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|Grand Theft Auto III|
|Del af Grand Theft Auto-serien|
DMA Design |
Rockstar Games |
PlayStiation 2 |
22. oktober 2001
26. oktober 2001
20. maj 2002
24. maj 2002
Steam 4. januar 2008
31. oktober 2003
2. januar 2004
Mac OS X
12. november 2010
18. august 2011
13. december 2010
PlayStation 2 |
Mac OS X
BBFC: 18 |
OFLC (NZ): R18+
|Grand Theft Auto–kronologi|
|Efterfulgte||Grand Theft Auto 2|
|Fortsættes i||Grand Theft Auto: Vice City|
Grand Theft Auto III er et sandbox action-adventure computerspil udviklet af DMA Design og udgivet af Rockstar Games. Det blev udgiver d. 22. oktober 2001 for PlayStation 2, d. 20. maj 2002 for Microsoft Windows, og d. 31. oktober 2003 for Xbox. Det er den femte titel i Grand Theft Auto seren.
Grand Theft Auto III er spillet fra et third-person perspektiv i et open world single-player milijø, som gør det muligt for spilleren at interagere med spillets verden. Spillet forgår i den fiktive by Liberty City, som er løst baseret på New York City.[a] Historien har en stille, navnløs hovedperson, selv om han senere omtales som Claude i hans gæsteoptræden i Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas. Claude er en bankrøver, der blev efterladt til sin død af hans kæreste, og derefter hurtigt bliver viklet ind i en verden af bander, kriminalitet og korruption.
Dens efterfølger, Grand Theft Auto: Vice City, blev udgivet den 27. oktober 2002 og modtog ligeledes ros. I december 2011, i anledning af spillets tiårsdagen, blev en mobil version af Grand Theft Auto III udgivet til iOS og Android. Spillet er også blevet udviklet til forskellige andre platforme og tjenester, såsom Mac OS X og PlayStation Network.
- 1 Gameplay
- 2 Synopsis
- 3 Development
- 4 Reception
- 5 Controversy
- 6 Spillets handling
- 7 References
- 8 Eksterne henvisninger
Gameplay[redigér | redigér wikikode]
Grand Theft Auto III arver meget af gameplay mekanikerne fra sine forgængere, Grand Theft Auto og Grand Theft Auto 2, der kombinerer elementer af et Third-person shooter og kørespil i en ny 3D-spilmotor. Ideen med at bruge en 3D-spilmotor i sådan en genre var dog ikke ny. Det første spil til at kombinere elementer af action, skydning, og muligheden for at kunne køre i forskellige køretøjer i en sandbox 3D verden var Hunter, udgivet i 1991 til Commodore Amiga og Atari ST.
Til fods har spillerens karakter den ekstra evne til at kunne sprinte og hoppe (men er ude af stand til klatring eller svømning), samt bruge våben og slå. Han er også i stand til at køre en række køretøjer.
Criminal offences, such as carjacking, murder and theft will result in increasing levels of resistance from the authorities. If the player's "wanted" level reaches certain levels, the police, FBI, and army will respond accordingly. When the player character collapses from his injuries or is arrested, he will re-spawn at a local hospital or police station respectively, at the expense of losing all weapons and armour and an amount of money for medical expenses or bribes. While this is similar to previous Grand Theft Auto games, the player character is essentially offered unlimited "lives", as opposed to the limited number of lives in the original Grand Theft Auto and its sequel. This allows the player's character to "die" as many times as he/she pleases, and render it impossible to indefinitely lose in the game.
En vigtig funktion i Grand Theft Auto III's forgængere, var at de tillod spilleren at få kontanter ved at begå småforbrydelser men blev nedtonet i spillet, og omfatter nu kun ødelæggelse af køretøjer, drab af fodgænger samt udføre stunts med køretøjer. Mængden af penge i spillerens besiddelse er ikke længere et krav for at låse op for nye områder op i Grand Theft Auto II. I stedet er færdiggørelsen af missioner og udfoldning af spillets historie nu ansvarlig for denne rolle. Derudover har spilleren lov at vende tilbage til alle ulåste områder af byen. Men som nye områder åbne op, bliver tidligere tilgængelige områder mere farlig eller vanskelig at udforske, på grund af fjendtlige bander.
The interface of the game has been significantly overhauled. The player-centered compass is replaced by a separate mini-map that also displays a map of the city and key locations (safe houses and contact points) or targets. Armour and health levels are now indicated in numbers, and a 24-hour clock is added. Gang behaviour is no longer dictated by "respect" meters used in Grand Theft Auto 2; instead, the player character's progress through the story affects his view in the "eyes" of gang members. As the player completes missions for different gangs, rival gang members will come to recognise the character and subsequently shoot on sight.
