Wikipedia:AA-Taskforce/Værksted/Bukarest

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Bukarestværkstedet er en projektside til brug i den proces, hvor Bukarest gøres til GA i forbindelse med Taskforcen.

Fra en.wikipedia (excl. det allerede oversatte i navnerummet)[rediger kildetekst]

I 1861, da Valakien and Moldavien blev forenet og dermed udgjorde Fyrstendømmet Rumænien, blev Bukarest den nye nations hovedstad; i 1881 blev byen det politiske centrum for det nyerklærede Kongeriget Rumænien. Gennem anden halvdel af det 19. århundrede steg Bukarests population grundet byens status dramatisk, og en ny periode med urbanisering begyndte. Den ekstravagante arkitektur og fine kultur i denne periode tilførte byen øgenavnet "Østens Paris" (eller "Lille Paris", Micul Paris), med Calea Victoriei som dens Champs-Élysées eller 5th Avenue.

I tidsrummet mellem d. 6. december 1916 til november 1918, var byen it besat af tyske styrker, derfor var den legitime hovedstad flyttet til Iaşi. Efter Første verdenskrig blev Bukarest hovedstad i România Mare. Som hovedstad for et Axis land, led Bukarest store tab i Anden verdenskrig, under de allieredes bombninger. D. 23. august, 1944, lavede kongen et kup, hvilket bragte Romanien ind i den anti-nazistiske lejr, dette førte til en kort, men ødelæggende periode med bombninger fra det tyske Luftwaffe som gengældelse. On November 8, 1945, the king's birthday, the Soviet-backed Petru Groza government suppressed pro-monarchist rallies.

Under Nicolae Ceauşescu's diktatur (1965-1989), blev det meste af den historiske del af byen ødelagt og erstattet med kommunistiske-lignede bygninger, især høje lejligheds blokke. Det bedste eksempel på denne udvikling er kaldt Centrul Civic, som Parlamentets Palads også er en del af, der var et helt historisk kvarter revet ned for at lave plads til Ceauşescus utrolig store bygninger. I 1977 kostede et jordskælv, som var 7.4 på Richter-scalen 1.500 menneskeliv og ødelagde mange gamle bygninger. Der var dog nogle historiske kvarter der overlevede denne dag.

Den rumænske revolution i 1989 startede med anti-Ceauşescu protester i Timişoara i december 1989 og fortsatte i Bukarest, hvor de førte til omstyrtelsen af det kommunistiske regime. Dissatisfied with the post-revolutionary leadership of the National Salvation Front, student leagues and opposition groups organized large-scale protests continued in 1990 (the Golaniad), which were violently stopped by the miners of Valea Jiului (the Mineriad). Several other Mineriads followed, the results of which included a government change.

Efter år 2000, som følge af Rumæniens økonomiske boom, er byen blevet moderniseret og er i øjeblikket inde i en byfornyelsesperiode. Forskellige boligområder og kommercielle udviklinger af byen er i gang, især i de nordlige distrikter, mens der i øjeblikket er en stor restaurering af Bukarests historiske bymidte i gang.

Treaties signed in Bucharest
Treaty of May 28, 1812, at the end of the Russo-Turkish War
Treaty of March 3, 1886, at the end of the Serbo-Bulgarian War
Treaty of August 10, 1913, at the end of the Second Balkan War
Treaty of August 4, 1916, the treaty of alliance between Romania and the Entente
Treaty of May 6, 1918, the treaty between Romania and the Central Powers

Geografi[rediger kildetekst]

Bukarest er beliggende ved floden Dâmboviţa, som flyder ind i floden Argeş, en biflod til Donau. En del søer strækker sig gennem byen langs floden Colentina, en biflod til Dâmboviţa. Derforuden er der en kunstig sø i bymidten – Cişmigiu – omgivet af Cişmigiu Park. Cişmigiu Park har en spændende historie og er hyppigt besøgt af kendte poeter og forfattere. Parken blev åbnet i 1847 og er det væsentligste rekreationsanlæg i byens centrum. Den er baseret på planer af den tyske arkitekt Carl F.W. Meyer.

