 2001
  38. ^ a b Susi Dwi Harijanti and Tim Lindsey (2006). "Indonesia: General elections test the amended Constitution and the new Constitutional Court". International Journal of Constitutional Law 4 (1): 138–150. doi:10.1093/icon/moi055. 
  39. ^ The Carter Center. "The Carter Center 2004 Indonesia Election Report" (PDF). Pressemeddelelse. Hentet 2006-12-13.
  40. ^ _ (2002), The fourth Amendment of 1945 Indonesia Constitution, Chapter III – The Executive Power, Art. 7.
  41. ^ Skabelon:Id icon People's Consultative Assembly (MPR-RI) (PDF). Ketetapan MPR-RI Nomor II/MPR/2000 tentang Perubahan Kedua Peraturan Tata Tertib Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat Republik Indonesia. Hentet 2006-11-07. 
  42. ^ a b c d "Background Note: Indonesia". U.S. Library of Congress (U.S. Department of State). Hentet 2009-11-26. 
  43. ^ Harijanti and Lindsey 2006
  44. ^ Based on the 2001 constitution amendment, the DPD comprises four popularly elected non-partisan members from each of the thirty-three provinces for national political representation. People's Consultative Assembly (MPR-RI) (PDF). Third Amendment to the 1945 Constitution of The Republic of Indonesia. Hentet 2006-12-13. 
  45. ^ a b (PDF)Country Profile: Indonesia. U.S Library of Congress. December 2004. Hentet 2006-12-09. 
  46. ^ "Indonesia - Foreign Policy". U.S. Library of Congress (U.S. Library of Congress). Hentet 2007-05-05. 
  47. ^ Indonesia temporarily withdrew from the UN on 20 January 1965 in response to the fact that Malaysia was elected as a non-permanent member of the Security Council. It announced its intention to "resume full cooperation with the United Nations and to resume participation in its activities" on 19 September 1966, and was invited to re-join the UN on 28 September 1966.
  48. ^ Chris Wilson (11 October 2001). "Indonesia and Transnational Terrorism". Foreign Affairs, Defense and Trade Group (Parliament of Australia). Hentet 2006-10-15. ; Reyko Huang (23 May 2002). "Priority Dilemmas: U.S. - Indonesia Military Relations in the Anti Terror War". Terrorism Project (Center for Defense Information). 
  49. ^ "Commemoration of 3rd anniversary of bombings". AAP (The Age Newspaper). 10 December 2006. 
  50. ^ US Embassy, Jakarta (10 May 2005). "Travel Warning: Indonesia". Pressemeddelelse. Hentet 2006-12-26.
  51. ^ Chew, Amy (2002-07-07). Indonesia military regains ground. CNN Asia. Hentet 2007-04-24. 
  52. ^ Witular, Rendi A. (2005-05-19). Susilo Approves Additional Military Funding. The Jakarta Post. Hentet 2007-04-24. 
  53. ^ Friend (2003), pages 473–475, 484
  54. ^ Friend (2003), pages 270–273, 477–480; "Indonesia flashpoints: Aceh". BBC News (BBC). 29 December 2005. Hentet 2007-05-20. 
  55. ^ "Indonesia agrees Aceh peace deal". BBC News (BBC). 17 July 2005. Hentet 2007-05-20. ; "Indonesia starts Aceh withdrawal". BBC News (BBC). 18 September 2005. Hentet 2007-05-20. 
  56. ^ Lateline TV Current Affairs (20 April 2006). "Sidney Jones on South East Asian conflicts". TV Program transcript, Interview with South East Asia director of the International Crisis Group (Australian Broadcasting Commission (ABC)). ; International Crisis Group (5 September 2006). "Papua: Answer to Frequently Asked Questions" (PDF). Update Briefing (International Crisis Group) (53): 1. Hentet 2006-09-17. 
  57. ^ Michelle Ann Miller (2004). "The Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam law: a serious response to Acehnese separatism?". Asian Ethnicity 5 (3): 333–351. doi:10.1080/1463136042000259789. 