Whereas multiplayer modes from previous Grand Theft Auto titles allowed players to connect through a computer network and play the game with others, Grand Theft Auto III was the first game in the series to ship with only a single-player game mode. As a result, third-party modifications were developed that re-extended the game with the absent network functionality through manipulation of the game's memory. One of these modifications became known as Multi Theft Auto and was developed alongside this title and future Grand Theft Auto successors.
Missioner og fortællinger[redigér | redigér wikikode]
Missioner, der tilbydes til spilleren falder primært i to kategorier: historie-baserede og sidemissioner. Mens spillets fremskridt er historie-baserede missioner fremmer plottet og låse visse områder op på kortet, kan spilleren vælge at fuldføre dem når han/hun føler for det. Derudover er ikke mange af dem ikke obligatoriske. Alternativt er det muligt at ignorere de vigtigste missioner og kun spille sidemissioner. Hvis spilleren får fat i en taxi, så kan de udføre taxi job for NPC spillere i spillet, og sætte dem af i forskellige dele af byen imod betaling; får man en ambulance tillader det spilleren at afhente såret NPC og køre dem til hospitalet for betaling. Brandslukning og politimissioner er også tilgængelige. Færdiggørelse af disse sidemissioner i et vist omfang resulterer i afspilleren belønnes på forskellige måder. Hvis spilleren ønsker, kan han eller hun undgå alle missioner og i stedet vælge at udforske byen, stjæle biler, kører over fodgængere og undgå eller udfordre politiet.
Weapons[redigér | redigér wikikode]
The selection of weapons provided in the game consists of firearms, explosives, and two forms of mêlée attacks (hand to hand combat and a baseball bat). The weapons themselves are largely similar to the selection of weapons from the original Grand Theft Auto and its sequel, such as the M1911, the Micro Uzi, an AK-47 and an M16A1, and the sniper rifle, the rocket launcher, and the flamethrower, which are based on similar weapons from the original Grand Theft Auto, and the shotgun and thrown weapons (Molotov cocktails and hand grenades) from Grand Theft Auto 2. The porting of Grand Theft Auto III into a three dimensional environment also allows access to a first-person view, making the inclusion of the sniper rifle and first-person aiming of the M16A1 and rocket launcher possible. In addition, it becomes possible in the game to perform drive-by shooting using the Micro Uzi, while the inclusion of magazine-based weapons introduces the need to reload weapons after a magazine has been depleted. Additionally, wielding certain weapons restricts movement. Weapons may be purchased from local firearms dealers and businesses; retrieved for free from certain dead gang members, mission-specific characters, and law enforcers; or picked up in certain spots in the city.
All versions of the game allow the player to auto-aim using a gamepad with the push of a button, holding human targets at gun point using most firearms, with the exception of first-person aiming for the sniper rifle, M16 and rocket launcher, which are aimed using the analogue stick or mouse as the player presses the same auto aim button. The Microsoft Windows version includes the additional ability to look around and aim freely with a mouse while on foot; these control differences are seen in the console and Microsoft Windows ports of Vice City.
Synopsis[redigér | redigér wikikode]
Setting and characters[redigér | redigér wikikode]
Grand Theft Auto III takes place in Liberty City, a city on the East Coast of America, which is loosely based on New York City. Altogether, the city and surrounding areas take up about three square miles. Throughout the series, there are three versions of Liberty City: a previous rendition was featured in the original Grand Theft Auto (1997); the version in Grand Theft Auto III was also used in Advance (2004), Liberty City Stories (2005), and for one mission in San Andreas (2004); the latest rendition was used in Grand Theft Auto IV (2008), its episodes The Lost and Damned and The Ballad of Gay Tony (both 2009), and Chinatown Wars (2009).
Several of the characters featured in Grand Theft Auto III return for later games in the series, including Catalina, 8-Ball, Salvatore Leone, Maria Latore, Donald Love, Phil Cassidy, and Toni Cipriani.
The voice cast for the game's characters features several established actors. Notable voice actors include Frank Vincent, Michael Madsen, Michael Rapaport, Joe Pantoliano, Debi Mazar, Kyle MacLachlan, Robert Loggia, Lazlow Jones and late rapper Guru.
