SARS-CoV-2

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Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)
Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2).
Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2).
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  • Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)
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Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2),[1][2] tidligere midlertidigt navngivet 2019-novel-coronavirus eller 2019-nCoV[3][4] og uformelt kendt som Wuhan-coronavirus,[5][6] er en ny type Corona-virus i familie med SARS. SARS-CoV-2 er en smitsom virus, som kan forårsage COVID-19, en luftvejsinfektion. Den menes at stamme fra millionbyen Wuhan i det centrale Kina. SARS-CoV-2 blev oprindeligt identificeret i midten af december 2019 i Wuhan, efter mange mennesker fik lungebetændelse af ukendte årsager, primært knyttet til dem, der arbejdede på Huanan Seafood Market (華南 海鮮 市場), hvor der sælges levende dyr. Kinesiske forskere isolerede derefter den nye coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, som har vist sig at være mindst 70 % identisk med gensekvensen hos SARS-CoV. Den har dog endnu ikke vist sig at være så alvorligt eller så dødbringende som SARS. 20. januar 2020 bekræftede de kinesiske myndigheder og WHO, at virussen kan smitte fra menneske-til-menneske,[7] Og med 7.700 personer smittet og 170 dødsfald erklærede WHO d. 30. januar 2020 den potentielt dødelige SARS-CoV-2 for en international sundhedskrise.[8] I slutningen af januar vurderede kinesiske myndigheder virusset til at være en kategori B-sygdom på linje med AIDS, SARS og polio. Ikke desto mindre håndterede myndighederne det som en kategori A-sygdom, som Kina ellers kun har to af, nemlig kolera og byldepest.[9]

Oprindelse[redigér | rediger kildetekst]

Den 22. januar 2020 udgav Journal of Medical Virology en rapport med en genomisk analyse, som overvejer at slanger i Wuhan-området er citat: "the most probable wildlife animal reservoir" for virusen. Mere forskning på området er dog påkrævet.[10][11]

En homolog rekombinationshændelse kan have blandet en "clade A"-virus (flagermus SARS-lignende vira CoVZC45 og CoVZXC21) med RNA-binding af en indtil videre ukendt Beta-CoV.[12][13]

SARS-CoV-2's formodede genomorganisation. (GenBank-nummer MN908947)[14]

Isolaten Wuhan-Hu-1 (GenBank-nummer MN908947[14]) af SARS-CoV-2 viser store fylogenetiske ligheder med to coronavirus-isolater fra kinesiske flagermus, som blev karakteriseret i 2015 og 2017.[15]

Isolatens virusgenom omfatter 29.875 bp med 281 bp henholdsvis 325 bp lange uoversatte områder ved 5'-enden og henholdsvis 3'-enden. De formodede kodende områder fordeler sig på 10 proteiner: et 7096 aminosyre langt ORF1ab-polyprotein, et 1282 aminosyre langt overflade-glykoprotein kaldet spike, et 75 aminosyre hylsterprotein (E), et 222 AS membranglykoprotein (M), et 419 AS nukleokapsid-fosfoprotein og yderligere 5 proteiner (ORF3a, ORF6, ORF7a, ORF8 og ORF10). Disse udgør genfølgen i SARS-virus og alle coronavira.[16]

Varianter[redigér | rediger kildetekst]

Helgenomssekventering af SARS-CoV-2 og indføring i databaser kan give et overblik over genetiske mutation i virussens genom. GISAID-databasen indeholder sådanne genomdata og analyser af genomet ses også i forbindelse med Nextstrain.[17]

Det findes [mindst] titusenvis[18] af varianter af viruset.[19] I Norden har man fundet varianter af viruset; således har man i Norge konstateret "over 40"[20] variationer.[21]

En person med svækket immunsystem fik igennem sit COVID-19-sygdomsforløb en længere række af mutationer, særligt i spike-proteinet.[22]

Notable varianter
  • B.1.617 er den dominerende variant i Indien [63]
  • B.1.617.2. varianten kendes som “delta” og er mere smitsom [64]