Udover Cişmigiu huser Bukarest en del andre store parker, inklusiv Herăstrău Park og Botanisk Have. Herăstrău er en stor offentlig park beliggende i den nordlige del af byen og hjemsted for Muzeul Satului (landsbymuseet), mens Bukarests botaniske have er den største i Rumænien og indeholder mere end 10.000 plantearter, mange af dem eksotiske, og haven var engang lystpark for den kongelige familie.[1]

Bukarest er beliggende i det sydvestlige hjørne af den Rumænske Slette, et sted der engang var dækket af Vlăsiei-skoven, som, efter den blev ryddet, gav plads til frugtbart land. As with many cities, Bucharest is traditionally considered to have seven hills, in the tradition of the seven hills of Rome. Bucharest's seven hills are: Mihai Vodă, Dealul Mitropoliei, Radu Vodă, Cotroceni, Spirei, Văcăreşti og Sf. Gheorghe Nou.

Byen har et areal på 226 km². Altituden varierer fra 55,8 m ved Dâmboviţa-broen i Căţelu, det sydøstlige Bukarest, og 91,5 m ved Militari-kirken. Byens form er relativt rund med centrum omkring det punkt, hvor nord/syd- og øst/vest-akserne krydser ved Universitetspladsen. The milestone for Romanian's kilometre zero is placed just south of University Square in front of the New St. George Church (Sfântul Gheorghe Nou) at St. George Square (Piaţa Sfântul Gheorghe). Bucharest's radius, from University Square to the city limits in all directions, varies from about 10 to 12 km (6.25–7.5 mi).

Until recently, the regions surrounding Bucharest were largely rural, but after 1989, new suburbs started to be built around Bucharest, in the surrounding Ilfov county. Further urban consolidation is expected to take place when the Bucharest metropolitan area is formed in 2006, which will incorporate various communes and cities of Ilfov and surrounding counties.

Klima[rediger kildetekst]

Bukarest har et kontinentalt klima, som er kendetegnet ved varme, tørre somre og kolde vintre. På grund af sin position i den Romanian Plain, kan byens vintre blive blæsende, selv om nogle af de vinde er blevet mindre på grund af urbanisering. Vinter temperaturer er ofte under 0 oC, men kommer sjældent under -10 oC. Om sommeren er den gennemsnitlige temperatur ca. 23 oC (gennemsnittet for juli og august), trods det faktum, at temperaturen til tider kommer op til 35 oC til 40 oC i midten af sommeren i bymidten. Selv om gennemsnittet nedbør og luftfugtighed i løbet af sommeren er lav, er der ofte voldsomme storme. I løbet af foråret og efteråret varierer temperaturer mellem 18 oC til 22 oC, og nedbør i løbet af periode er højere end i sommer.

Vejr for Bukarest
Jan Feb Mar Apr Maj Jun Jul Aug Sep Okt Nov Dec År
Gennemsnitlig maks °C 2 3 10 16 22 26 27 27 23 17 8 3 16
Gennemsnitlig min °C −5 −3 0 5 10 14 15 15 11 6 0 −2 5
Gennemsnitlig nedbør mm 40 36 38 46 70 77 64 58 42 32 49 43 595

Demographics[rediger kildetekst]

Befolkningstallet historiske udvikling i Bukarest
År Befolkningstallet
1789 30.030
1831 Stigning 60.587
1859 Stigning 122.000
1900 Stigning 282.000
1918 Stigning 383.000
1930 Stigning 639.000
25. januar 1948, folketælling Stigning 1.041.807[2]
21. februar 1956, folketælling Stigning 1.177.661[2]
15. marts 1966, folketælling Stigning 1.366.684[2]
5. januar 1977, folketælling Stigning 1.807.239[2]
1. juli 1990, vurdering Stigning 2.127.194[3]
7. januar 1992, folketælling Fald 2.067.545[2]
18. marts 2002, folketælling Fald 1.926.334[2]
1. juli 2005, vurdering Fald 1.924.959[3]
1. januar 2006, vurdering Stigning 1.930.390[4]
11. juli 2007, vurdering Stigning 1.940.500 [5]

Byens population, ifølge folketællingen af 2002, er på 1.926.334 indbyggere,[2] eller 8,9% af Rumæniens totale befolkning. Derudover pendler omkring 50.000 mennesker til byen hver dag, primært fra det nærtliggende distrikt Ilfov.

Bukarests population oplevede to faser med hurtig vækst: den første i slutningen af det 19. århundrede, da byen voksede i vigtighed og størrelse; og den anden under landets kommunistiske æra, da en massiv urbaniseringskampagne blev ført og mange mennesker migrede fra de landlige egne til hovedstaden. På den tid var også den naturlige vækst (befolkningsvæksten fraregnet migration) af stor betydning grundet Ceauşescus forbud mod abortion og prævention.

Omkring 97% af Bukarests population er etniske rumæner, mens den andenstørste etniske gruppe er romaerne, som udgør 1,4% af befolkningen. Andre betydelige grupper er ungarer (0,3%), jøder (0,1%), tyrkere (0,1%) og tyskere (0,1%). Andre indbyggere i Bukarest er af græsk, armensk, lipavansk og italiensk herkomst. Grækerne og armenerne spillede en vigtig rolle i bylivet indtil slutningen af det 19. århundrede og begyndelsen af den 20. århundrede. Et nabolag, Vitan, domineredes af grækere, men var også beboet af en jødisk population, mens de sidstnævnte dog i højere grad var til stede i Văcăreşti og områder omkring Unirii Plads.

Med hensyg til religion er 96.1 % af befolkningen romerske ortodokse, 1.2% er romerske katolske, 0.5% er Muslimer og 0.4% er Romerske græske katolske. Selvom denne store tilslutning i religionerne er kun 24% af befolkningen religiøs aktiv en eller flere gange om ugen.[6] Den gennemsnitlige levealder i Bukarest i tiden mellem 2003-2005 var 74,14 år, som er ca. 2 år ældre højere end det romanske gennemsnit. Kvinder lever i gennemsnit 77,41 år, mens mænd i gennemsnit lever 70,57 år.[7]

Kultur[rediger kildetekst]

[[Image:|800px|
Universitets pladsen med statuen af Mihai Viteazu i forgrunden
]]
:Image:
Universitets pladsen med statuen af Mihai Viteazu i forgrunden

Bukarest har et mangfoldigt og voksende kulturelt liv, dette udspiller sig på forskellige områder, herunder billedkunst scenekunst og natteliv. I modsætning til andre dele af Rumænien, såsom på Sortehavets kyst eller i Transylvanien er den Bukarestiske kulturelle scene meget mere blandet og uden en difineret stil og gengiver i stedet for forskellige elementer fra rumænsk og international kultur. Bukarests bygninger er også meget forskellige fra traditionelle rumænske bygninger til bygninger, som er påvirket af franske arkitekter. Det er på grund af denne franske indflydelse, at Bukarest engang blev kaldt "Østens Paris" eller "Lille Paris".

Vartegn[rediger kildetekst]

Bukarest har en række vartegn som er kendt ud over hele verden. Det nok meste iøjnefaldende af disse er Parlamentets Paladset, som er bygget i 1980'erne under den kommunistiske diktator Nicolae Ceauşescu regeringstid. Bygningen er i øjeblikket den største bygning i Europa og den anden største i verden. Palavet rummer Romaniens Parliament og National Museet for Nutids kunst. Det er ofte også brugt som til kongresser.

Et anden meget kendt vartegn er Arcul de Triumf (Triumphal Arch), som blev bygget i 1935 efter indspiration fra Triumfbuen i Paris Et af de nyere vartegn i byen er Memorial of Rebirth, som er en stiliseret marmor søjle afsløret i 2005 til minde om ofrene for den rumænske revolution i 1989, der væltede kommunismen.

Den abstrakte monument udløst en stor strid, da det blev så dagens lys og fik øgenavne som "tandstikken og oliven", ("măslina-n scobitoare"), da mange troede, at den ikke symboliserede revolutionen godt nok.[8]

Foruden disse vartegn har Bukarest også en række kulturelle steder, som bliver nævnt nedenunder, som ofte betragtes som ikoner for byen, f.eks Ateneul Român

Visual arts[rediger kildetekst]

In terms of visual arts, the city contains a number of museums featuring both classical and contemporary Romanian art, as well as selected international works. The National Museum of Art of Romania is perhaps the best-known of Bucharest museums. It is located in the former royal palace and features extensive collections of medieval and modern Romanian art, including works by renowned sculptor Constantin Brâncuşi, as well as a prominent international collection assembled by the former Romanian royal family.

Other, smaller museums, contain more specialised collections of works. The Zambaccian Museum, which is situated in the former home of Armenian-Romanian art collector Krikor H. Zambaccian contains works by many well-known Romanian artists as well as international artists such as Paul Cézanne, Eugène Delacroix, Henri Matisse, Camille Pissarro and Pablo Picasso.

The Gheorghe Tattarescu Museum contains portraits of Romanian revolutionaries in exile such as Gheorghe Magheru, Ştefan Golescu, Nicolae Bălcescu and allegorical compositions with revolutionary (Romania's rebirth, 1849) and patriotic (The Principalities' Unification, 1857) themes. The Theodor Pallady Museum is situated in one of the oldest surviving merchant houses in Bucharest and includes many works by Romanian painter Theodor Pallady as well as a number of European and Oriental furniture pieces. The Museum of Art Collections contains the collections of a number of well-known Romanian art aficionados, including Krikor Zambaccian and Theodor Pallady.

Despite the extensive classical art galleries and museums in the city, there is also a contemporary arts scene that has become increasingly prominent in recent times. The National Museum of Contemporary Art (MNAC), situated in a wing of the Palace of the Parliament, was opened in 2004 and contains a widespread collection of Romanian and international contemporary art, in a number of expressive forms. The MNAC also manages the Kalinderu MediaLab, which caters specifically to multimedia and experimental art. There is also a range of smaller, private art galleries throughout the city centre.

Performing arts[rediger kildetekst]

Performing arts are one of the strongest cultural elements of Bucharest, and the city has a number of world-renowned facilities and institutions. The most prominent is the neoclassical Romanian Athenaeum, which was founded in 1852, hosts classical music concerts, the George Enescu Festival, and is home to the "George Enescu" Philharmonic. Bucharest is also home to the Romanian National Opera, as well as the I.L. Caragiale National Theatre. Another well-known theatre in Bucharest is the State Jewish Theatre, which has gained increasing prominence in recent years due partly to the fact that it features plays starring world-renowned Romanian-Jewish actress Maia Morgenstern. There is also a large number of smaller theatres throughout the city that cater to specific genres, such as the Comedy Theatre, the Nottara Theatre, the Bulandra Theatre, the Odeon Theatre, and the Constantin Tănase Revue Theatre.