Plot[redigér | redigér wikikode]
While robbing a bank in Liberty City, ambitious criminal Claude is shot and betrayed by his girlfriend and accomplice Catalina. Although he survives the wound, Claude is arrested and sentenced to ten years in prison. While being transported in a prison van, Claude and fellow prisoner 8-Ball are inadvertently freed after an attack on the police convoy, and escape to a safehouse. 8-Ball later introduces Claude to the Leone Mafia crime family; Sex Club 7 owner Luigi Goterelli, Don Salvatore Leone, his Capo Toni Cipriani, and the Don's son Joey Leone. During work for the family, Claude finds himself fighting the Colombians, who are being led by Catalina in proliferating a new drug. Meanwhile, Salvatore's trophy wife Maria begins to take a liking to Claude. Salvatore grows suspicious and betrays Claude into luring him to a death trap, but Maria saves him just in time and they both flee.
Claude then begins working for the city's Yakuza and its leader Asuka Kasen, Maria's close friend, who has Claude assassinate Salvatore and get his revenge. This cuts off all of Claude's ties with the Leone family, who are now against him. Claude's work leads him to allying himself with other criminal sources, such as corrupt police detective Ray Machowski, an enemy of the Cartel. Claude later saves him from Internal Affairs and the CIA by helping him flee to Vice City. Claude also meets charismatic media mogul Donald Love, who maintains a huge media front. In an effort to start a war between the Yakuza and Cartel, Claude and Love organise the death of Asuka's brother Kenji Kasen and blame the Cartel. Later, Love asks Claude to rescue a man who was kidnapped by the Cartel in the prison truck that Claude was in. While on an errand, Claude finally confronts Catalina, who narrowly escapes. Asuka abducts Catalina's partner Miguel, believing him to have knowledge of her brother's death.
With the war with the Cartel intensifying, Asuka and Maria learn of Claude's history with Catalina and order him to attack many Cartel operations. Eventually, his exploits attract the attention of Catalina. As a result, the Cartel abduct Maria, murder Asuka and Miguel, and demand Claude to pay $500,000 in exchange for Maria's release. When Claude confronts Catalina, she attempts to have him killed, but he escapes. In the resulting firefight, Catalina attempts to flee in a helicopter and makes a final attempt on Claude's life. After killing the remaining Cartel members and rescuing Maria, Claude shoots down the helicopter, effectively killing Catalina. As they are leaving the scene, Maria complains to Claude about the kidnapping, particularly the state of her clothes and nails. During the credits, a gunshot is heard, and Maria's voice is silenced.[b]
Development[redigér | redigér wikikode]
Radio stations and other media[redigér | redigér wikikode]
The game's radio stations feature music specially written for the game (as well as various songs originating from the original Grand Theft Auto and its sequel), but also includes licensed music, some of which were excerpts of several actual music albums; this combination differs from those of the game's predecessors, which featured entirely original soundtracks. One of the stations is a full-length talk show, and many of the callers are actually characters from the story missions, often demonstrating the same views and eccentricities that become apparent to the player during the missions. Another station, "Flashback FM", features music from the film Scarface, which had heavy influence on the game's sequel, Vice City.
Additionally, an online format of the fictional Liberty Tree newspaper, dedicated to events that took place within and outside Liberty City between February 2001 and October 2001, was made available months ahead of the release of the game. The website, working in tandem with the official map-based website and sub-pages, also served to provide a back-story to Grand Theft Auto III, while evoking a sense that the reported events had actually taken place in real time, releasing monthly issues in its nine months of activity. The site also includes articles on criminal activities in the city and city development (i.e. delayed tunnel completion and the growth of Love Media in the city), and various advertising to fictional products. Pre-released screenshots of gameplay, the city's environment and characters were used as photographs for certain news articles.
Various commercials are featured on both the radio stations and the Liberty Tree website. Certain ads often referred to their advertisers' official websites, such as petsovernight.com. All of these sites actually existed; they were set up to tie in with the game. However, although looking very much like genuine online stores of the era, all links to purchase or order the products actually led to rockstargames.com.
Game engine[redigér | redigér wikikode]
Grand Theft Auto III's new RenderWare game engine created by another British games company Criterion Games was a significant departure from its predecessors, most notably because it uses a forward-viewing perspective as the default view, similar to a majority of third-person shooters and driving games, and has much-improved street-level graphics. The game also offers several additional camera modes, including a cinematic view, and the top-down perspective prevalent in Grand Theft Auto III's predecessors (this last was omitted in following titles, making Grand Theft Auto III the last major console title in the series to include the top-down view). In console versions, the game runs in the display resolution dictated by the console, while the Microsoft Windows version permits resolutions of up to 1600 by 1200 pixels.