  58. ^ The positions of governor and its vice governor are prioritized for descendants of the Sultan of Yogyakarta and Paku Alam, respectively, much like a sultanate. (Elucidation on the Indonesia Law No. 22/1999 Regarding Regional Governance. People's Representative Council (1999). Chapter XIV Other Provisions, Art. 122; Indonesia Law No. 5/1974 Concerning Basic Principles on Administration in the RegionPDF (146 KB) (translated version). The President of Republic of Indonesia (1974). Chapter VII Transitional Provisions, Art. 91
  59. ^ As part of the autonomy package was the introduction of the Papuan People's Council tasked with arbitration and speaking on behalf of Papuan tribal customs, however, the implementation of the autonomy measures has been criticized as half-hearted and incomplete. Dursin, Richel; Kafil Yamin (2004-11-18). "Another Fine Mess in Papua". Editorial (The Jakarta Post). Hentet 2006-10-05. ; Papua Chronology Confusing Signals from Jakarta. The Jakarta Post. 2004-11-18. Hentet 2006-10-05. 
  60. ^ International Monetary Fund (April 2006). "Estimate World Economic Outlook Database". Pressemeddelelse. Hentet 2006-10-05.; Indonesia Regions. Indonesia Business Directory. Hentet 2007-04-24. 
  61. ^ Witton, Patrick (2003). Indonesia. Melbourne: Lonely Planet. s. 139, 181, 251, 435. ISBN 1-74059-154-2. 
  62. ^ Central Intelligence Agency (2006-10-17). "Rank Order Area". The World Factbook (US CIA, Washington, DC). Hentet 2006-11-03. 
  63. ^ "Population density - Persons per km2 2006". CIA world factbook (Photius Coutsoukis). 2006. Hentet 2006-10-04. 
  64. ^ Calder, Joshua (3 May 2006). Most Populous Islands. World Island Information. Hentet 2006-09-26. 
  65. ^ "Republic of Indonesia". Encarta (Microsoft). 2006. Arkiveret fra originalen 2009-10-31. 
  66. ^ "Volcanoes of Indonesia". Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution). Hentet 2007-03-25. 
  67. ^ "The Human Toll". UN Office of the Special Envoy for Tsunami Recovery (United Nations). Arkiveret fra originalen 2007-05-19. Hentet 2007-03-25. 
  68. ^ Whitten, T; Soeriaatmadja, R. E., Suraya A. A. (1996). The Ecology of Java and Bali. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions Ltd. s. 95–97. 
  69. ^ "About Jakarta And Depok". University of Indonesia (University of Indonesia). Hentet 2007-04-24. 
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  71. ^ Indonesia's Natural Wealth: The Right of a Nation and Her People. Islam Online. 2003-05-22. Hentet 2006-10-06. 
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  74. ^ Indonesia. InterKnowledge Corp.. Hentet 2006-10-06. 
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  78. ^ a b Jason R. Miller (1997-01-30). Deforestation in Indonesia and the Orangutan Population. TED Case Studies. Hentet 2007-08-14. 
  79. ^ Higgins, Andrew. A climate threat, rising from the soil. The Washington Post. Hentet 2009-12-11. 
  80. ^ Massicot, Paul. Animal Info - Indonesia. Animal Info - Information on Endangered Mammals. Hentet 2007-08-14. 
  81. ^ What is the G-20, www.g20.org. Retrieved 2009-10-6
  82. ^ http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2007&ey=2014&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&pr1.x=67&pr1.y=11&c=536&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CPCPIE%2CLP&grp=0&a=
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  86. ^ By the time of Sukarno's downfall in the mid-1960s, the economy was in chaos with 1,000% annual inflation, shrinking export revenues, crumbling infrastructure, factories operating at minimal capacity, and negligible investment. Schwarz (1994), pages 52–57
  87. ^ Schwarz (1994), pages 52–57
  88. ^ averaging over 7% from 1968 to 1981. Schwarz (1994), pages 52–57
  89. ^ Following a slowing of growth in the 1980s, due to over regulation and dependence on declining oil prices, growth slowed to an average of 4.3% per annum between 1981 and 1988. A range of economic reforms were introduced in the late 1980s. Reforms included a managed devaluation of the rupiah to improve export competitiveness, and de-regulation of the financial sector (Schwarz (1994), pages 52–57).