Music and nightlife[rediger kildetekst]

Bucharest is home to Romania's largest recording labels, and is often the residence of Romanian musicians. The city's music scene is quite eclectic. Many Romanian rock bands of the 1970s and 1980s, such as Iris and Holograf, continue to be popular, particularly with the middle-aged, while since the 1990s there has been growth in the boyband and hip hop genres. The eclectic pop-rock band Taxi have been gaining international respect, as has Spitalul de Urgenţă's raucous updating of traditional Romanian music. While many discos play manele, a Turkish-influenced type of music that is particularly popular in Bucharest's working class districts, the city has an increasing jazz and blues scene, and, to an extent, eurodance/trance and heavy metal/punk. The city's nightlife, particularly its club scene grew significantly in the 1990s, and continues to increase. The city does not have a central nightlife strip, with many entertainment venues dispersed throughout the city centre. One of the city's best known clubs is the Lăptăria Enache and the La Motoare, located above (on the rooftop of) the National Theatre, as well as [kilde mangler] Fire Club and Club A. Most clubs and bars are located around the center of the city, from the Piaţa Unirii to Piaţa Romană. Also, a large concentration of rock clubs can be found in the Lipscani area, the old part of the city, in the vicinity of Piata Unirii. Another popular venue, especially among students from the Politehnica University campus, is Club Maxx, located on Splaiul Independentei No. 290.

The city also hosts some of the best electronic/house music clubs in Europe such as Bamboo and Krystal Club. During the summer, Zoom Beach Club is an outdoor club on the shore of a lake and has two separate dance floors. The Office is one of the most exclusive clubs in Bucharest and has a long tradition in clubbing. One of the best cocktail clubs is Deja Vu situated on Balcescu Boulevard Near the Italian church. Other clubs are: Gaia, Fratelli, Glamour, Tipsy, Cotton Club, Pat, Studio Martin and Embryo.

Traditional culture[rediger kildetekst]

Bucharest's culture has, especially since the early 1990s, become more modern and worldly in comparison to other Romanian cities. Traditional Romanian culture, however, continues to have an influence in domains such as theatre and music. Additionally, Bucharest has two internationally-renowned ethnographic museums, the Museum of the Romanian Peasant and the open-air Village Museum. The Village Museum, in Herăstrău Park, contains 272 authentic buildings and peasant farms from all over Romania. The Museum of the Romanian Peasant was declared the European Museum of the Year in 1996, and displays a rich collection of textiles (especially costumes), icons, ceramics, and other artifacts of Romanian peasant life.

The Museum of Romanian History is another important museum in Bucharest, containing a collection of artefacts detailing Romanian history and culture from the prehistoric times, Dacian era, medieval times and the modern era.

Cultural events and festivals[rediger kildetekst]

Fil:21-casa-poporului-noaptea-alba.jpg
Unirii Boulevard during the White Night of Bucharest Festival

There are a number of cultural festivals in Bucharest throughout the year, in various domains, even though most festivals take place in the summer months of June, July and August. The National Opera organises the International Opera Festival every year in May and June, which includes ensembles and orchestras from all over the world. The Romanian Athaeneum Society hosts the George Enescu Classical Music Festival at various locations throughout the city in September every year. Additionally, the Museum of the Romanian Peasant and the Village Museum organise a number of events throughout the year showcasing Romanian folk arts and crafts.

In the 2000s, due to the growing prominence of the Chinese community in Bucharest, several Chinese cultural events have taken place. The first officially-organised Chinese festival was the Chinese New Year's Eve Festival of February 2005 which took place in Nichita Stănescu Park and was organised by the Bucharest City Hall.[9] In 2005, Bucharest was the first city in Southeastern Europe to host the international CowParade, which resulted in dozens of decorated cow sculptures being placed at various points across the city.

Since 2005 Bucharest has its own contemporary art biennale, the Bucharest Biennale. The current (2006) issue (curated by Zsolt Pétranyi) will go on until the end of June, the next edition will be in 2008.

The 2000s also saw an increasing visibility of Bucharest gay culture, with the opening of the Queen's Club, the first LGBT club in the city, in 2001, and the launch of the annual Bucharest GayFest in 2004. The city's first gay pride parade was held as part of the 2005 GayFest.