The in-game environment is displayed through extensive use of level of detail (LOD), allowing areas directly surrounding the player to display objects in higher polygon counts (including vehicles, buildings and terrain) or minor props (e.g. street furniture), while areas far from the player are displayed with fewer polygons and less detail. As such, LODs aid Grand Theft Auto III in displaying a large environment with a further draw distance, while ensuring that the game's performance remains optimum. When travelling within the city, the game constantly swaps models of varied detail as the player moves from one area to another. However, when the player travels to another island, the game is required to load detailed models of the entire destination island, while also loading low-detail models for the island the player is leaving, requiring substantially more processing time; in the process, the game displays a "Welcome to..." screen for a short amount of time, before play resumes.
Like the environment, vehicles and pedestrians are depicted by full three-dimensional models, compared to flat top-down sprites used in previous games. Both vehicles and pedestrians are constructed from individual polygons with a central "core" (the engine, chassis and body of vehicles, and the torso of pedestrians). The damage system of vehicles represents the minor vehicle parts (doors, frontal quarter panels, bumpers and wheels) as undamaged, damaged or missing, based on collisions detected on the vehicle; the core of each vehicle remains visually unchanged despite heavy damage. As pedestrians in Grand Theft Auto III are made out of separate polygon parts (limbs, a head and a torso), it is possible to detach the limbs or head of a pedestrian (by using heavy firearms or explosives).
As the game runs a simulated 24-hour cycle, including changing weather, the game engine is also required to simulate day and night periods, as well as weather effects. This is done by adjusting surrounding visual effects and details in accordance to the weather and time of day. Other minor details are also present, like a rainbow and shiny streets after rain, and the sun moving from the northeast in the morning to the northwest in the evening.
Cuts, changes, and the 9/11 effect[redigér | redigér wikikode]
Prior to the 2001 release of the final game, several modifications were made to Grand Theft Auto III. The changes were apparent as several promotional materials had previously displayed features that would be absent in the final version of the game. While cuts and changes are frequent during game development, the changes in Grand Theft Auto III were of note as they were made around the time when the September 11, 2001 attacks occurred; this led some gamers to speculate that at least some of the changes were motivated by the attacks. Few changes were made and when they were conducted, Sam Houser, the president of Rockstar Games (based in Manhattan, New York City), was quoted 19 September 2001 saying that a review would be carried out for Grand Theft Auto III, in addition to confirming the delay of the game's release by three weeks (the original, rough release date was suggested by Houser to be on 2 October 2001):
...our biggest games, including Grand Theft Auto [III], have been delayed slightly. This decision is based on two factors, firstly it has been a little difficult to get work done in downtown Manhattan in the last week since basic communications infrastructure has been intermittent at best, and secondly we felt that a full content review of all our titles was absolutely necessary for us in light of the horrifying event we all witnessed in NYC last week. As for Grand Theft Auto [III], since the game is so huge the review is no short process. So far we have come across certain small contextual references that we were no longer comfortable with, as well as a couple of very rare game play instances that no longer felt appropriate to us. We apologize to you and all the people waiting for this game to ship for the delays that have now ensued, but I'm sure you can understand our reasoning.
Among the changes made shortly after 9/11 was the police cars' paint scheme. The old color scheme of blue with white stripes (seen in previews and the manual map) specifically resembled that of the NYPD. The new color scheme of the LCPD is modelled in a generic black-and-white design that is common amongst several police departments in the United States such as the LAPD and SFPD. Pre-release screenshots in the game's official website depicting police cars had also undergone modifications, around a week after 11 September. Grand Theft Auto: Liberty City Stories and Grand Theft Auto IV saw paint schemes bearing likenesses to those of the NYPD's (past and present) returning, several years after Grand Theft Auto III was released.
Another cut is that of Darkel, an in-game character, for the final version of the game. Mentioned in several early video game publications and websites, Darkel was to be a revolutionary urchin who vowed to bring down the city's economy. One mission involved stealing an ice cream van, using it to attract pedestrians, then blowing it up (this mission would eventually be given by El Burro instead in the final version of game to kill a group of gang members). Darkel was also originally expected to give out Rampage-like missions, and even had his voice recorded for this part. Rockstar later decided that they would like to go back to the original system of giving out rampages as featured in Grand Theft Auto and Grand Theft Auto 2. Although Darkel and his missions were removed, the character remains listed in the manual's credits, as well as having a character texture retained in the game's data files. Another reminder of Darkel's existence is an abandoned tunnel in the city, associated with the character in the official website, and includes four homeless people in a group wielding Molotov cocktails. Both the tunnel and the four homeless people are retained in the final version of the game.
The Dodo aeroplane, the only flyable aircraft in the game, was also a point of discussion; the wings of the vehicle were significantly short, while an uncontrollable full-winged version has been seen flying around the city. However, the plane had a short wingspan, as evidenced from a preview in Game Informer (Issue #95), which indicated that the plane was to be used in a (now abandoned) mission to loft the plane high enough in its brief flight and reach new areas of the city. The Dodo is considerably difficult to control, usually resulting in short flights (although it is possible to fly the plane continuously around Liberty City when properly trained).
