Kurdere

Fra Wikipedia, den frie encyklopædi
(Omdirigeret fra Kurder)
Gå til: navigation, søg
Kurdere
Kurdscostunme.jpg
Traditionel kurdisk klædedragt, 1873
Antal og fordeling
Antal i alt ca. 40/50 millioner
Kurdistan:
* Tyrkiet Tyrkiet: ca. 20-25 millioner [1] [2]
* Iran Iran: 10-15 millioner [3][4]
* Irak Irak: 9,85 millioner [5]
* Syrien Syrien: 4,6 millioner [6]
* Afghanistan Afghanistan: 200.000 [7]
* Aserbajdsjan Aserbajdsjan: 150.000 [7]
* Israel Israel: 150.000 [8]
* Kasakhstan Kasakhstan: 150.000 [9]
* Libanon Libanon: 80.000 til 120.000 [7][10][11]
* Georgien Georgien: 34.000 til 60.000 [12]
* Armenien Armenien: 45.000 [7]
* Turkmenistan Turkmenistan: 40.000 [7]
* Tyskland Tyskland: 500.000 til 800.000 [7]
[13]
* Frankrig Frankrig: 120.000 [13]
* Holland Holland: 70.000 [13]
* Schweiz Schweiz: 60.000 [13]
* Østrig Østrig: 50.000 [13]
* Storbritannien Storbritannien: 25.000 til 80.000 [7]
[13]
* Danmark Danmark: 8.000 til 30.000 [14]
* Grækenland Grækenland: 20.000 til 25.000 [13]
* USA USA: 40.000 [15]
* Canada Canada: 6.000 [7]
Etnografi
Race:
Sprog: Kurdisk,
persisk, tyrkisk eller arabisk ofte som andetsprog
svensk, tysk, fransk og engelsk er andetsprog blandt emmigranter.
Religion: Hovedsageligt sunni-muslimer
samt mindre grupper af forskellige shia-muslimske grupper, ezidier, jøder og kristne.
Levevis:
Udbredelse
Kurdish-inhabited area by CIA (1992).jpg
Kurdernes tætteste udbredelsesområde

Kurderne er en del af de iranske folk,[16][17][18][19][20][21][22] de er hjemmehørende i grænseområdet mellem Tyrkiet, Irak og Iran samt områder i Syrien og Armenien. Første gang kurderne nævnes i skriftlige kilder er hos Xenofon i det gamle Grækenland. I 1100-tallet blev det kurdiske dynasti, Ajjubide-slægten, herre over store dele af Mellemøsten, heriblandt Libyen, Egypten, Syrien, Palæstina, Jordan, sydlige Tyrkiet, nordlige Irak, Yemen, og de hellige byer Medina og Mekka. Dette dynastis mest prominente personlighed er Salah ad-Din (Saladin). Ajjubiderne tilbageerobrede Jerusalem og var næsten ved at smide de sidste korsfarere ud af Det Hellige Land.

At kurderne er et sammensat folkeslag fremgår nok tydeligst af kurdisk, deres sprog – her ment i flertal, da de irakiske kurdere taler en ud af 3 dialekter (overvejende Sorani). Blandt de iranske kurdere taler de fleste Sorani eller persisk mens de fleste tyrkiske kurdere taler Kurmanji.

De fleste kurdere i Irak, Iran, Syrien og Tyrkiet lærer også arabisk, tyrkisk eller persisk, altså det officielle sprog i deres land. Det er nødvendigt, da undervisning foregår på landenes officielle sprog

Kurderne har aldrig haft nogen nationalstat, men forskellige grupper i området har i mange år kæmpet for at oprette et selvstændigt Kurdistan.

Referencer[redigér | redigér wikikode]