Arkitektur[rediger kildetekst]

Historical architecture[rediger kildetekst]

Fil:Cercul Militar.jpg
Cercul Militar Naţional


Of the city's medieval architecture, most of what survived into modern times was destroyed by the Communists and replaced by high-rise apartment blocks. Still, some historical precincts remain, the most notable of which is the Lipscani area. This precinct contains buildings such as Manuc's Inn and the ruins of the Curtea Veche (the Old Court of the King), and during the Middle Ages was the heart of Bucharest's commercial world. From the 1970s onwards, the area went through urban decline, and many historical buildings fell into disrepair. In 2005, the Lipscani area was entirely pedestrianised and is currently undergoing restoration.

The city centre has also retained architecture from the late 19th century and early 20th century, particularly the interwar period, which is often seen as the "golden age" of Bucharest architecture. During this time, the city grew significantly in size and sought to emulate other large European capitals such as Paris. Much of the architecture of the time belongs to a remarkably strong Modern (rationalist) Architecture current, led by Horia Creanga and Marcel Iancu, which managed to literally change the face of the city. Two notable buildings from this time are the Creţulescu Palace, currently housing cultural institutions including UNESCO's European Centre for Higher Education, and the Cotroceni Palace, the current residence of the Romanian President. Many large-scale constructions such as Gara de Nord, the main railway station, and the National Bank of Romania's headquarters, date from these times. In the 2000s, a wide variety of historic buildings in the city centre underwent restoration. In some residential areas of the city, particularly the high-income northern suburbs, there are many turn-of-the-century villas, most of which were restored after 2000.

Communist architecture[rediger kildetekst]

Fil:Unirii Boulevard.jpg
Unirii Boulevard

En stor del af Bukarests arkitektur består af bygninger konstrueret under den kommunistiske æra, som har erstattet den historiske arkitektur med "mere tilstrækkelige" lejlighedsblokke – replacing the historical architecture with "more efficient" high density apartment blocks - one-fifth of the the city was demolished only for constructing the third largest building in the world: Casa Poporului - Palace of the Parliament. In Nicolae Ceauşescu's project of systematization many new buildings were built in previously-historical areas, which were razed and then built upon from scratch. One of the best examples of this type of architecture is Centrul Civic, a development that replaced a major part of Bucharest's historic city centre with giant utilitarian buildings, mainly with marble or travertine façades, inspired by North Korean architecture. Communist-era architecture can also be found in Bucharest's residential districts, mainly in blocuri, which are high-density apartment blocks that house the majority of the city's population.

Since the fall of Communism in 1989, several Communist-era buildings have been refurbished, modernised and used for other purposes. Perhaps the best example of this is the conversion of several agro-alimentary complexes into shopping malls and commercial centres. These giant circular halls, which were most often known as hunger circuses due to the food shortages experienced in the 1980s, were constructed during the Ceauşescu era to act as produce markets and refectories, although most were left unfinished at the time of the Revolution. Modern shopping malls like Bucharest Mall, Plaza Romania and City Mall emerged on pre-existent structures of former hunger circuses. Another example is the modernisation and conversion of a large utilitarian construction in Centrul Civic into a Marriott Hotel. This process was accelerated after 2000, when the city underwent a property boom, and many Communist-era buildings in the city centre became prime real estate due to their location. In recent years, many Communist-era apartment blocks have also been refurbished to improve the city's urban appearance.

Contemporary architecture[rediger kildetekst]

Fil:Bucharest modern building 1.jpg
Bucharest Financial Plaza

The newest contribution to Bucharest's architecture took place after the fall of Communism, and particularly after 2000, when the city went through a period of urban renewal – and architectural revitalization – on the back of Romania's economic boom. Buildings from this time are mostly made out of glass and steel, and often have more than fifteen storeys. Examples include shopping malls (particularly the Bucharest Mall, a conversion and extension of an abandoned building), office buildings, bank headquarters, the Bucharest World Trade Center and the Chamber of Commerce, which lies on the banks of the Dâmboviţa. As of 2005, there is a significant number of office buildings in construction, particularly in the northern and eastern parts of the city. Additionally, there has been a trend in recent years to add modern wings and façades to historic buildings, the most prominent example of which is the Bucharest Architects' Association Building, which is a modern glass-and-steel construction built inside a historic stone façade. Aside from buildings used for business and institutions, various new residential developments are currently underway, many of which consist of modern high-rise buildings with a glass exterior, surrounded by American-style residential communities. These developments are increasingly prominent in the northern suburbs of the city, which are less densely-populated and are home to middle- and upper-class Bucharesters due to the process of gentrification.