Other changes included stopping the selection of certain character models when using cheat codes, removing the aforementioned ability to blow limbs off non-player characters in only the PlayStation 2 version of Grand Theft Auto III (though this can enabled with a cheat code), and the removal of elderly pedestrians with walkers, school children as pedestrians (from GameSpot UK's beta preview ) and a school bus (seen in eight screenshots).
When asked about how much was changed from the original version, Rockstar stated that it's "about 1% different", and that they only removed one mission that referenced terrorists and changed a few other "cosmetic details" - such as car details, some pedestrian comments and radio dialogue. They stated that the biggest change was the cover art, which was changed into what would become the "signature style" for all Grand Theft Auto game covers. They stated that the original cover art (which was released as the cover of the game in Europe) felt "too raw" for them after 9/11. They also denied any of the rumours with school children being in the game.
Expanding on the cover change during an interview with Edge, Sam Houser said that the new North American artwork had been created in an evening and that they instantly preferred it to the originally planned cover.
Reception[redigér | redigér wikikode]
Critical[redigér | redigér wikikode]
Upon its release, Grand Theft Auto III received widespread critical acclaim. While minor problems and comments pertaining to graphics, performance and controls were noted, Grand Theft Auto III was touted as revolutionary by several game review websites and publications. According to Game Rankings, the game won several awards, such as GameSpot's Console Game of the Year, Game of the Year from GameSpy and Cheat Code Central, and Best Action Game of 2001 by IGN. The game's average review score of 97% on Metacritic ties it with Tony Hawk's Pro Skater 3 for the highest ranked game in PlayStation 2 history. It was also inducted into GameSpot's Greatest Games of All Time list.
Eurogamer stated "A luscious, sprawling epic of a game and one of the most complete experiences I have ever encountered. If this is what I've waited a year to see on my PS2, then I would have waited ten. Magnificent". Official PlayStation Magazine called the game "The most innovative, outlandish, brilliant video game I've ever seen". Allgame commented "From the eight professional-style radio stations to the variety of mission objectives and hidden goodies, GTA III is packed with high production values and oozing with addictive gameplay". Game Informer noted "The environments of Liberty City are stunning in scope and detail, dwarfing anything I've ever seen, and your choices are endless." While GameSpy cited "A fantastically designed and fun game that's one of the most absorbing, entertaining titles released in a while. It gets better and better with every single day, as you continue discovering new little features here and there." Of the iOS port, Mark Brown of Pocket Gamer noted that it was "a largely successful port of an iconic game, and it's still massive amounts of fun to evade police, pull off jumps and complete missions".
Sales[redigér | redigér wikikode]
Grand Theft Auto III unexpectedly emerged as a smash hit and became the highest-selling video game of 2001 in the United States. Later discounted as part of Sony's "Greatest Hits" program, it continued to sell well and went on to become the second-best-selling video game of 2002, behind only its sequel, Grand Theft Auto: Vice City. Grand Theft Auto III was bundled with Vice City for the Xbox Double Pack, which saw strong sales in December 2003, even though Grand Theft Auto III was two years old. The Double Pack's success for Xbox was due to several factors; the critical acclaim and controversial game content for the games, the graphical improvements specifically for the Xbox, and having two games in one, which led to GameSpy giving it their Best Value Award.
Through September 2007, Grand Theft Auto III had sold 12 million units according to Take-Two Interactive. By the following March, Grand Theft Auto III had sold 14.5 million units according to Take-Two Interactive. As of 2011, Grand Theft Auto III sold over 17.33 million units.[kilde mangler]
Legacy[redigér | redigér wikikode]
Although the Grand Theft Auto series had been an underground hit prior to the release of Grand Theft Auto III, it was this game that first brought the series mainstream success and widespread accolades. The success of the game resulted in two console and Microsoft Windows sequels (Vice City, San Andreas), both of which were able to build upon Grand Theft Auto III's success, as well as three additional titles for handheld consoles (Grand Theft Auto Advance, Grand Theft Auto: Liberty City Stories and Grand Theft Auto: Vice City Stories). The next generation in the series, Grand Theft Auto IV, released on 29 April 2008, also achieved a critical and commercial success. The first instalment in the fifth generation of the series, Grand Theft Auto V, was released on 17 September 2013.