Oversigt
First detection Klassificering
(Rambaut et al.)
Andre navne Notable mutationer Ref.
Sted Dato
Nigeria Nigeria aug 2020 B.1.1.207 P681H [2]
Storbritannien Storbritannien sep 2020 B.1.1.7 VOC-202012/01, 20I/501Y.V1 N501Y, 69–70del, P681H [2][67][68][69]
Danmark Danmark okt 2020 -- Cluster 5, ΔFVI-spike (SSI) Y453F, 69–70deltaHV [24][26][27]
Sydafrika Sydafrika dec 2020 B.1.351 501.V2, 20H/501Y.V2,

VOC-202012/02

N501Y, K417N, E484K [2][50][70][67][71][72][73]
Japan Japan
Brasilien Brasilien
jan 2021 P.1 Stammer fra B.1.1.28 N501Y, E484K, K417T [70][74][65][75][67]
Storbritannien Storbritannien
Nigeria Nigeria
dec 2020 B.1.525 VUI-202102/03 (PHE), tidligere UK1188 E484K, F888L [76][62][59]

WHO navngivning af varianter[redigér | rediger kildetekst]

I nyhedsmedierne blev flere varianter navngivet efter det land, som varianten først blev konstateret i, for eksempel den "britiske variant" eller "engelske variant" for (B.1.1.7) og senere blandt andre også en "sydafrikansk" (B.1.351) og en "indisk" (B.1.617.2). Den Indiske regering beklagede i maj 2021, at mutationer fik landenavne. Den 31. maj besluttede WHO at mutationerne i stedet skulle benævnes med bogstaver fra det græske alfabet, således kom den "britiske variant" til af hedde "alpha", den "sydafrikanske variant" blev til "beta" og den "indiske variant" benævnt som "delta".[77]

Notable missense-mutationer[redigér | rediger kildetekst]

Missense-mutationer:

  • D614G: En af de betydelige ændringer i SARS-CoV-2-genomet under COVID-19-pandemien forekom i receptorbindingsdomænet, nærmere bestemt spike-proteinets D614G-mutation. D614-varianten dominerede oprindeligt men blev udkonkurreret af G614-varianten.[78]
  • E484K[72][65][79][80], mutationen dannes på spike-proteinet på overfladen af viruset. Denne ændringen findes hos den [såkallede] sørafrikanske variant og hos den [såkallede] brasilianske variant, skriver medierne.[81]

Nomenklatur af varianter[redigér | rediger kildetekst]

Nomenklatur [92]
Pango udviklingslinjer Rambaut et al.[93] Nextstrain klade, 2021[94] GISAID klade Notable varianter
A.1–A.6 19B S inkluderer "sekvens null" (sequence zero)[95]
B.3–B.7, B.9, B.10, B.13–B.16 19A L
O[a]
B.2 V
B.1 B.1.5–B.1.72 20A G Udviklingslinje B.1 hos Rambaut et al.
B.1.9, B.1.13, B.1.22, B.1.26, B.1.37 GH
B.1.3–B.1.66 20C Inkluderer CAL.20C[55]
20G
20H I 501.V2 også kendt som (20C/501Y.V2 or) 20H/501Y.V2 eller B.1.351 lineage
B.1.1 20B GR Inkluderer B.1.1.207
20D Inkluderer P.1 og P.2[96]
20F
20I Inkluderer VOC-202012/01 også kendt som (20B/501Y.V1 eller) 20I/501Y.V1 eller udviklingslinje B.1.1.7
B.1.177 20E (EU1)[94] GV[a] Fra 20A[94]


Se også[redigér | rediger kildetekst]

Kilder/henvisninger[redigér | rediger kildetekst]

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  97. ^ "clade tree (from 'Clade and lineage nomenclature')". www.gisaid.org. 4 July 2020. Hentet 7 January 2021. 

Eksterne henvisninger[redigér | rediger kildetekst]


Fodnotefejl: <ref>-tags eksisterer for en gruppe betegnet "lower-alpha", men der blev ikke fundet et tilsvarende {{reflist|group="lower-alpha"}}, eller et afsluttende </ref>-tag mangler