  1. (Engelsk) More than 30 percent are Kurds., Over 22.5 million Kurds live in Turkey, new Turkish statistics reveal
  2. (Engelsk) CIA Factbook giver et tal på omkring 15 millioner
  3. Skøn baseret på 7% af 68.688.433: CIA World Factbook CIA World Factbook; Iran; Encyclopedia of the Orient, ed. Tore Kjeilen: Iran:Religions and Peoples, (N.P.:Lexorient, 2006)
  4. An estimated 12 million Kurds live in Iran, mostly in the northwest of the country bordering Kurdish-majority areas of Iraq and Turkey. Iranian Kurds Fight Discrimination, Hope for Change
  5. (Engelsk) The population of the Kurdistan Region reached to 8.35 million. Refugee Arrival Increases Kurdistan Region Population
  6. Rojava’s population has nearly doubled to about 4.6 million. In Iraq and Syria, it's too little, too late
  7. 7,0 7,1 7,2 7,3 7,4 7,5 7,6 7,7 (Engelsk) The Kurdish Diaspora, Institut Kurde de Paris (Paris: Institut Kurde de Paris, 2006)
  8. Lokman I. Meho, The Kurds and Kurdistan: A General Background i Kurdish Culture and Society: An Annotated Bibliography. Comp. Lokman I. Meho & Kelly Maglaughlin (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001), 4.
  9. [1] i The Kurdish population of Kazakhstan is approximately 150,000.; Kazakhstan: A paradise for ethnic minorities.
  10. [2] i Between 60,000 and 90,000, with more than two-thirds of them living in the capital Beirut; The Kurdish Community In Lebanon.
  11. [3] i The nearly 120,000 Northern Kurd of Lebanon are actually part of a much greater Kurd population.; The Northern Kurd of Lebanon.
  12. Kurds in Georgia i Eurominority: Portal of European Stateless Nations and Minorities (Quimper, France: Organization for the European Minorities, 2006); The Kurdish Diaspora.
  13. 13,0 13,1 13,2 13,3 13,4 13,5 13,6 The cultural situation of the Kurds, A report by Lord Russell-Johnston, Council of Europe, Juli 2006
  14. Der eksisterer ingen officielle opgørelser. De følgende skøn er lavet:
  15. Kurds Cultivating Their Own Bonds With U.S.
  16. Bois, Th.; Minorsky, V.; Bois, Th.; Bois, Th.; MacKenzie, D.N.; Bois, Th. "Kurds, Kurdistan." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman , Th. Bianquis , C.E. Bosworth , E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2009. Brill Online. <> Excerpt 1:"The Kurds, an Iranian people of the Near East, live at the junction of more or less laicised Turkey" *Michael G. Morony, "Iraq After the Muslim Conquest", Gorgias Press LLC, 2005. pg 265: "Kurds were the only smaller ethnic group native to Iraq. As with the Persians, their presence along the northeastern edge of Iraq was merely an extension of their presence in Western Iran. All of the non-Persian, tribal, pastoral, Iranian groups in the foothills and the mountains of the Zagros range along the eastern fringes of Iraq were called Kurds at that time."
  17. G. Asatrian, Prolegomena to the Study of the Kurds, Iran and the Caucasus, Vol.13, pp.1-58, 2009: "The ancient history of the Kurds, as in case of many other Iranian ethnic groups (Baluchis, etc.), can be reconstructed but in a very tentative and abstract form"
  18. Michael G. Morony, "Iraq After the Muslim Conquest", Gorgias Press LLC, 2005. pg 265: "Kurds were only small ethnic group native to Iraq. As with the Persians, their presence along the northeastern edge of Iraq was merely an extension of their presence in Western Iran. All of the non-Persian, tribal, pastoral, Iranian groups in the foothills and the mountains of the Zagros range along the eastern fringes of Iraq were called Kurd at that time.
  19. E. J. van Donzel, "Islamic desk reference ", BRILL, 1994. ISBN 9004097384. pg 222: "Kurds/Kurdistan: the Kurds are an Iranian people who live mainly at the junction of more or less laicised Turkey, Shi'i Iran, Arab Sunni Iraq and North Syria and the former Soviet Transcaucasia. Several dynasties, such as the Marwanids of Diyarbakir, the Ayyubids, the Shaddadis and possibly the Safawids, as well as prominent personalities, were of Kurdish origin.
  20. John Limbert, The Origins and Appearance of the Kurds in Pre-Islamic Iran, Iranian Studies, Vol.1, No.2, Spring 1968, pp.41-51. p.41: "In these last areas, the historic road from Baghdad to Hamadan and beyond divides the Kurds from their Iranian cousins, the Lurs."
  21. RUSSELL, JR 1990 « Pre-Christian Armenian Religion*, dans Aufstieg und Nieder- gang der Romischen Welt, II, 18.4, p. 2679-2692, Berlin-New York, 1990., pg 2691: "A study of the pre-Islamic religion of the Kurds, an Iranian people who inhabited southern parts of Armenia from ancient times to present, has yet to be written"
  22. Discoveries from Kurdish Looms by Robert D. Biggs, Mary and Leigh Block Gallery, Northwestern University, 1983, p.9 "Ethnically the Kurds are an Iranian people"

Se også[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Eksterne henvisninger[redigér | redigér wikikode]

Commons-logo.svg
Wikimedia Commons har medier relateret til: