|Academy Award for Best Actor|
|Awarded for||"Performance by an actor in a leading role"|
|Presented by||Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences|
|First awarded||1929 (for performances in films released in 1927/1928)|
|First winner||Emil Jannings, |
The Last Command and The Way of All Flesh (1927)
|Currently held by||Sean Penn, |
Performance by an Actor in a Leading Role is one of the Academy Awards of Merit presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) to recognize an actor who has delivered an outstanding performance while working within the film industry. Prior to the 49th Academy Awards ceremony (1977), this award was simply known as the Academy Award of Merit for Performance by an Actor. Since its inception, however, the award has commonly been referred to as the Oscar for Best Actor. While actors are nominated for this award by Academy members who are actors and actresses themselves, winners are selected by the Academy membership as a whole.
History[redigér | redigér wikikode]
Throughout the past 81 years, accounting for ties and repeat winners, AMPAS has presented a total of 82 Best Actor awards to 73 different actors. Winners of this Academy Award of Merit receive the familiar Oscar statuette, depicting a gold-plated knight holding a crusader's sword and standing on a reel of film. The first recipient was Emil Jannings, who was honored at the 1st Academy Awards ceremony (1929) for his performances in The Last Command and The Way of All Flesh. The most recent recipient was Sean Penn, who was honored at the 81st Academy Awards ceremony (2009) for his performance as history-making politician Harvey Milk in Milk.
In the first three years of the Academy Awards, individuals such as actors and directors were nominated as the best in their categories. At that time, all of their work during the qualifying period (as many as three films, in some cases) was listed after the award. However, during the 3rd Academy Awards ceremony (1930), only one of those films was cited in each winner's final award, even though each of the acting winners had had two films following their names on the ballots. For the 4th Academy Awards ceremony (1931), this unwieldy and confusing system was replaced by the current system in which an actor is nominated for a specific performance in a single film. Such nominations are limited to five per year. Until the 8th Academy Awards ceremony (1936), nominations for the Best Actor award were intended to include all actors, whether the performance was in either a leading or supporting role. At the 9th Academy Awards ceremony (1937), however, the Best Supporting Actor category was specifically introduced as a distinct award following complaints that the single Best Actor category necessarily favored leading performers with the most screen time. Nonetheless, Lionel Barrymore had received a Best Actor award (A Free Soul, 1931) and Franchot Tone a Best Actor nomination (Mutiny on the Bounty, 1936) for their performances in clear supporting roles. Currently, Performance by an Actor in a Leading Role, Performance by an Actress in a Leading Role, Performance by an Actor in a Supporting Role, and Performance by an Actress in a Supporting Role constitute the four Academy Awards of Merit for acting annually presented by AMPAS.
Other awards for acting[redigér | redigér wikikode]
Actors have also received special awards, or Academy Honorary Awards, for acting in specific films (such as in the case of James Baskett, who received a special honorary award for Disney's Song of the South). Child actors have also been awarded the Academy Juvenile Award.
Superlatives[redigér | redigér wikikode]
|Superlative||Best Actor||Best Supporting Actor||Overall|
|Actor with most awards||Spencer Tracy
|2||Walter Brennan||3||Walter Brennan
|Actor with most nominations||Spencer Tracy
|Actor with most nominations without ever winning||Peter O'Toole||8||Claude Rains
|Film with most nominations||Mutiny on the Bounty||3||On the Waterfront
The Godfather Part II
|3||On the Waterfront
The Godfather Part II
|Oldest winner||Henry Fonda||76||George Burns||80||George Burns||80|
|Oldest nominee||Richard Farnsworth||79||Hal Holbrook||82||Hal Holbrook||82|
|Youngest winner||Adrien Brody||29||Timothy Hutton||20||Timothy Hutton||20|
|Youngest nominee||Jackie Cooper||9||Justin Henry||8||Justin Henry||8|
Nine men have won the Best Actor award twice. In chronological order, they are: Spencer Tracy (1937, 1938), Fredric March (1932, 1946), Gary Cooper (1941, 1952), Marlon Brando (1954, 1972), Dustin Hoffman (1979, 1988), Tom Hanks (1993, 1994), Jack Nicholson (1975, 1997), Daniel Day-Lewis (1989, 2007), and Sean Penn (2003, 2008). Of these, all were Americans except for Daniel Day-Lewis. Tracy and Hanks were the only actors to win their awards in consecutive years. Furthermore, Tracy and Hanks were the same age at the time they received their Academy Awards: 37 for the first and 38 for the second.
The actors with the most nominations in this category are Spencer Tracy and Laurence Olivier, with nine each. Paul Newman, Jack Nicholson, and Peter O'Toole tie for third place with eight nominations each. Nicholson won his awards a record 22 years apart. O'Toole holds the record for the longest time span between his first and last nominations (44 years), and he also holds the record for the greatest number of nominations without ever winning the award (eight).
Two actors have won an Academy Award (Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor) for portraying the same character, that of Don Vito Corleone in The Godfather and The Godfather Part II, respectively. The actors were Marlon Brando and Robert De Niro.
There has been only one announced tie in the history of this category. In 1932, Fredric March received one more vote than Wallace Beery. Academy rules at that time considered such a close margin to be a tie, so both March and Beery received the award. Under the current Academy rules, however, dual awards are only given for exact ties. While that has never happened for the Best Actor award, it did happen for the Best Actress award in 1969.
Peter Finch is the only posthumous winner of the Best Actor award, though he was alive when his nomination was announced (the only other posthumous winner in any acting category was another Australian, Heath Ledger, who won the Best Supporting Actor award in 2009). The only posthumously nominated performers in this category were James Dean, Spencer Tracy, and Massimo Troisi. Dean was posthumously nominated twice.
Three actors have been nominated for Best Actor more than once for the same character: Bing Crosby as Father O'Malley in Going My Way and The Bells of St. Mary's; Peter O'Toole as King Henry II in Becket and The Lion in Winter; and Paul Newman as "Fast Eddie" Felson in The Hustler and The Color of Money. (Al Pacino was nominated in 1975 for a role for which he had previously been nominated for Best Supporting Actor, Michael Corleone, in The Godfather Part II.)
Michael Douglas (1988, Wall Street) and Laurence Olivier (1949, Hamlet) are the only two actors to win the Academy Award for Best Actor and Best Picture (Douglas as a producer of One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest in 1976, and Olivier as producer of Hamlet). Olivier is also the only actor to win for acting and producing in the same year. Other Oscar nominees for Best Actor and Best Picture are: Clint Eastwood (acting nominations for Unforgiven, 1993, and Million Dollar Baby, 2005, winner for both in the Best Picture category); Kevin Costner, Best Actor nominee for Dances with Wolves and winning producer for the same film, in 1991; Paul Newman, Best Actor winner for The Color of Money and a Best Picture nominee for Rachel, Rachel in 1969; and Henry Fonda, Best Actor winner for On Golden Pond and a Best Picture nominee for 12 Angry Men in 1958.
Barry Fitzgerald is the only actor to be nominated for both Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor for the same character in the same year (as Father Fitzgibbon for Going My Way). Afterward, the rules were changed to disallow this.
Several pairs of actors have been nominated for playing the same character or historical figure: Fredric March and James Mason as Norman Maine in 1937's A Star Is Born and the 1954 version, Robert Donat and Peter O'Toole as Chipping in 1939's Goodbye, Mr. Chips and the 1969 version, Laurence Olivier and Kenneth Branagh as Henry V in 1944's Henry V and the 1989 version (both of which were directed by their stars), Charles Laughton and Richard Burton as Henry VIII in The Private Life of Henry VIII and Anne of the Thousand Days, Leslie Howard and Rex Harrison as Professor Henry Higgins in Pygmalion and My Fair Lady, José Ferrer and Gerard Depardieu as Cyrano de Bergerac in 1950's Cyrano de Bergerac and the 1990 version, Robert Montgomery and Warren Beatty as Joe Pendleton in Here Comes Mr. Jordan and Heaven Can Wait, and Anthony Hopkins and Frank Langella as Richard Nixon in Nixon and Frost/Nixon. Robert De Niro won Best Supporting Actor for playing Vito Corleone in The Godfather Part II, the role for which Marlon Brando had previously won Best Actor.
Laurence Olivier is the only actor to have won an Oscar for a Shakespearean performance: Best Actor for Hamlet (1948). Olivier also received an Academy Honorary Award for Henry V (1944), which Olivier described as a "fub-off".
Two actors directed their own Oscar-winning performances: Laurence Olivier in Hamlet and Roberto Benigni in Life Is Beautiful. To date, however, no individual has won both Best Actor and Best Director.
Two winners have declined the award: George C. Scott, who won for Patton in 1971 (he had also declined his 1962 nomination for Best Supporting Actor for The Hustler); and Marlon Brando, upon winning his second Oscar for The Godfather in 1973.
A few early winning and nominated performances have subsequently been lost, including Emil Jannings in The Way of All Flesh (1928), Lewis Stone in The Patriot (1928), and Lawrence Tibbett in The Rogue Song (1930), of which only a short fragment and the soundtrack survives.
The earliest nominee in this category who is still alive is Jackie Cooper (1931), followed by Mickey Rooney (1940). The earliest winner in this category who is still alive is Ernest Borgnine (1956), followed by Maximilian Schell (1962)—both won over Spencer Tracy and starred in the films for which Tracy was nominated. The few remaining living nominees from the 1940s–50s Hollywood era include Kirk Douglas (3 nominations) and Tony Curtis (1 nomination). Sidney Poitier also received his first nomination in 1958 with Curtis.
The distance of the two-time winners are Spencer Tracy (1 year), Tom Hanks (1 year), Sean Penn (5 years), Dustin Hoffman (9 years), Gary Cooper (11 years), Fredric March (14 years), Marlon Brando (18 years), Daniel Day-Lewis (18 years), and Jack Nicholson (22 years).
Multiple nominations[redigér | redigér wikikode]
The following actors have received multiple Best Actor nominations. The list is sorted by the number of total awards (with the number of total nominations listed in parentheses).
Life expectancy of winners[redigér | redigér wikikode]
"Winning an Academy Award was associated with a large gain in life expectancy for actors and actresses...Winning an Academy Award can increase a performer’s stature and may add to their longevity. The absolute difference in life expectancy is about equal to the societal consequence of curing all cancers in all people for all time (22, 23). Moreover, movie stars who have won multiple Academy Awards have a survival advantage of 6.0 years (CI, 0.7 to 11.3 years) over performers with multiple films but no victories. Formal education is not the only way to improve health, and strict poverty is not the only way to worsen health. The main implication is that higher status may be linked to lower mortality rates even at very impressive levels of achievement."
The aforementioned authors did an update to 29 March 2006 in which they found 122 more individuals and 144 more deaths since their first publication. Their unadjusted analysis showed a smaller survival advantage of 3.6 years for winners compared to their fellow nominees and costars in the films in which their performance garnered them their award. However, in a 2006 published study by Marie-Pierre Sylvestre, MSc, Ella Huszti, MSc, and James A. Hanley, PhD, the authors found:
"The statistical method used to derive this statistically significant difference gave winners an unfair advantage because it credited an Oscar winner's years of life before winning toward survival subsequent to winning. When the authors of the current article reanalyzed the data using methods that avoided this "immortal time" bias, the survival advantage was closer to 1 year and was not statistically significant. The bias in Redelmeier and Singh's study is not limited to longevity comparisons of persons who reach different ranks within their profession."
Winners and nominees[redigér | redigér wikikode]
Following the Academy's practice, the films below are listed by year of their Los Angeles qualifying run, which is usually (but not always) the film's year of release. For example, the Oscar for Best Actor of 1999 was announced during the award ceremony held in 2000. Winners are listed first in bold, followed by the other nominees.
1920s[redigér | redigér wikikode]
- 1927–1928 Emil Jannings - The Last Command as Gen. Dolgorucki / Grand Duke Sergius Alexander and The Way of All Flesh as August Schilling
- 1928–1929 Warner Baxter - In Old Arizona as The Cisco Kid
- 1929–1930 George Arliss - Disraeli as Benjamin Disraeli
- George Arliss - The Green Goddess as The Raja of Rukh
- Wallace Beery - The Big House as 'Machine Gun' Butch Schmidt
- Maurice Chevalier - The Big Pond as Pierre Mirande and The Love Parade as Count Alfred Renard
- Ronald Colman - Bulldog Drummond as Capt. Hugh 'Bulldog' Drummond and Condemned as Michel
- Lawrence Tibbett - The Rogue Song as Yegor
1930s[redigér | redigér wikikode]
- 1930–1931 Lionel Barrymore - A Free Soul as Stephen Ashe
- 1931–1932 Fredric March - Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde as Dr. Henry L. Jekyll / Mr. Hyde
Wallace Beery - The Champ as Champ (tie)
- 1932–1933 Charles Laughton - The Private Life of Henry VIII as King Henry VIII of England
- 1934 Clark Gable - It Happened One Night as Peter Warne
- 1935 Victor McLaglen - The Informer as Gypo Nolan
- 1936 Paul Muni - The Story of Louis Pasteur as Louis Pasteur
- 1937 Spencer Tracy - Captains Courageous as Manuel
- 1938 Spencer Tracy - Boys Town as Father Flanagan
- 1939 Robert Donat - Goodbye, Mr. Chips as Mr. Chips
1940s[redigér | redigér wikikode]
- 1940 James Stewart - The Philadelphia Story as Macaulay Connor
- 1941 Gary Cooper - Sergeant York as Alvin C. York
- 1942 James Cagney - Yankee Doodle Dandy as George M. Cohan
- 1943 Paul Lukas - Watch on the Rhine as Kurt Muller
- 1944 Bing Crosby - Going My Way as Father Chuck O'Malley
- 1945 Ray Milland - The Lost Weekend as Don Birnam
- 1946 Fredric March - The Best Years of Our Lives as Al Stephenson
- 1947 Ronald Colman - A Double Life as Anthony John
- 1948 Laurence Olivier - Hamlet as Hamlet, Prince of Denmark
- 1949 Broderick Crawford - All the King's Men as Willie Stark
1950s[redigér | redigér wikikode]
- 1950 José Ferrer - Cyrano de Bergerac as Cyrano de Bergerac
- 1951 Humphrey Bogart - The African Queen as Charlie Allnut
- 1952 Gary Cooper - High Noon as Marshal Will Kane
- 1953 William Holden - Stalag 17 as Sgt. J.J. Sefton
- 1954 Marlon Brando - On the Waterfront as Terry Malloy
- 1955 Ernest Borgnine - Marty as Marty Piletti
- 1956 Yul Brynner - The King and I as King Mongkut of Siam
- 1957 Alec Guinness - The Bridge on the River Kwai as Colonel Nicholson
- 1958 David Niven - Separate Tables as Major Angus Pollock
- 1959 Charlton Heston - Ben-Hur as Judah Ben-Hur
1960s[redigér | redigér wikikode]
- 1960 Burt Lancaster - Elmer Gantry as Elmer Gantry
- 1961 Maximilian Schell - Judgment at Nuremberg as Hans Rolfe
- 1962 Gregory Peck - To Kill a Mockingbird as Atticus Finch
- 1963 Sidney Poitier - Lilies of the Field as Homer Smith
- 1964 Rex Harrison - My Fair Lady as Professor Henry Higgins
- 1965 Lee Marvin - Cat Ballou as Kid Shelleen/Tim Strawn
- 1966 Paul Scofield - A Man for All Seasons as Sir Thomas More
- 1967 Rod Steiger - In the Heat of the Night as Police Chief Bill Gillespie
- 1968 Cliff Robertson - Charly as Charly Gordon
- 1969 John Wayne - True Grit as Marshal Reuben J. 'Rooster' Cogburn
1970s[redigér | redigér wikikode]
- 1970 George C. Scott - Patton as Gen. George S. Patton Jr. (declined)
- 1971 Gene Hackman - The French Connection as Jimmy "Popeye" Doyle
- 1972 Marlon Brando - The Godfather as Don Vito Corleone (declined)
- 1973 Jack Lemmon - Save the Tiger as Harry Stoner
- 1974 Art Carney - Harry and Tonto as Harry Coombes
- 1975 Jack Nicholson - One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest as R.P. McMurphy
- 1976 Peter Finch - Network as Howard Beale (posthumous win)
- 1977 Richard Dreyfuss - The Goodbye Girl as Elliot Garfield
- 1978 Jon Voight - Coming Home as Luke Martin
- 1979 Dustin Hoffman - Kramer vs. Kramer as Ted Kramer
1980s[redigér | redigér wikikode]
- 1980 Robert De Niro - Raging Bull as Jake LaMotta
- 1981 Henry Fonda - On Golden Pond as Norman Thayer
- 1982 Ben Kingsley - Gandhi as Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
- 1983 Robert Duvall - Tender Mercies as Mac Sledge
- 1984 F. Murray Abraham - Amadeus as Antonio Salieri
- 1985 William Hurt - Kiss of the Spider Woman as Luis Molina
- 1986 Paul Newman - The Color of Money as Fast Eddie Felson
- 1987 Michael Douglas - Wall Street as Gordon Gekko
- 1988 Dustin Hoffman - Rain Man as Raymond Babbitt
- 1989 Daniel Day-Lewis - My Left Foot as Christy Brown
1990s[redigér | redigér wikikode]
- 1990 Jeremy Irons - Reversal of Fortune as Claus von Bülow
- 1991 Anthony Hopkins - The Silence of the Lambs as Hannibal Lecter
- 1992 Al Pacino - Scent of a Woman as Lieutenant Colonel Frank Slade
- 1993 Tom Hanks - Philadelphia as Andrew Beckett
- 1994 Tom Hanks - Forrest Gump as Forrest Gump
- 1995 Nicolas Cage - Leaving Las Vegas as Ben Sanderson
- 1996 Geoffrey Rush - Shine as David Helfgott
- 1997 Jack Nicholson - As Good as It Gets as Melvin Udall
- 1998 Roberto Benigni - Life Is Beautiful as Guido Orefice
- 1999 Kevin Spacey - American Beauty as Lester Burnham
2000s[redigér | redigér wikikode]
- 2000 Russell Crowe - Gladiator as Maximus Decimus Meridius
- 2001 Denzel Washington - Training Day as Alonzo Harris
- 2002 Adrien Brody - The Pianist as Władysław Szpilman
- 2003 Sean Penn - Mystic River as Jimmy Markum
- 2004 Jamie Foxx - Ray as Ray Charles
- 2005 Philip Seymour Hoffman - Capote as Truman Capote
- 2006 Forest Whitaker - The Last King of Scotland as Idi Amin
- 2007 Daniel Day-Lewis - There Will Be Blood as Daniel Plainview
- 2008 Sean Penn - Milk as Harvey Milk
- 2009 TBA
International presence[redigér | redigér wikikode]
As the Academy Awards are based in the United States and are centered on the Hollywood film industry, the majority of Academy Award nominees have been Americans. Nonetheless, there is significant international presence at the awards, as evidenced by the following list of nominees for the Academy Award for Best Actor.
- Australia: Peter Finch, Geoffrey Rush, Heath Ledger, Russell Crowe
- Austria: Maximilian Schell, Oskar Werner, Paul Muni
- The Bahamas: Sidney Poitier
- Canada: Ryan Gosling, Alexander Knox, Raymond Massey, Walter Pidgeon
- France: Charles Boyer, Maurice Chevalier, Gérard Depardieu
- Germany: Emil Jannings
- Ireland: Peter O'Toole, Liam Neeson, Stephen Rea, Richard Harris, Barry Fitzgerald, Daniel Day-Lewis (Day-Lewis holds dual citizenship of the United Kingdom and Ireland, and currently resides in County Wicklow, Ireland.)
- Israel: Chaim Topol
- Italy: Roberto Benigni, Marcello Mastroianni, Massimo Troisi, Giancarlo Giannini
- Mexico: Anthony Quinn
- New Zealand: Russell Crowe
- Puerto Rico: José Ferrer
- Russia: Yul Brynner
- Spain: Javier Bardem
- United Kingdom: George Arliss, Kenneth Branagh, Michael Caine, Ronald Colman, Daniel Day-Lewis, Robert Donat, Ralph Fiennes, Colin Firth, Alec Guinness, Rex Harrison, Nigel Hawthorne, Anthony Hopkins, Jeremy Irons, Ben Kingsley, Charles Laughton, Jude Law, Ian McKellen, Victor McLaglen, Ray Milland, David Niven, Laurence Olivier, Paul Scofield, Richard Todd, Tom Wilkinson
At the 37th Academy Awards (1965), for the first time in history, all four of the top acting honors were awarded to non-Americans: Rex Harrison, Julie Andrews, Peter Ustinov, and Lila Kedrova. This occurred for the second time at the 80th Academy Awards (2008), when all four acting categories were similarly represented: Daniel Day-Lewis, Marion Cotillard, Javier Bardem, and Tilda Swinton.
See also[redigér | redigér wikikode]
- List of Best Actor winners by age at win
- List of actors nominated for Academy Awards for foreign language performances
- List of actors nominated for two Academy Awards in the same year
- List of actors with two or more Academy Awards in acting categories
References[redigér | redigér wikikode]
- Redelmeier, Donald A. & Singh, Sheldon M. (15 May 2001), "Survival in Academy Award–Winning Actors and Actresses" (PDF), Annals of Internal Medicine: 961, hentet 14 Jan 2009.
- Redelmeier, Donald A. & Singh, Sheldon M. (5 Sep 2006), "Reanalysis of Survival of Oscar Winners" (PDF), Annals of Internal Medicine: 392, hentet 14 Jan 2009.
- Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre, Huszti, Ella & Hanley, James A. (5 Sep 2006), "Do Oscar Winners Live Longer than Less Successful Peers? A Reanalysis of the Evidence" (PDF), Annals of Internal Medicine: 361, hentet 14 Jan 2009.
- Oscars.org (official Academy site)
- Oscar.com (official ceremony promotional site)
- The Academy Awards Database (official site)
- Complete Downloadable List of Academy Award Nominees
- Photos of the Nominees for Best Actor from (People.com)