In 2007, GamePro called Grand Theft Auto III the most important video game of all-time, explaining that the "game's open-ended gameplay elements have revolutionized the way all video games are made". Similarly, IGN ranked the game among the Top 10 Most Influential Games. In 2009, Game Informer placed Grand Theft Auto III 4th on their list of "The Top 200 Games of All Time", saying that it "changed the gaming landscape forever with its immersive open world sandbox". GamesRadar named it 'the most important game of the decade'. In November 2012, Time named it one of the 100 greatest video games of all time. Due to its success, video game critics and players have used the term "Grand Theft Auto clone" to describe subsequent video games released with similar mechanics and gameplay as Grand Theft Auto III.
Controversy[redigér | redigér wikikode]
Grand Theft Auto III was and remains controversial because of its violent and sexual content. One noticeable feature of Grand Theft Auto III is the ability to have "sex" with an in-game prostitute where the player character gets more health.
It was due to the notoriety of Grand Theft Auto III that the Wal-Mart chain of retail stores announced that, for games rated Mature ("M") by the ESRB, its staff would begin checking the identification of purchasers who appeared to be under 17.
GameSpy, which named Grand Theft Auto as "Game of the Year" in 2001, also gave it the title of "Most Offensive Game of the Year". GameSpy noted the difference between Grand Theft Auto III and other ESRB Mature rated games, saying "Counter-Strike is merely Cowboys and Indians writ large. When you get right down to it, deathmatches are just elaborate games of Tag. [Grand Theft Auto III] is a [t]hug [s]imulator... [Grand Theft Auto III] is absolutely reprehensible. This is a game that rewards you for causing mayhem. This is a game that is about causing mayhem. It's a game that rewards you for killing innocent people by the dozen."
After its initial release in Australia, the game was banned for a period and a censored version of the game was to be released in its place. A key reason why this course of action was taken was that Rockstar did not submit Grand Theft Auto III to the Office of Film and Literature Classification (OFLC), the body that, among other things, rates video games according to their content in Australia. Then lacking a suitable adult R18+ rating (the highest rating being MA15+), the game was "Refused Classification" and banned for sale (including to adults) because they felt that the game was unsuitable for minors. The PC version though was reported to be uncut with an MA15+.
While the Australian version of the prequel Grand Theft Auto: Vice City was censored by Rockstar (it was later rerated uncut retaining its MA15+), the next sequel Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas was not, despite featuring more "mature" content (although, later, San Andreas was once given a Refused Classification rating amid the "Hot Coffee" controversy but retained its MA15+ once edited worldwide).
On 20 October 2003, the families of Aaron Hamel and Kimberly Bede, two young people shot by teens William and Josh Buckner (who in statements to investigators claimed their actions were inspired by Grand Theft Auto III) filed a US$246 million lawsuit against publishers Rockstar Games and Take-Two Interactive Software, retailer Wal-Mart, and PlayStation 2 manufacturer Sony Computer Entertainment America. Rockstar and its parent company, Take-Two, filed for dismissal of the lawsuit, stating in US District Court on 29 October 2003 that the "ideas and concepts as well as the 'purported psychological effects' on the Buckners are protected by the First Amendment's free-speech clause". The lawyer of the victims, Jack Thompson, denied that and is attempting to move the lawsuit into a state court and under Tennessee's consumer protection act.
Spillets handling[redigér | redigér wikikode]
Den stumme, yderst kriminelle unge hovedperson, kaldet Claude (personen fremstår anonym, men kilder i spillet peger på det navn), har sammen med sin kæreste, Catalina, planlagt at røve en bank lige udenfor Liberty City. Bankrøveriet forløber planmæssigt, men tager en uventet drejning da kæresten stopper Claude uden for banken og skyder ham i brystet med en pistol.
Næste scene viser en overskrift i byens nyhedsavis Liberty City Tree, som fortæller om bankrøveriet. Man ser Claude i en fangetransport sammen med et par andre personer, der ligesom Claude er ved at blive transporteret. Fangetransporten bliver i midlertid stoppet, da en vogn fra gangster-gruppen The Columbian Cartel svinger ind foran fangetransporten og smider en bombe, der eksploderer midt på broen mellem de to bydele Portland Island og Staunton Island.
Claude flygter sammen med fangen "8 Ball" ud til et sted, som 8 Ball anviser. Her skifter man sit fangetøj ud med et attitudefyldt sæt, bestående af armygrønne cowboy-bukser og en sort læderjakke. 8 Ball har rødder i den italienske mafia (Leone Family Mafia). Herefter møder man bordelejer Luigi Goterelli, der sætter skub i Claudes kriminelle karriere ved at give ham et job. Dette fører straks til mere arbejde.