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  97. ^ "Poverty in Indonesia: Always with them". The Economist. 14 September 2006. Hentet 2006-12-26.  (subsequent correction); Ridwan Max Sijabat (23 March 2007). Unemployment still blighting the Indonesian landscape. The Jakarta Post. 
  98. ^ World Bank. "Making the New Indonesia Work for the Poor - Overview" (PDF). Pressemeddelelse. Hentet 2006-12-26.
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  100. ^ International Monetary Fund
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  107. ^ Kingsbury, Damien (2003). Autonomy and Disintegration in Indonesia. Routledge. s. 131. ISBN 0-415-29737-0. 
  108. ^ Small but significant populations of ethnic Chinese, Indians, Europeans and Arabs are concentrated mostly in urban areas.
  109. ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 256
  110. ^ Domestic migration (including the official Transmigrasi program) are a cause of violence such as the massacre of hundreds of Madurese by a local Dayak community in West Kalimantan, and conflicts in Maluku, Central Sulawesi, and parts of Papua and West Papua T.N. Pudjiastuti (2002) (PDF). Migration & Conflict in Indonesia. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP), Paris. Hentet 2006-09-17. ; "Kalimantan The Conflict". Program on Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research (Conflict Prevention Initiative, Harvard University). Hentet 2007-01-07. ; J.W. Ajawaila; M.J. Papilaya; Tonny D. Pariela; F. Nahusona; G. Leasa; T. Soumokil; James Lalaun and W. R. Sihasale(1999). "Proposal Pemecahan Masalah Kerusuhan di Ambon". Report on Church and Human Rights Persecution in Indonesia, Ambon, Indonesia:Fica-Net. Hentet 2006-09-29. ; Kyoto University: Sulawesi Kaken Team & Center for Southeast Asian Studies Bugis SailorsPDF (124 KB)
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  118. ^ of which roughly two-thirds are Protestant
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  126. ^ Witton, Patrick (2002). World Food: Indonesia. Melbourne: Lonely Planet. ISBN 1-74059-009-0. 
  127. ^ Compared to the infused flavors of Vietnamese and Thai food, flavors in Indonesia are kept relatively separate, simple and substantial. Brissendon, Rosemary (2003). South East Asian Food. Melbourne: Hardie Grant Books. ISBN 1-74066-013-7. 
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  130. ^ Taylor (2003), pages 299–301
  131. ^ Vickers (2005) pages 3 to 7; Friend (2003), pages 74, 180
  132. ^ Czermak, Karen; Philippe DeLanghe, Wei Weng (PDF). "Preserving Intangible Cultural Heritage in Indonesia". SIL International. Hentet 2007-07-04. 
  133. ^ Shannon L., Smith; Lloyd Grayson J. (2001). Indonesia Today: Challenges of History. Melbourne, Australia: Singapore : Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 0-7425-1761-6. 
  134. ^ "Internet World Stats". Asia Internet Usage, Population Statistics and Information (Miniwatts Marketing Group). 2006. Hentet 2007-08-13. 
  135. ^ Internet World Stats http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats3.htm

References[redigér | redigér wikikode]

  • Friend, T. (2003). Indonesian Destinies. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01137-6. 
  • Ricklefs, M. C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia since c.1300, Second Edition. MacMillan. ISBN 0-333-57689-X. 
  • Schwarz, A. (1994). A Nation in Waiting: Indonesia in the 1990s. Westview Press. ISBN 1-86373-635-2. 
  • Taylor, Jean Gelman (2003). Indonesia: Peoples and Histories. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10518-5. 
  • Vickers, Adrian (2005). A History of Modern Indonesia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-54262-6. 

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