Media[rediger kildetekst]

Bukarest er det vigtigste center for massemedier i Rumænien, da det har alle de nationale fjernsynsnetværks hovedkvarterer samt huser de nationale aviser og radiostationer. De største daglige aviser i Bukarest inkluderer Evenimentul Zilei, Jurnalul Naţional, Cotidianul, România Liberă, Adevărul, Gardianul og Gândul. I myldretiden er tabloidaviserne Libertatea og Ziarul meget populære for pendlere.

Et betydeligt antal aviser og mediepublikationer er baseret i Casa Presei Libere (Den frie presses hus) et vartegn på det nordlige Bukarest oprindeligt kaldt Casa Scânteii efter kommunistperiodens officielle avis Scînteia. Casa Presei Libere er ikke det eneste vartegn i Bukarest som har rødder i medie- og kommunikationsindustrien. Palatul Telefoanelor ("telefonpaladset") var den første store modernistiske bygning på Calea Victoriei i byens centrum, og den massive, ufærdiggjortee Casa Radio fra kommunisttiden tårner sig op over en park en huskarré fra Operaen.

Engelsksprogede medier blev tilgængelige i Bukarest i 1990'erne og er blevet mere og mere prominente siden år 2000. Der er to daglige engelsksprogede aviser, Bucharest Daily News og Nine O' Clock og derudover et antal andre magasiner. Der er desuden et antal publikationer i andre sprog til rådighed såsom det ungarsksprogede dagsblad Új Magyar Szó.

Observator Cultural dækker byens kunst og gratis ugentlige Şapte Seri ("Syv aftener") og B24FUN lister underholdning indenfor mange felter. Beyn er desuden hjemsted for det intellektuelle tidsskrift Dilema og satiremagasinet Academia Caţavencu, såvel som for den store vifte af kommercielle magasiner man ville finde i enhver europæisk hovedstad.

Bukarest er værtsby for den fjerde udgave af Junior Eurovision Song Contest 2006.

Sport[rediger kildetekst]

Fodbold er den mest populære sport i Bukarest, og byen har flere klubber, som er kendt over hele Europa. Der er fem af byens klubber, der spiller i Liga 1, tidligere Divizia A, den bedste rumænske række:

Klub Grundlagt Stadium Noter
FC Sportul Studentesc 1916 Regie Stadium
  • Ældstetablerede lokale hold
  • Spiller i Liga II fra 2006 til i dag
FC Rapid 1923 Giuleşti Stadium
Juventus Colentina Bucureşti 1924 Juventus Stadium
  • Lokalt hold
  • Spiller i Liga III fra 2006 til i dag
Progresul Bucuresti 1944 Cotroceni Stadium
  • Spiller i Liga II fra 2007 til i dag
FC Steaua 1947 Ghencea Stadium
FC Dinamo 1948 Dinamo Stadium

Lia Manoliu Stadionet er det største stadion i Rumænien (kapacitet: 60.120). Der er også sportscentre som Dinamo Sports Park og National Sports Center.

Der er desuden et antal sportsklubber inden for ishockey, rugby, basketball, håndbold, vandpolo og volleyball. Størstedelen af de rumænske baneatleter, boksere og en stor andel gymnaster er tilsluttet klubber i Bukarest. De nationale atletik- og mange gymnastikmesterskaber bliver afholdt i Bukarest, hvilket er hovedårsagen til byens veludviklede sportsfaciliteter.

Hvert efterår er Bukarest vært for BCR Rumænien Open, som er en international tennisturnering, der er en del af ATP Tour. Derudover spilles kampene i den rumænske Davis Cup Hold sædvanligvis i Bukarest, enten udendørs på BNR Arena eller indendørs på Sala Polivalentă. Ishockeykampe bliver afholdt i Mihai Flamaropol hallen, hvilken har en kapacitet på 8.000 tilskuere.

Portrayal in film and fiction[rediger kildetekst]

  • The American novel The Historian by Elizabeth Kostova focuses on Romanian history and the story of Dracula, following one of the main characters who travels to Bucharest and Romania during the 1930s.
  • The American-produced Romanian-language documentary Children Underground (2001) [10] portrays the lives of homeless children in Bucharest.
  • The James Bond video game "''Agent Under Fire''" features two driving levels through the city of Bucharest.
  • The Romanian-language film Filantropica ("Philanthropy", 2002) [11] gives a satiric portrayal of the city and of many strata of its life.
  • The English-language film The Wild Dogs (2002) [12] gives a more uniformly bleak portrait of the city.
  • The English-dubbed film Entre chiens et loups (2002) [13] features various parts of the city, suburbs & night-spots as a backdrop to a French action movie.
  • Wesley Snipes starred in 7 Seconds (2005), an action flick filmed entirely on location in Bucharest. [14] The film features the city's varied architecture.
  • Historic Communist Bucharest was depicted in Jack Chick's first comic book, "Operation Bucharest", first published in 1974. It is loosely based on a Baptist Ministry called "Couriers For Christ" based there.
  • The film adaptation of the novel Blood and Chocolate was set in Bucharest.
  • The French film 'Ils' (2006) was set in Bucharest, based on real events.[15]
  • The 1991 vampire film Subspecies, which was produced by Full Moon Features, was the first American film to be filmed in Bucharest.[16]

Noter[rediger kildetekst]

  1. ^ Botanisk Have, onlinegallery.ro. Tilgang 13. oktober 2006.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g INS, Government of Romania. ""Population at the 1948, 1956, 1966, 1977, 1992 and 2002 censuses by municipalities and towns"" (PDF). Hentet 2007-03-07. {{cite web}}: Tjek |first= (hjælp) (engelsk)
  3. ^ a b INS, Government of Romania. ""Populaţia, pe sexe şi medii, la 1 iulie"". Hentet 2007-03-07. {{cite web}}: Tjek |first= (hjælp) (rumænsk)
  4. ^ INS, Government of Romania. ""Populatia Romaniei scade de la an la an"". Hentet 2007-03-07. {{cite web}}: Tjek |first= (hjælp) (rumænsk)
  5. ^ http://www.insse.ro/RPL2002INS/vol5/tables/t02.pdf
  6. ^ Open Society Institute's Survey into Religiosity in Romania (Microsoft Word document)
  7. ^ Populaţia şi fenomene demografice pe sectoare administrative ale Municipiului Bucureşti (Population and demographic phenomena by administrative sectors of the Municipality of Bucharest) (rumænsk)
  8. ^ „Memorialul Renasterii“, ce oribilitate! ("The Monument of Rebirth - how horrible!"), Săptămâna Financiară, August 2005 (rumænsk)
  9. ^ Chinese New Year's Eve celebrated in Bucharest, Bucharest Daily News, 7 February 2005
  10. ^ Children Underground (2001)
  11. ^ Filantropica (2002)
  12. ^ The Wild Dogs (2002)
  13. ^ Entre chiens et loups (2002)
  14. ^ 7 Seconds (2005) (V)
  15. ^ Ils (2006)
  16. ^ Ted Nicolaou (writer/director). (1991). Behind the scenes: Making of Subspecies. [DVD]. Full Moon Features. 

Referencer[rediger kildetekst]

Eksterne henvisninger[rediger kildetekst]

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Official sites[rediger kildetekst]

City guides[rediger kildetekst]

Other[rediger kildetekst]