Herefter begynder Claude at arbejde fast for Leone Mafiaen og dennes tilhængere, heriblandt Luigi Goterelli, Joey Leone (søn af Salvator Leone), Toni Cipriani og mafiaens overhoved Salvator Leone.
Leone Familien falder dog Claude i ryggen. De vil myrde ham med en bilbombe, men Salvators pige, Maria Latore, tipper ham om bomben, og han søger tilflugt på Staunton Island. Her møder man Asuka Kasen, som leder den store japanske bande Yakuza. Hun hjælper med at få hævn, og man ender med at slå hele Leone Mafiaen ihjel.
Man udfører adskillige missioner for Yakuzaen og lægger sig ud med The Columbian Cartel, som ejer en stor del af Shoreside Wale. Historien fortsætter med, at man får besejret toppen af Cartellet, og efter man har reddet Maria (som er blevet en smule forelsket i Claude), er historien slut, og spillet er gennemført.
References[redigér | redigér wikikode]
- Spil i Grand Theft Auto serien som forgår i et fiktive univers, som deler indbyrdes forbundne plots og karakterer. 3D universet består af Grand Theft Auto III, Vice City (2002), Advance (2004), San Andreas (2004), Liberty City Stories (2005), og Vice City Stories (2006). Liberty City i Grand Theft Auto III er forskellig fra gengivelsen i Grand Theft Auto IV (2008).
- The sound of a gunshot, and the silencing of Maria's voice, has led to speculation that Claude killed Maria. Rockstar has refused to confirm this.
- "PlayStation 2 release dates". GameSpot. Hentet 8. august, 2006.
- "Windows release dates". GameSpot. Hentet 8. august, 2006.
- "Xbox release dates". GameSpot. Hentet 8. august, 2006.
- "Mac OS X release dates". GameSpot. Hentet 1. oktober, 2011.
- Skabelon:Title=iPhone release dates
- R*Q. Grand Theft Auto III: Your Questions Answered – Part One (Claude, Darkel & Other Characters). Rockstar Games. Hentet 22. januar 2016.
- Hare, James. Amiga Classic Reviews: Hunter. Reality Glitch Online. Hentet 26. januar 2016.
- Fahs, Travis (24. marts 2008). IGN: The Leif Ericson Awards. IGN. Hentet 26. januar 2016.
- Perry, Douglass (13. maj 2002). The Cars of Grand Theft Auto III - PC Feature at IGN. IGN. Hentet 28. januar 2016.
- Marriott, Scott. Grand Theft Auto III - Review. Allgame. Hentet 1 October 2011.
- Perry, Doug (22 October 2001). IGN: Grand Theft Auto III Review. IGN.com. Hentet 30 June 2008.
- Goldstein, Hilary (28 March 2008). GTA IV: Building a Brave New World. IGN. Hentet 23 April 2008.
- Paul Tassi (7 May 2010). A Size Comparison of Massive Open World Video Game Maps. Unreality Magazine. Hentet 9 November 2012.
- R* Q (December 15, 2011). Grand Theft Auto III: Your Questions Answered – Part One (Claude, Darkel & Other Characters). Rockstar Games. Hentet April 16, 2013.
- Blevins, Tal (27 May 2002). "Grand Theft Auto III (PC) Review". IGN. Hentet 24 September 2007.
- "Take-Two to revise and delay two PS2 games". GameSpot. Hentet 13 May 2006.
- "Release Delay Confirmed". GOURANGA!. Hentet 6 May 2006.
- "Playing the Sensitivity Game". Wired News. 28 September 2001. Hentet 6 May 2006.
- "R* Clarifies Release Date Reports". GOURANGA!. Hentet 6 May 2006.
- "GrandTheftAuto3.com & L-Tree Updated!". GOURANGA!. Hentet 6 May 2006.
- Tilemaxx (26 October 2008). Hidden beta characters have been found in GTA3. unseen64. Hentet 29 September 2011.
- "Grand Theft Auto: How Smart is the AI?". IGN. Hentet 6 May 2006.
- "Grand Theft Auto 3 Information (based on early pre-release game publications)". GOURANGA!. Hentet 6 May 2006.
- Bill Fiore at The Internet Movie Database. URL accessed on 13 May 2006.
- "Frequently Asked Questions for GTA III". GTAForums.com. Hentet 16 July 2006.
- "New GTA3 Details In Game Informer". GOURANGA!. Hentet 25 October 2006.
- How to fly with the Dodo in GTA III PC and PS2 (Explained with video annotations). YouTube. 3 December 2008. Hentet 11 February 2011.
- "GameSpot UK preview". GameSpot UK. Arkiveret fra originalen 11 June 2001.
- "Features, Vehicles & Weapons". GOURANGA!. Hentet 4 April 2007.
- Grand Theft Auto III: Your Questions Answered – Part Two (9/11, The "Ghost Town", The Dodo and Other Mysteries). Rockstar Games. 5 January 2012. Hentet 30 July 2013.
- Liberty City stories - Edge Magazine. Edge-online.com. 15 December 2011. Arkiveret fra originalen 19 May 2012. Hentet 23 March 2012.
- Grand Theft Auto III Reviews. Game Rankings. Hentet 1 July 2008.
- "Grand Theft Auto 3 Awards". Take-Two Interactive. Hentet 6 May 2006.
- Grand Theft Auto III (ps2: 2001): Reviews. Metacritic. Hentet 1 July 2008.
- "Greatest Games of All Time: Grand Theft Auto III". uk.gamespot.com. Hentet 22 September 2007.
- Bramwell, Tom (30 October 2001). Grand Theft Auto III - Review. Eurogamer. Hentet 14 July 2011.
- Jan 2002, p.126
- Marriott, Scott (23 October 2001). Grand Theft Auto - Review - allgame. Allgame. Hentet 14 July 2011.
- Dec 2001, p.87
- Alupului, Andre (31 October 2001). PlanetPS2 - A Member of The GameSpy Network. GameSpy. s. 1–3. Arkiveret fra originalen 6 April 2008. Hentet 1 July 2008.
- Mark Brown (15 December 2011). "Grand Theft Auto 3 Review". PocketGamer.co.uk. Hentet 18 December 2012.
- GameSpy: Grand Theft Auto Double Pack Preview. Xbox.gamespy.com. Hentet 11 February 2011.
- (Webcast: Windows Media Player, RealPlayer)Take-Two Interactive Software at Piper Jaffray Second Annual London Consumer Conference. Thomson Financial. 26 September 2007. Hentet 29 October 2007. "Grand Theft Auto III launched in 2001 and sold over 12 million units. We then shipped another sequel in 2002 which sold over 15 million units, Grand Theft Auto: Vice City. And then in 2004 we shipped Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas, which sold a remarkable 20 million units..."
- (PDF)Recommendation of the Board of Directors to Reject Electronic Arts Inc.'s Tender Offer. Take-Two Interactive Software, Inc.. 26 March 2008. s. 12. Arkiveret fra originalen 8 April 2008. Hentet 1 April 2008.
- Feature: The 52 Most Important Video Games of All Time (page 8 of 8). GamePro. 24 April 2007. Arkiveret fra originalen 7 June 2011. Hentet 26 August 2011.
- Ryan Geddes and Daemon Hatfield (10 December 2007). IGN's Top 10 Most Influential Games. IGN.com. Hentet 10 December 2007.
- The Game Informer staff (December 2009). "The Top 200 Games of All Time". Game Informer (200): 44–79. ISSN 1067-6392. OCLC 27315596.
- The top 20 most important games of the decade. GamesRadar. 1 January 2010. Hentet 11 February 2011.
- "All-TIME 100 Video Games". Time (Time Inc.). 15 November 2012. Arkiveret fra originalen 15 November 2012. Hentet 15 November 2012.
- OnlySP * (6 August 2012). Mod Brings Back GTA III To RAGE Engine. OnlySP. Hentet 12 May 2013.
- (16 December 2012). GTA III RAGE CLASSIC. GTA4-Mods. Hentet 12 May 2013.
- "Comparative Media: Prostitution". Brett's Footnotes. Hentet 11 December 2006.
- IGN presents the history of Grand Theft Auto.
- GameSpy.com - Game of the Year Awards - 2001. Archive.gamespy.com. Hentet 23 March 2012.
- "Australian GTAIII ban upheld". GameSpot. Hentet 6 May 2006.
- Rockstar North. Classification Database - GRAND THEFT AUTO: VICE CITY (MA 15+). Classification.gov.au. Hentet 11 February 2011. (Website ikke længere tilgængelig)
- "Lawsuit filed against Sony, Wal-Mart over game linked to shootings". CNN. Arkiveret fra originalen 3 May 2006. Hentet 6 May 2006.
- Calvert, Justin (22 October 2003). "Families sue over GTAIII-inspired shooting". GameSpot. Hentet 6 January 2012.
- Calvert, Justin (11 November 2003). "Rockstar seeks to dismiss GTAIII lawsuit". GameSpot. Hentet 6 January 2012.
Eksterne henvisninger[redigér | redigér wikikode]
- Officiel hjemmeside(engelsk)
- Grand Theft Auto III på Grand Theft Wiki
- Grand Theft Auto III fra Internet Archives Wayback Machine (arkiveret 2. januar 2006)